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Which part of the red blood cell can bind to oxygen?
The heme part if hemoglobin.
The major plasma protein is what?
The most abundant leukocytes in the blood are what?
What type of cell found int he blood produces antibodies?
What is the major hemotopoietic organ in the fetus?
What organ secretes erythropoietin?
What substances are needed to produce red blood cells?
What type of antigens are present in type O blood?
Neither A or B
Prostacyclin, PGI2, prevents what?
Which of the following stimulates the formation of platelet plug?
von Willebrand's factor
What is the enzyme that converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin?
The pathway of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart is the what?
The amount of blood ejected by the ventricles per beat is termed the what?
The stroke volume
What cardiac channels are called hyperpolarization cyclic nucleotide (HCN) channels because they open in response to hyperpolarization?
Cardiac pacemaker channels.
The P wave of an ECG represents what?
What type of receptors do norepinephrine and epinephrine bind to in the heart?
Norepinephrine and epinephrine open what channels, inducing a faster diastolic depolarization?
Acetylcholine binds to ??? receptors of the heart and causes the opening of ??? channels?
Since veins can distend more with pressure, they are called what?
Elephantiasis is caused by what?
obstruction of lymphatic drainage
Hydrostatic pressure is ??? and colloid osmotic pressure is ??? at the arterial end of the capillary.
hydrostatic pressure is higher and osmotic pressure is lower.
An increase in blood volume in the left atrium will do what?
Inhibit ADH secretion.
What is aldosterone?
A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which stimulates kidney salt reabsorption in the kidneys.
Angiotensin I if formed from the plasma protein what?
What enzyme actions converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I?
A decreased in total peripheral resistance would cause blood flow to what?
Arterial blood pressure is influenced by what?
Inhibition of the baroreceptor reflex would not allow for proper regulation of all what?
What does the conducting zone not included?
The respiratory bronchioles.
What separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities?
What happens to intrapleural pressure during expiration?
How does surfactant reduce the surface tension of water in the lungs?
it reduces the surface tension of water in the lungs.
WHich muscles contraction will stimulate inspiration?
Cessation of breathing is known as what?
The volume of gas inspired or expired in a quiet respiration cycle is what?
The Tidal volume.
The amount of a given gas dissolved in the blood is what?
Directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
Pulmonary arterioles???and the system arterioles ?? when Po2 is low.
Pulmonary constrict and system dilate.
Peripheral chemoreceptors that can detect changes in blood pH are located where?
Aortic and carotid bodies.
The rhythmicity center is located in the what?
What structures carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder?
What is the glomerulus?
A capillary network that produces a blood filtrate that enters the urinary tubules.
What is the correct order of the nephron structures?
Proximal Convoluted tubule(PCT)
Loop of Henle
Distal Convoluted tubule (DCT)
Which sphincter is under voluntary control?
External urethral sphincter.
What surface of the simple cuboidal epithelia in the proximal convoluted tubule contains microvilli?
What creates a Na+ concentration gradient in the proximal tubule?
What limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to salt?
The concentration of renal filtrate is highest where?
The base of the loop of Henle.
The secretion of what neurohypophyseal stimulates formation of concentrated urine?
Why do people with diabetes mellitus have glycosuria?
Because the plasma glucose concentration is greater than the renal plasma threshold.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is mostly present in the capillaries of what?
Most protein digestion occurs where?
The duodenum and Jejunum
In what area does carbohydrate digestion occur?
The mouth and duodenum.
Peristalsis is regulated by what?
Enteric nervous system
During the intestinal phase regulating gastic function does what?
The vagal nuclei are stimulated by smelling food.
The negative feedback control of HCl secretion in the gastric phase of gastric regulation is mainly done by?
The decrease in gastrin secretion and the increase of somatostatin secretion.
What gastrointestinal hormone is not secreted by the small intestine?
Jaundice caused by the bile duct blocked by gallstones is created by high blood levels of what?
The liver will detoxify ammonia by converting it into what?
What is not a function of intestinal microbiota?
What are the functions of intestinal microbiota?
Production of Vitamin B
Ferment indigestible contents of chyme
Production of Vitamine K
The mixing movement of the small intestine is called what?
What is not a structure of the small intestine that increases the surface area?
What are the structures of the small intestine that increases its surface area?
What stimulates ECL cells to secrete histamine which stimulates HCl release from parietal cells?
Deglutition is coordinated by the swallowing center in the what?
The brain stem
Why does the upper third of the esophagus have skeletal muscle in its wall?
Because the first phase if swallowing is voluntary
Place the tunics of the GI tract wall in the correct order from superficial to deep?
Reactions that involve synthesis of DNA, proteins, and other molecules are considered what?
If an individual consumes excess calories in the form of carbohydrates, the excess energy is stored as what?
What is not a fat-soluble vitamin?
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin E, A, D
The preferred energy source for resting skeletal muscle is what?
The only energy source for the brain is what?
What is not a sign of decreased leptin secretion?
What are the signs of decreased leptin secretion?
Delayed onset of puberty
Decline in helper T abilities.
Fat cells are less sensitive to insulin in who?
A BMI over what is considered obese?
What is involved in short-term regulation of hunger?
ghrelin and CCK
What hormone is important in adaptive thermogenesis?
Elevated concentration of glucagon would result in what?
Decreased glycogen synthesis.
What is insulin secretion stimulated by?
An increased blood glucose concentrations.
What organ has the most insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the absorptive state?
Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules is called what?
In brown fat, norepinephrine stimulates what?
beta 3 adrenergic receptors
The actions of thyroxine does what?
Increase the production of metabolic heat.
What does growth hormone do?
It stimulates hepatic somatomedin secretion.
Bone resorption is produced by the action of what?
A fertilized egg is called a what?
Sertolis cells are stimulated by what?
What are Leydig cells stimulated by and what do they produce?
The secretion of LH is inhibited by what?
High concentrations of testosterone.
Spermatogenesis is stimulated by what?
Testosterone and its derivatives.
Sperm are stored and matured in the what?
How does viagra work?
by blocking cGMP phosphodiesterase in order to raise CGMO concentration and promote vasodilation of vascular smooth muscle of the penis to produce an erection.
Which part of the uterine wall responds to hormone stimulation as part of female cycles?
Stratum functionale of endometrium.
What structures of the mature follicle is a barrier to sperm and fertilization?
What hormone triggers ovulation?
The secretory phase of the endometrium occurs when the ovary is in what phase?
Day 1 of the menstrual cycle is what?
The first day of the menses.
What is the major hormone that is produced during the luteal phase?
The LH surge is caused by what?
estradiol increasing frequency of GnRH pulses.
The secretion of gonadotropins (FSH & LH) will do what during menopause?
Incease during menopause.
The process of sperm gaining the ability of fertilize an ovum as they pass through the female reproductive tract is called what?
The trophoblast cells of the chorion secrete what?
What does hCG do?
it maintains the corpus luteum thereby preventing menstruation.
The of eight cells formed about 50 to 60 hours after fertilization is called a what?
Increased maternal lipolysis stimulated by the secretion of what?
Initiation of labor involves what?
Corticotropin-releasing hormone from the placenta.
DHEAS from the fetal adrenal gland.
Cortisol from the mother and fetus.
What does not initiate labor?
Human chorionic gonadotropin from the placenta.
What hormone is secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates production of milk proteins?
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