What terms have been historically applied to Asian immigrants?
What factors pulled Chinese immigrants to America in the nineteenth century? What factors pushed them out of China at the same time?
The Gold Rush in California pulled them in, and the deep poverty in China pushed them out. The Chinese were trying to get rich and return home. Also, there were labor shortages in California that gave the Chinese jobs.
What conditions contributed to the negative American response to Chinese laborers in the late nineteenth century?
Post-civil war economic decline, Scarcity of gold, Panic of 1873, and the depression of 1877. The Chinese were blamed for these economic downturns.
What was the Chinese Exclusion Act and in what year was it passed?
The Chinese Exclusion Act suspended Chinese immigration into the U.S. and it was passed in 1882.
What were some of the geographic implications of the Chinese exclusion practices?
There became a rise in dense ethnic settlements known as 'Chinatowns'. Chinatowns were viewed as threatening. Also, many Chinese people moved to eastern cities.
When did Japanese immigration to the United States begin and why?
Japanese immigration to the US began in 1885 because that is when the government in Japan legalized emigration.
What agreements or legislation were passed to limit or stop Japanese immigration? Philipinno immigration? South Asian immigration?
In the "First Gentlemen's Agreement" of 1907, Japan limited emigration from their shores. The Immigration Act of 1924 banned Japanese immigration to the US. The 1917 U.S. Immigration Law made Filipinos ineligible for citizenship. the 1917 Law also banned South Asians from immigrating to the US.
Explain the Japanese Internment in WWII. What was the rationale?
The Japanese-Americans were put into internment camps during WWII because their loyalty was being questioned. Americans did not trust them. Also, White farmers saw it as a chance to clear away the competition.
What was the significance of the immigration legislation introduced in 1965?
The 1965 Immigration Act abolished national-origins quotas under the 1924 immigration act and reversed decades of systematic exclusion and restrictive immigration policies. After this act was passed, the country's diversity was increased dramatically.
What does the phrase "model minority" refer to? What are the consequences of this notion?
"Model Minority" is a racial characterization of "Asian". It basically describes all Asian people as being intelligent (particularly in math and science), polite, family oriented, and law-abiding. The problem with this is the stereotype can work against members of the group themselves. Also, praise for one group can be turned against another group.
What does the phrase "perpetual foreigner" refer to? What are the consequences of this notion?
This phrase means the notion that Asians are unable to assimilate into American culture. The consequences of this phrase are Americans treating other races poorly because they don't think they can be "American".
What is wealth?
Wealth is the sum of all assets owned. Assets are things such as home equity, pension funds, savings accounts, investments.
What is income?
Some examples of income are wages, government benefits, stock dividends, rental income, and capital gain. A person can have high income but also have little wealth.
What are the key differences between wealth and income?
Income is used for daily expenses, wealth is not. Wealth is used for emergencies or to take advantage of opportunities, income is not. Wealth is accumulated over time and passed down from generation to generation, income is not.
What is the Racial Wealth Gap (RWG)?
The racial wealth gap pretty much explains itself, Whites have a lot more wealth than minorities. For every $1 in assets that the African-American family has, the average White family has $9 in assets.
How is wealth a legacy of the past?
Wealth is a legacy of the past because racial groups that have been dispossessed (of rights, land, wealth) in the past have less wealth in the present.
Why do scholars argue that over time the wealth gap has the tendency to widen?
Because this is only the first generation of free minorities, so it will be a long time before the wealth gap starts to close.
What is segregation?
The process by which a population group is forced to cluster in a defined spatial area.
What is congregation?
Voluntary coming together of a population group for purposes of self-protection and advancement of its own interests.
What is a ghetto?
An area of spatial concentration used by forces within the dominant society to seperate and to limit a particular population group held to be, and treated as, inferior.
What is an enclave?
An area of spatial concentration in which members of a particular population group congregate as a means of protecting and enhancing their economic, social, political and/or cultural environment.
Where is segregation highest? As a trend, is segregation increasing or decreasing?
Segregation is highest in the major metropolitan areas of the midwest and the northeast. The three most segregated cities are Detroit, Chicago, and Milwaukee. Segregation has increased in almost every large urban area between 1990-2000.
What sorts of policies lead to suburban investment and growth? What sorts of policies and events shaped urban disinvestment?
Steering, Blockbusting, the HOLC, Redlining, and Financial Exclusion lead to suburban investment and growth. The HOLC and Redlining also led to urban disinvestment.
What is the Home Owners Loan Corporation? How is the HOLC related to redlining?
The HOLC was a federal agency introduced by FDR in 1933 and its purpose was to insure loans and stabilize the housing market. The HOLC introduced the concept of redlining.
What is redlining? What were the impacts of redlining? What factors shaped neighborhood values?
Redlining is the practice of denying mortgage loans to certain areas of a city, based on government maps. The factors that shaped neighborhood values were if the buildings were in bad shape or if minorities lived in the neighborhood. The impact of this practice was highly segregated neighborhoods.
What is the Federal Housing Administration? How did FHA policies contribute to inequality in the housing markets? How did the FHA contribute to suburban investment and urban disinvestment?
The FHA was designed to support home purchases. The FHA contributed to inequality in the housing markets because they adopted the same methods that the HOLC used. They discriminated based on race.
What is the GI Bill? How is it related to housing inequality?
The GI Bill was the most wide ranging set of social benefits ever offered by the federal government. It reached 8 out of 10 men who were born in the 1920's. It is related to housing inequality because they mostly helped out white men not black men.
What is subprime lending? How do these types of loans reinforce segregation?
Subprime lending is the process of giving someone a loan that has a low/poor credit rating. Minorities who had good credit ratings were not even able to get a prime loan, they had to settle with a subprime loan.
What trend characterizes the income and employment gap?
Race is the biggest factor for the income and employment gap.
What is spatial mismatch?
It is a mismatch between where jobs are and where people are.
Why is spatial mismatch getting worse over time?
It is getting worse over time because there is job growth in the suburbs, poverty means no reliable car, and public transportation cuts mean difficult access to suburbs.
How does spatial mismatch help us to understand employment inequalities?
Because it gives a clear explanation of why there is spatial mismatch.
What role do social networks play in the job search?
Social networks can help you find a job and/or help you get a job.
What are strong ties?
Strong ties are people we see often such as family and friends.
What are weak ties?
Weak ties are people we don't see often but weak ties lead to more jobs and better jobs.
What is the job queue?
A job queue is a line of people looking for work. Whites usually get the first jobs and blacks usually get the last and worst jobs.
What does the history of the job queue tell us about unemployment?
It tells us that most unemployed people are most likely minorities.
How is Plessy v. Ferguson ruling important to discussions about education inequality?
It is important because Plessy v. Ferguson decided the "seperate but equal" ruling and that applied to schools as well.
Did all states have legislation that required educational segregation prior to Brown v. Board of Education? (what were trends?)
No, only 21 states required or had permissive segregation in schools. Most of the required states were in the south.
What year was Brown vs. Board of Education?
On what grounds was Brown vs. Board of Education made?
A girl from Topeka, Kansas had to walk very far to school, there were also 3 other cases from 3 other states that made it go to the supreme court.
What was the court decision in Brown vs. Board of education?
The decision came on May 17th, 1954 and they decided that Seperate is inherently unequal.
What was response to Brown vs. board of education?
There was massive white resistance to this decision. The court decided that desegregation needed to occur in a timely manner.
How did debates about busing relate to discussions about school desegregation?
By allowing busing to cross metro-suburban lines it allowed for students to be bused to integrate schools.
What is the significance on the case Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)?
The significance is that they desegregated buses and and charlotte was called "the city that made desegregation work".
What was the significance of Milliken vs. Bradley (1974)?
The Milliken vs. Bradley case blocked busing between metropolitan and suburban areas.
When did re-segregation take place? Why?
During the 1980's and 1990's schools started becoming increasingly segregated. Schools in the south are more integrated in the north because the south made more of an effort to integrate.
What is tracking?
Tracking is labeling minority students as delayed or retarded.
What is Milwaukee's experience with segregated schools?
Milwaukee implemented a small busing plan to move black kids to white schools but it only incorporated a few thousand students. Since 1986 that program has declined.
What are health disparities/inequities?
Health disparities are the disproportionate burden of disease and disability between specific population groups and the rest of the population in the United States. Health inequities remind us that the differential outcomes in health are not only inequitable and morally unacceptable, they also require immediate governmental response.
What sorts of trends characterize racial inequities?
Minorities tend to have more diseases and health problems then white people of the same age.
How is geography related to health inequities?
It is related because the environmental quality of minorities neighborhoods is worse than the quality of white neighborhoods, which results in more health problems.
How is zoning and land use related to health inequity? Housing segregation? Settlement history/Immigration?
Most minorities live in poverty, poverty means rough and dangerous jobs, if the parents get health problems from these jobs then the kids will most likely have the problems as well.
What is mortality vs. morbidity?
Morbidity refers to the amount of sickness or disease within a population while mortality refers to the relative frequency of death within a population.
What is the weathering hypothesis?
The negative consequences of stressful circumstances adding up.
What is a food desert?
A lack of nourishable food that allows one to maintain a healthy diet.
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