The oldest known fossils are from about ______ years ago.
Genetic drift is the result of ______.
Which of the following are homologous?
the forelimb of a dog and the forelimb of a cat
The type of reproductive barrier that occurs when two species mate but produce sterile hybrids is referred to as ______.
a post-zygotic barrier
Which of the following would be an example of paedomorphosis?
the ability to reproduce evolving in caterpillars
A period of mass extinction is often followed by ______.
Dinosaurs (aside from the lineage that produced birds) were extinct by the end of the ______.
A hypothesis must be testable to be scientifically valid. Being testable means that _____.
some conceivable, non-supernatural observation could prove the hypothesis false
True or False: Darwin, the author of "The Origin of Species", is well known because he was the first person to suggest that one species can evolve into another species
Which of the following is true of Charles Darwin:
When his daughter died, he blamed himself, and became indifferent towards God
Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection as the mechanism of evolution based on three observations about nature. Which of the following was NOT an observation of Darwin that led to and supports the theory of Natural Selection.
Individuals strive to better adapt to their environments because of the struggle to survive.
The founder effect differs from a population bottleneck in that the founder effect ______.
involves the isolation of a small colony of individuals from a larger population
The ultimate source of all variation is ______.
Natural selection always results in ______.
offspring better adapted to their parents' environment than were their parents
What does the term tetrapod mean?
Having Four Limbs
Which of the following is best associated with the species Homo sapiens:
Most highly evolved organism on the tree of life
As a ______ is to a cell, a ______ is to a multicellular organism.
lysosome . . . digestive system
Some of the oldest known fossils of Homo sapiens are at least ______ years old, although recently even older fossils have been found.
What are the three main products of cellular respiration?
A. Carbon dioxide
What are the three main ingredients in photosynthesis?
A. Carbon Dioxide
Phylogenetic analysis indicates that crocodiles are more closely related to ______ than to ______.
Birds . . . Lizards
What plays an important role in the function of a protein?
The first hominid to spread beyond Africa was ______.
Which of these human characteristics evolved first?
______ have radial symmetry
Insects, such as the grasshopper shown below, have ______.
a three-part body: head, thorax, and abdomen
Plants first moved onto land at least ______ years ago.
Adjacent water molecules are connected by the ______.
electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule
Which of the following elements, essential to life, is a trace element?
Isotopes of an element have the same number of ______ and different numbers of ______.
Protons . . . nuetrons
As water freezes ______.
Its molecules move farther apart
An atom with an electrical charge is a(n) _______.
The linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is referred to as its ______ structure.
By definition, what type of fatty acid has double bonds?
Which of the following is lowest in unsaturated fats?
What name is given to the following reaction? sucrose + water → glucose + fructose
DNA nucleotides include ______.
thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine
Enzymes are ______.
Table sugar is ______.
Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane?
regulation of the passage of material into and out of the cell
Which of the following parts of a cell is (are) most like the shipping center of a company?
the golgi apparatus
Where does protein synthesis take place?
Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?
You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it must be a ______ cell.
What type of microscope would be best for studying the detailed structure of the surface of a plasma membrane?
scanning electron microscope
Which of the following equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ______ and moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.
transport proteins . . . down
Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages in cellular respiration?
glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport
What is energy?
the capacity to perform work
The waste products of cellular respiration include ______.
water and carbon dioxide
Which of these equations describes aerobic cellular respiration?
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energ
The cell cycle results in the production of ______.
two cells, each with the same amount of genetic material and the same genetic information
Cytokinesis typically occurs during the ______ stage of mitosis.
Which of the following occurs during interphase?
A karyotype (a chromosome display) would be unable to determine ______.
Chromatin consists of _________.
DNA and protein
Which of the following is a characteristic seen in prophase I that does not occur in prophase II?
crossing over occurs.
Sister chromatids are joined at the _______.
The chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are found in the ______.
During metaphase I, __________.
homologous chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
How many chromosomes does an individual with Turner syndrome have?
Anaphase II is essentially the same as mitotic anaphase except that in anaphase II ______ and in mitotic anaphase ______.
the cells are haploid and sister chromatids separate. . . the cells are diploid and sister chromatids separate
A cell that completed the cell cycle without undergoing cytokinesis would ________.
have two nucei
An individual with (naturally) curly hair and an individual with (naturally) straight hair mate; all of their offspring have (naturally) wavy hair. What is the relationship between the alleles for hair texture?
Mendel crossed true-breeding purple-flowered plants with true-breeding white-flowered plants, and all of the resulting offspring produced purple flowers. The allele for purple flowers is ______.
An individual with (naturally) curly hair and an individual with (naturally) straight hair mate; all of their offspring have (naturally) wavy hair. If an individual with wavy hair mates with an individual with straight hair, what is the probability that their child will have curly hair?
Marfan syndrome is the result of inheriting a single allele. Individuals with Marfan syndrome are tall and long-limbed, and have both cardiovascular and eye defects. The inheritance of Marfan syndrome is an example of ______.
What is the Key to the recognition of incomplete dominance?
The phenotype of the heterozygote falls between the phenotypes of the homozygotes.
An individual with the genotype AaBb produces four different gametes in equal proportions. This is a demonstration of ______.
Mendel's law of independent assortment
Round seeds (R) are dominant to wrinkled seeds (r), and yellow seeds (Y) are dominant to green seeds (y). What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between an RrYy and an rryy individual?
In humans, the presence or absence of dimples is a trait controlled by a single gene. What is the genotype of an individual who is heterozygous for dimples?
What probability currently has 25%
In humans, free earlobes (E) are dominant to attached earlobes (e) and the presence of freckles (F) is dominant to the absence of freckles (f). If an individual heterozygous for both of these traits were to mate with an individual with attached earlobes and no freckles, what is the probability of having a child with attached earlobes and freckles?
Attached earlobes are recessive to free earlobes. What genotypic ratio is expected when an individual with attached earlobes mates with an individual heterozygous for free earlobes?
A couple has two female children. What is the probability that their next child will be male?
To determine the phenotype of an individual who expresses a dominant trait, you would cross that individual with an individual who ______.
is homozygous recessive for that trait
The shared genetic code of all life on Earth is evidence that ________.
all life shares a common ancestry
Translation converts the information stored in _______ to _______.
RNA . . . a polypeptide
The region of DNA where RNA synthesis begins is the ______.
The DNA codon AGT codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon ______.
How many amino acids are common to all living systems?
In a DNA double helix, adenine pairs with ______ and guanine pairs with ______.
thymine . . . cytosine
Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from ______.
X-ray crystallography studies
The absence of a terminator in transcription will result in ______.
the production of a longer RNA molecule
Where is translation accomplished?
After replication _______.
each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand
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