Focuses on the process by which persons can be made resistant to persuasion.
Example: consider how persons can be made resistant to a disease virus (smallpox)
A belief that is rarely, if ever, attacked; everyone in a culture holds these beliefs and no one criticizes them
Example: brush your teeth after every meal.
A more controversial belief than a cultural truism because a receiver knows that a nontrusim is vulnerable to attack, the refutational treatment is not needed to underscored the usefulness of the supportive treatment; the supportive treatment stands on its own.
Limited Supply (Scarcity)
A customer is informed that a certain product is in short supply and that cannot be guaranteed to last long and bringing up their desire to want it even more than they did before.
Time Limits (Scarcity)
The deadline tactic in which some official time limit is place on the customers opportunity to get what the compliance professional is offering. People find themselves doing what they wouldnt care to do simply because the time is running out.
An emotional reaction in direct connection to rules or regulations that threaten or eliminate specific behavioral freedoms.
The act of limiting access to a message causes individuals to want to receive it and to become more favorable to it.
Optimal Conditions (Scarcity)
Scarcity principle is likely to hold true under two optimal conditions: 1. Scarce items are heightened in value when they are newly scarce. 2. We are most attached to scarce resources when we compete with others for them.
Defense from Scarcity
Our first line of defense is a thoughtful analysis of the situation. Rather than relying on a considered cognitive analysis of the entire situation, we might well tune ourselves to just the internal sweep for our warning.
Theory of Consistency: When tensions arise between or inside people, they attempt to reduce the tension through self-persuasion or trying to persuade others.
Theory of Consistency: If there are two contradiction people, sets of information or concepts on which a judgment must be made by a single observer, the observer will experience pressure to change his or her judgment on one of the sides. However if the two sets of information are similar or congruent, then there will be no problem and the observer will not experience pressure of any form.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Theory of Consistency: An uncomfortable feeling caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. People have a motivational drive to reduce the lack of agreement by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors or by justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors.
What are the step to persuasion?
1. Get influence target to commit to a cause. 2. If someone can get you to make a commitment, they will have set the stage for your automatic and ill-considered response with the earlier commitment. 3.. Once a stand is taken, there is a natural tendency to behave in ways that are consistent with the stand.
It is the believability of the source, which is perceived by the receiver. -Composed of two factors: 1. Trustworthiness 2. Expertise *Researchers do not know what are more important predictors of source credibility.
Primarily a product of similarity and attractiveness.
The perception of a positive characteristic in a person carries over to other more general perceptions of the person. *Consequently, the person at the receiving end of the Halo Effect is perceived as more likable.
Messages can provide specific recommendations for actions. Messages advocating specific actions are generally more persuasive than messages advocating general responses. Example: exercise program- receivers who encounter a detailed description of the recommended action may become more convinced of their ability to perform the behavior.
Refers to how many sides of the issue the message presents: 1. One Sided- "Vote for Candidate X because of their strong tack record for improving the economy." 2. Two Sided- presents issues of persuasion as well as some opposing arguments against the issue. 3. Two-sided non-refutational: offers counter argument. "Although their positions on issues of social import have been weak, vote candidate X for governor bc of their strong track record of improving the economy. 4.Two-sided refutational:present the issue of persuasion as well as some opposing arguments against the issue with offering a counterargument.
Sequential Request Strategies
Make an initial request for compliance followed by a second goal request.
Example: "Will you put a smaller sign in your yard? (few weeks later) Will you put a bigger sign in your yard?"
What are the general psychographic differences in persuasion?
1. personality traits 2. needs 3. values
What sex is more easily persuaded?
A universal tendency for people to help those who have helped them and not harm those who have helped them.
Example: giving a participant a coke and later asking them to buy raffle tickets.
Why is reciprocity an effective norm?
Obligation, liking, and gratitude. Obligation is characterized as a feeling if indebtedness towards another that has resulted from the others provision of a favor. Liking is characterized as a sense of affinity for or interpersonal attraction towards another. Gratitude is characterized as a sense of thankfulness towards the provider of a favor.
Guides for our actions. Two major types of social norms are injunctive and descriptive norms.
People's perceptions of what most everybody approves or disapproves. They motivate behavior through demonstrating what behaviors will be socially rewarded or punished.
Example: After high school, you should go to college.
People's perceptions of what most everybody already does. They motivate behavior through demonstrating what is likely to be effective or adaptive in a situation.
Peoples perception of what referent others think the individual should do. It is a predictor of behavioral intention.
Example: What are your parents going to think if you got married in Vegas?
Actions intended to normalize something or make it acceptable.
Example: Green Campaigns
An idea related if not the same thing to social norms. People look to others to see how to act in a situation. Therefore, social proof works because of social norms and or vice versa.