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According to the book, research on identical and fraternal twins has shown that approximately ________ percent of variation in temperament is the result of genetics.
In addition to the genetic variable affecting temperament, some recently published research suggests that individual temperament is also influenced by:
Characteristics considered typical of a "difficult" child vary from one culture to another. For example, Nanta of the Masai tribe would consider a quiet and shy infant "difficult" to care for in her society. In Japan, Akiko considers her demanding, highly energetic, son "difficult."
Comparing “personhood” in China, Japan, and the U.S., Hsu (1985) found that:
Cross-cultural researchers have shown that adolescents in some cultures struggle more with the stage of identity formation than do others. Which factor makes this transition from adolescent identity to adult identity easier?
“Self efficacy” is best defined as:
The relationship between collectivism and interdependent self-concept as well as individualism and independent self-concept is a good example of:
Melissa would be characterized as a "difficult child" in terms of Thomas and Chess' classification system of infant temperament in the United States. She is most likely to show which of the following characteristics?
Akira, a Japanese adolescent, and Carl, from the U.S., both responded to the question "Who am I?" by writing down as many answers as possible. Carl's self-description is more likely to include which of the following?
Which of the following big five personality factors tends to decrease with age, across a variety of cultures?
Research suggests that the preference for same sex playmates is:
According to the text, “acquired behavioral and psychological aspects of being a woman or man” defines which of the following terms?
According to the text, the single most all encompassing theoretical model to explain sex and gender differences in society is:
Gibbons and Stiles, in their studies of the "ideal woman" and "ideal man" in different societies, found which of the following connections between "feminine" and "masculine" values and gender role ideals?
According to Williams and Best's research on gender role stereotypes in different cultures, Jessica and Jarrat will have acquired these gender stereotypes by ______ years of age.
There is clear evidence that females show more aggression than men:
The chastity norm for women is most often found in those cultures that are:
Underlying cultural values are believed to influence what people look for in a love relationship. For example, Juran, who lives in a culture that emphasizes collectivism, considers the ideal relationship to be one characterized by:
Modernization and changes in the different levels of the ecological system in formerly traditional societies has brought changes in gender roles across generations. Researchers who examined the modernization of Tiriki in Kenya and Irigwe in Nigeria have observed that:
Irina is a supervisor in a Russian factory. At home she is also in charge of kids. When she is with her husband, Sergej, and their friends, Irina lets him take charge, make decisions, and talk on her behalf. This seemingly contradictory behavior is most likely explained by which of the following?
When Silvio's mother leaves the room and he is alone with a stranger, Silvio does not seem to get too upset. When his mother returns, the boy looks at her but continues his play. Silvio's behavior is indicative of which attachment style?
The “strange situation test” is used to measure:
While moral reasoning in Western cultures is predominantly guided by a justice orientation, many other cultures prefer a caring orientation. Which of the following represents a caring morality?
Durbin et al. (1993) found that adolescents with authoritative parents tended to choose which of the following types of peer groups?
Adolescents' prosocial and antisocial behavior are influenced by many factors. According to the text, which of the following has been described as a strong predictor of adolescent social behavior?
Francois has tried to get vacation time approved but his request has been denied twice. On one occasion, he missed a deadline. The second time, he forgot to inform his immediatesupervisor about the request. The work values in Francois' company would likely be classified by Hofstede as:
At Inger's work place it is common for the president of the company to join employees for lunch in the lounge. She makes an effort to have personal conversations with all employees. With regard to work related values, Inger's company would likely be classified as:
In research comparing the French to North Americans (Antonucci, 1990) which of the following aspects of social relationships has emerged as most conducive to well being in later adulthood?
Mei-Ling's work environment would best be described as "collectivist." According to the hypothesis that leisure activities represent values that are not represented in the work place, Mei-Ling's favorite leisure activity most likely involves:
Twelve-month-old Miranda accompanies her mother to work, her mother sometimes leaves and their are strangers present. Generally, the girl is not afraid of the stranger but eagerly runs to hug her mother when she returns. Miranda's attachment style would be classified as:
In Buss’ (1994) study of mate preferences in 37 cultures he found that four qualities were highly valued by both women and men across cultures. These qualities included:
Gomez is married to many wives, and Nehoma is married to many men. According to the text, Gomez's marriage is an example of ____ while Nehoma's is an example of _____.
According to Gardiner & Gardiner’s (1991) research on Thai marriage and relationships, most couples:
In MacDorman and Singh’s (1998) study comparing births attended by nurse-midwives and births attended by physicians, the results indicated that:
When comparing Kenyan mothers with American mothers, Richmen et al (1988) observed that:
In Schlegel and Barry’s (1991) cross-cultural study of 186 cultures on adolescent issues, the results indicated that:
Stevenson, Chen, and Lee’s (1992) research on grand-parenting uncovered the concept, “outside grandchild.” An “outside grandchild,” from the point of view of the grandparent is:
Researchers have become increasingly interested in the effects fathering has on the development of children. Flouri (2005) found that father involvement:
In the U.S., the “sandwich generation” is the generation which:
The condition, “amok,” found in native Puerto Rican and Navajo cultures, is characterized by:
Over the past two weeks, Normiah has been having bad headaches and periodic bouts of depression. Her family has noticed her apathetic attitude and sudden lack of energy and have decided to seek a "bomoh" for help. According to the text, a "bomoh" is a _________.
Cook, in his comparative study of illness beliefs among adult Chinese, Indian, and Angloceltic Canadians, found that each ethnic group interpreted the causes and treatment differently depending on:
Data from international research (AAP task force,1991) suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may be caused by:
The culture-specific disorder, “nervios,” found in Ecuador, includes symptoms similar to:
Research findings reported by Werner and her colleagues in Hawaii indicate that premature infants who made the greatest progress tended to grow up in families with:
According to Mukai and McCloskey, who studied attitudes toward eating among Japanese and American schoolgirls, nearly half the girls in each country wished they were thinner. Also in both countries,__________ had a significant influence on eating attitudes.
Dr. Kosmitzki was discussing the cross-cultural literature of alcohol use among adolescents in her cross-cultural human development course. She noted the longitudinal study carried out in France by Weill and Le Bourhis reported that the heaviest drinkers possessed:
In the text, Swaim and colleagues report the results of research on substance use among 11- and 12-year-old American Indians. This research is compared to a similar study among Anglo- adolescents. The results suggest that association with drug-using peers:
In the last decade the World Health Organization conducted research on schizophrenic patients in over twenty countries. The results indicated that:
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