and about 25,000 other islands in the South Pacific
centuries of isolation have given rise to many distinctive cultures
Oceania's largest landmass
world's smallest continent
generally flat and dry
interior sparsely populated; most people living in coastal cities.
speak English and are descendants of British settlers
one major river system-Darling and Murray Rivers
Climate in Oceania
hot dry desert in central and western Australia
Southeastern Australia and New Zealand enjoy milder rainier climate
New Guinea has a tropical rain forest climate. has heavy rainfall and high temp.
Oceania is warm and humid
plays an important role in Australia's economy: unusual wildlife, such as kangaroos, koalas, wombats, and platypuses; the Great Barrier Reef, and the Outback
thriving livestock industry and leading world exporter of dairy products and lamb.
Original Settlers in Oceania
Australia's Aborigines are the oldest race. Migrated from Asia.
New Zealanders, the Maoris, arrived from other Polynesian islands.
Australia was once a part of. It formed the southern part of Pangaea
Great Barrier Reef
the longest coral reef in the world and a World Heritage Site.
more than 1250 miles along the coast of Queensland
lives in an environment the includes fresh water flowing from land and seawater.
is dying in a number of places
volcanic high islands
low coral atolls
raised and uplifted coral platforms known as makatea.
species only exist in a particular place and nowhere else on earth.
plant and animal life in Australia
uniqueness is the result of isolation, large size, homogeneous land forms, and arid climate
evolved in isolation
144 living species of endemic marsupial: kangaroos, wombats, koala, and bandicoots.
plant species are adapted to dry conditions
Peopling of Oceania
Aborigines- longest surviving inhabitants of Oceania
Melanesians(Melanesia)- New Guinea and islands south of the equator.
Austronesians-migrated out of SE Asia.
Micronesia-small islands lying east of the Philippines and north of the equator.
Polynesia- numerous islands situated inside a large irregular triangle formed by New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island.
European thinkers were debating whether or not civilization actually improves the quality of life for human beings. Some argued that civilization corrupts and debases people and they glorified what they termed "primitive" people living in distant places untouched by corrupting influences.
Colonization of Australia and New Zealand
the American Revolution was the major reason for British settlement b/c needed somewhere else to send their convicts.
native people were killed
Oceania's ties to other countries
changed three times:
identification w/ US and Canada
currently emerging linkage w/ Asia
practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural forces to control a country (usually
former European colonies in Africa or Asia) in lieu of direct military or political control. Such control can be economic, cultural, or linguistic; by promoting one's own culture, language or media in the colony, corporations embedded in that culture can then make greater headway in opening the markets in those countries.
winter- cool dry air flows from Eurasian continent to the ocean
summer- warm moisture-laden air flows from the Indian Ocean over India bringing heavy rain fall. amplified by ITCZ
Seasonal change of wind patterns due to differential heating and cooling of lan
Indus Valley Civilization(or Harappa)
4500 yrs ago along the Indus River.
1st substantial settled agricultural communities
quite advance, evidence of trade network, writing system
agricultural system survives to this day.
Invaders in SA
1st recorded invaders of SA: Aryans 3500 yrs ago.
instituted some of the early elements of classical Hinduism, the major religion of India
group of Turkic Persian people from Central Asia, intensified the spread of Islam.
Help produce the Hindi language.
British in SA
controlled from 1830s to 1947.
influenced the region politically, socially, and economically.
they used the region resources for their own benefit.
In 1947, independence was granted to British India, which was divided into two independent countries: predominantly Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. The partition was perhaps the most enduring and damaging outcome of colonial rule. it was decided that northwestern and northeastern India would become a single country consisting of 2 parts known as West and East Pakistan, separated by India.
Population in SA
SA is one of the most densely populated regions in the world
30% urban. World largest cities: Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Dhaka.
more than 1/3 of SA's people are under 15.
Sri Lanka's low rate of infant mortality is related to the education of women.
major world religion practiced by about 900 million, whom 800 live in India.
complex belief system. Includes a broad range of beliefs and practices that have their roots in highly localized folk traditions and literary texts. Worship a lot of gods and goddess. Ganga plain is considered the place of origin.
began about 2600 yrs ago as a reform and reinterpretation of Hinduism. orgins- northern India. 10 million practice. majority in Sri Lanka and Bhutan.
founded in the 15th century by Guru Nanak as a challenge to contemporary socioreligious systems, but the new religious philosophy was inspired by both Hindu and Islamic ideals. Belief in one God, high ethical standards, and meditation. rejects caste but accepts Hindu reincarnation. Live mainly in Punjab, in northwestern India. many hold positions in military and polic.
the ancient system of dividing society into hereditary hierarchical categories.
is a custom associated primarily w/ Hindu India.
one is born into a given subcaste, or community called jati, largely defines one's life.
where one will live, eat and drink, who to talk to, wife or husband, and livelihood.
Four Main Divisions or tiers, called Verna
Brahmins-priestly caste, most privileged in ritual status, strict veg., no alcohol.
Kshatriyas- warriors and rulers
Vaishyas- landowner farmers and merchants
Sudras- low status labors and artisans.
Harijans(Dalits "the oppressed" or untouchables)- is actually considered to be so lowly as to have no caste.
Adivasis- who are thought to be descendants of the regions;s ancient original inhabitants.
difference of caste and class
class refers to economic status and there are class differences within caste groups b/c of differences of wealth. Today, caste and class status are less connected.
Women in SA
notably lower than men
women fare better in eastern, central, and southern India and in Sri Lanka.
urban women have more freedom than rural women.
throughout SA most women are partners in marriages arranged for them, often without their wishes being consulted. In most cases, the bride's family pays the groom's family a sum of money called a dowry at the time of the marriage.
- High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of Seeds [Miracle Seeds]
- Monoculture and Management skills
Why was GR introduced in India?
Failure to achieve self sufficiency in food production
Lands under devastated condition (British plantations)
Frequent famines  & drought
How was GR introduced?
- Trained key Govt. Scientists and delegates in USA & at Mexico Research Stations (Dr.
- Ohio State University’s Agriculture field research station & Punjab Agriculture
University collaborated to expand in Punjab region
- Financial loans & research support from Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation,
IMF, World Bank, etc
Positive impacts of GR
- Record Grain Output [131 m. tons in 1978-79]
- Exporter of food-grain, Yield per unit improved
- Created Employment in farming & allied sector
- India paid back its loan to the World Bank
- Expatriation of labor to Canada – Sikhs to grow
- Ongoing Biotechnology Revolution – Monsanto
in Bangalore [IISc]
Negative impacts of GR
- Desertification & Salinization of soils in Punjab
- Loss of lands for small farmers
- Loss of genetic diversity in food crops
- Political and Ethnic violence
(Vandana Shiva’s – “The Violence of the Green Revolution”, 1991)
- Shunning of small farmers
- Low profits / ecological damages
A policy or practice to maintain ‘racial segregation’.
physical patterns of Sub Saharan Africa
Parasites and insects thrive in warm, wet climates
Water shortage in drier climates
There is leaching of minerals in tropical soils
Global warming will lead to marginalization of existing land
Land of strong social, economic and cultural contrasts
Frequent famines, poverty and starvation characterized the early 20th century
Indian workers were forced into indentured laborers in distant places such as Jamaica and
policy used by British to control SA and sub Saharan Africa
divide and rule
Centralized planning, Five Year Plans and Planning Commission were characteristic features of the post independent policies of which of the following country in South Asia
Structural Adjustment Program in SA and sub Saharan Africa
Privatization of industries
Reduce d spending on services such as welfare, education, etc.
Introduction of Free Market economy
maximum number of people that can be supported sustainably in a country or region
bodies of water that border sub Saharan Africa
Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Gulf of Aden
most densely populated country in Africa
Largest city in Pakistan
SA's urbanization is caused by...
rural and urban migration
Kashmir issue remain a problem between who?
India and Pakistan
China, Japan, North and South Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan
Beijing was once called?
Borneo is best described as an
a series of steps descending from west to east
Primary river on North China plain
EA's two climate zones
dry interior west and wet(monsoon) east
capital of Mongolia
most important grain in EA
floating population represents which group pf people in China
jobless or underemployed rural people who have migrated to the cities without official permission.
Hong Kong became a British possession as a result of...
the Opium Wars
Leader of China's Communist Party who proclaimed the People's Republic of China was:
what Chinese leader initiated reforms in the early 1980s that shifted toward a free-market
economy while maintaining the Communist Party’s political control?
Which California city became a “sister” city to Sarawak to help its indigenous peoples
bolster their claim to the land from which they’d been displaced?
Japan’s imperial ambitions ended with its defeat in:
Which statement best represents North Korea today?
It remains closed off from the world and impoverished.*
What was the name of South Korea’s policy of economic and political outreach towards
North Korea from 1998-2008?
The country that is considered to have experienced an “economic miracle” following
World War II is:
Which island is home to three countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei?
Which Southeast Asian nation is an archipelago composed of some 17,000 islands?
statement best summarizes urban-rural disparities in East Asia?
Urban areas have better access to jobs, health care, and education than rural
effects of the original SEZs and development zones in China
They have brought about increased migration and outside investment.*
Which of the following is located at the very southern tip of the peninsular appendage of
mainland Southeast Asia?
The Salween and Irrawaddy Rivers flow through
All of the following are the effects of deforestation in Southeast Asia
loss of habitat for native animal species
emissions of greenhouse gases
loss of living space for indigenous peoples
Which of the following is a major cause of global climate change based in Southeast
a) Large amounts of carbon dioxide are released due to logging activities and the clearing
b) Widespread deforestation has led to fewer trees to absorb carbon dioxide from the
c) Carbon dioxide emissions are created when brush is cleared to make the land
compatible with plantation cultivation
best summarizes the environmental impact of oil palm plantations in
The fires created to clear the land for oil palm plantations can smolder
underground for years, releasing huge amounts of toxic emissions into the
describes the use of Southeast Asia’s natural resources
A rich resource base is being rapidly depleted
Which pollutant is a result of wet rice cultivation and the fermentation of soil as oxygen
supplies are cut off?
The most immediate risk of glacial melting is:
Why are coral reefs essential to healthy biosystems?
They are important to the survival of marine life/fish.*
The city of Angkor was located in what is present-day
The dominant religion of Timor-Leste and the Philippines is:
following played a role in the economic crisis that swept Southeast
Asia in the late 1990s
the deregulation of the financial sector
poor investment decisions by banks
Which was the only country in Southeast Asia not colonized by Europeans
What characteristic is true of between 80 and 90 percent of the labor in most export
processing zones (EPZs)?
they are women
Which statement best explains the U.S. decision to get involved in the Vietnam War
The United States was trying to stop the spread of communism.*
The Southeast Asian country known for the violent and bloody actions of the Khmer
Export processing zones in Southeast Asia have much in common with
Which company has frequently been the target of criticism, especially on U.S. campuses,
for its poor treatment of workers in its Southeast Asian factories?
Oil is the dominant sector of the economy in:
Tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, though it can occur in large lakes.
Owing to the immense volumes of water and the high energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions. The tsunami of December 2004 is thought to be one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history
is a term used in reference to the highly developed economies of Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore. These nations and areas were notable for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates and rapid industrialization between 1960s and 1990s.
The domino theory refers to the geographically based idea that if one country fell to
communism other nearby countries would follow.
The Cultural Revolution which was also known as the Great Proletarian Cultural
Revolution was a socio-political movement that took place in China from 1966 through 1976. It was set into motion by Mao Zedong with the aim of enforcing socialism in the rural areas of China by removing capitalist, traditional and cultural elements from society
Great Leap Forward
The Great Leap Forward was an economic and social campaign of the Chinese Communist
Political Party reflected in planning decisions from 1958 to 1961, which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy to a vast communist economy.
Crony capitalism refers to a kind of corruption in which corruption is encouraged by the
close personal and family relationships. In South East the cumulative effect of crony
capitalism and the lifting of controls on banks was that many ventures failed to produce any profits at all.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is an increasingly strong organization of all ten Southeast Asian nations.ASEAN focuses on agreements that strengthen regional cooperation, including agreements with China.Increasingly, ASEAN is focused on increasing trade between all 10 members of the association.
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