4. Mao's victory in China (1949) - Americans thought spies could be in State Department
Pink Scare (2)
1. People said one homesexual can poison a whole group
2. Senate reported in 1950 and said they were security risks (easily seduced and can't resist temptation) + wanted them removed from authoritative positions.
Cold War + Civil Rights (3)
1. Idea that racism is wrong, yet still being practiced
2. Violence swept across South (lynchings) - Sparked black protest
3. Truman responds to problems by forming committee
4. Gave US a reason for Government to address race
Truman's Response to Civil Rights + Cold War (2)
1. 1946 - Presidents Committee on Civil Rights formed and "To Secure These Rights" report called for a reform by Govt.
2. 1947 - Adressed NAACP and said Govt. must defend rights of all Americans
Election of 1948 (2)
1. Truman (D) vs. Dewey (R) vs. Wallace (Progressive) vs. Thurmand (States Rights)
2. Truman won, but Thurmand won 4 states.
Clark Clifford (3)
1. Said south was safely Democratic
2. Was wrong and formed States Rights / Dixiecrats Party
3. Nominated Strom Thurmand for Presidency
Strom Thurmand's ideas in 1948 Election (2)
1. Supported segregation
2. Opposed federal influence on states rights
Truman's Response to Cold War (3)
1. Pressure from activists
2. Growing awareness of the problem (FDR didn't address)
3. Other countries paying attention to US - Said US was getting negative publicity overseas, we are supposed to be the example, and that people needed to pick sides in US vs. Soviets
George McLaurin (2)
1. Had a sheet covering him from the rest of the class
2. Was denied admission to the University of Oklahoma's doctoral program
American Race Relations (3)
1. New nation states mostly non-white
2. US seen as hypocrites due to abuse of blacks in US
3. Can US bring democracy to the third world if American democracy = white supremacy and Jim Crow?
Francois George (4)
1. Haiti director of Agriculture
2. Invited to convention in US by directors of agriculture but denied being able to stay w/ other delegates in hotel cause he was black
3. filed complaint w/ US Secretary of State and Embassy apologizes, but said he should have checked w/ the State department ad not the hotel
4. Soviets spread propaganda about the US treating citizens bad, but State Depot said racism was only a regional problem, doesn't represent who US is, segregation is on its way out, and democratic institutions will prevail.
Brown v. Board of Education (6)
1. 1954 - Said separate schools violated 14th Amendment and that everyone deserved equal protection
2. Received international coverage because the US thought if Supreme Court ruled racial equality, state depot would stat to convince the world that our system does work
3. Finally a way to combat the Soviet propaganda
4. Some schools shut down instead of integrating which showed US not committed to issue.
5. Prompted new Civil Rights movement
Ella Baker (4)
1. 1946 - Resigned from NAACP cause she thought people @ top were making all decisions for people @ bottom
2. Said a mass southern civil rights movement was needed and met with MLK and asked him why he let the movement die.
3. 1957 - Formed Southern Christian Leadership Council with MLK (Sit-in Movements)
4. Worried with lack of coordination / plan and formed Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
1. 1960 - Inspired by Ella Baker and composed of student activists
2. Wanted to live + work equally w/ whites and to show them their side of it.
3. Wanted to empower people in the grassroots and for the movement to not be limited to only students
Boynton v. Virginia (3)
1. 1960 - Said if a bus is crossing state lines, bus terminals need to be de-segregated
2. Freedom Rides - a way to prove the terminals should be integrated resulted in attacks of the black passengers by whites
3. Will federal government intervene when states violate federal law?
Massive Resistance (2)
1. Resistance to desegregation primarily in south
2. Schools would close their doors before they would try integrating
De Jure vs. De Facto Segregation
1. De Jure - segregated by law
2. De Facto - segregation exists out of custom (common in north)
Trumball Park (5)
1. 1937 Housing Act approved low-end housing for poor that would be funded by Govt.
2. Mostly all black, but some were all white or mixed
3. 1950 - Chicago Housing Authority adopts non-discrimination policy, but many still remained seg.
4. 1953 - teens raided unit of two light-skinned residents (CHA stands by policy and said all projects would be integrated)
5. Hostility towards blacks still exist, but more non-violent now (1962)
Martin Luther King (2)
1. 1966 - went to Chicago to lead open-housing marches calling for integrated housing
2. Violent responses to marches occur in North
The Affluent Society (3)
1. 1957 - Published by John Kenneth Gailbaith
2. Said it doesn't make sense to concentrate on materialism / consumption
3. Promoted higher taxes to build schools and expand the police force
Election of 1960 (3)
1. JFK (D) vs. Nixon (R)
2. JFK wins close race
3. Television becomes important piece of technology in election
Threats against protestant power in US (3)
1. New Immigrants - east / south Europeean jews
2. Theological Modernists - question christ and idea that bible was word of god
3. "Lose" Morals - increased sex and drinking
National Association of Evangelicals (2)
1. 1942 - St. Louis
2. People frustrated by separatist idea, but believed in spreading word of christ.
Harold Ockenga (3)
1. 1942 - First president of National Association of Evangelicalism
2. Wrote "Christ for America" - Challenged thoughts and anxieties of Americans about the future (global impact)
3. Said Atheism is being pushed more than christianity and that Americans were scared peace wouldn't last long
Billy Graham (3)
1. Said united front is essential instead of separatism and that god would grow sick of US and destroy it
2. Said it was the patriotic and religious duty of American Government to reject communism and to be on gods side
3. Spiritual victory only way to defeat communism
"Harvest of Shame" (2)
1. Created by Edward R. Morrow (1960)
2. Showed domestic agricultural workers struggle (jobs not protected by minimum wage laws, not eligible for social security, etc.)
The Other America (3)
1. Written by Michael Harrington
2. Documented the presence of, consequences of, and irony of poverty
3. JFK had plans to address war on poverty, but his early death left Johnson to take it on.
War on Poverty (5)
1. Head Start - Program to provide nutritious food + intellectual stimulation 4 preschool kids
2. Job Corps - Provided people w/ new work skills
3. Direct Support through food stamps
4. Encouraged poor to help themselves since less than 1% of federal budget was being allotted for this
5. Aid to Dependent Children (1935) - designed to help single mothers, but had application process and living requirements.
National Welfare Rights Organization (2)
1. 1967 - George Wiley and Johnnie Tillman wanted more assistance and fought for grants for food, clothing, and tuition
2. Resulted in better attitudes on aided families and a big rise in families applying for grants.
Watts Riots (3)
1. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 resulted in a big increase in black registered voters and black officeholders
2. Riots occurred 3 days after act was passed
3. Many deaths and property damage showed evidence that civil rights movement needed to be brought to the north.
1. Wanted national independence for vietenam
2. Was a communist and naturalist (against imperialism)
3. Wanted to fight imperialism by beaming communist
4. Truman assumed he wanted to spread communism throughout war and sided with France, who wanted Vietnam back from him
Diem Bien Phu (3)
1. 1954 - A village in Northwest Vietnam where French was defeated.
2. Eisenhower played w/ idea of nuclear weapons, but ended w/ a compromise with Ho-Chi-Minh.
Kennedy + Vietnam (3)
1. 1963 - Increased military advisors
2. Asked Diem to reform and be more democratic
3. Nov. 1963 = Diem assasinated, Kennedy would soon follow
Johnson + Vietnam (3)
1. 1964 - Said no US troops would be sent, but was planning secretly
2. N. Vietnam attacked US and Johnson viewed it as open aggression in open seas + wouldn't stand for it. (1968 - McNamara said US ship did a raid and that attack WAS provoked, disillusionment from war feeling grows for many Americans)
3. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - Supported any measure the president needed to repel an armed attack (Gave him a lot of authority)
Great Society (2)
1. Promoted by LBJ
2. Goals were to eliminate poverty and racial injustice
Students For A Democratic Society (2)
1. Said Americans should live up of democratic ideas (civil rights)
2. Led by mostly white students
National Housing Act of 1949 (4)
1. Promoted federally funded construction of low-income housing
2. Raised minimum wage
3. Expanded social security
4. Provided livable housing for every American
Pruitt Igoe (4)
1. 1954 - Housing complex built in St. Louis
2. Part of Urban Renewal Projects where realtors wanted to build profitable properties by moving current tenants, tearing down / build up, and move tenants back.
3. It fails because of whites moving to the suburbs, the expenses of maintaining building (no tax $), by making the male / father leave home, didn't provide a sense of community
4. Main message was the complex was the problem
Election of 1968 (2)
1. Humphrey (D) vs. Nixon (R)
2. Nixon won
Nixon + Vietnam (2)
1. Peace Plan - Vietnamization / the slow reduction of role of US troops + more active role to S. Vietnam
2. Wanted to win election of 1968 with American perception positive.
Opposition to Vietnam War (2)
1. New Left + Working Class - Working class resent cause college students are exempt from draft
2. Soldiers in Vietnam - Post 1967, soldiers were bitter, had low moral, increased hostility + drug use, and complained of hostile reception upon return home.
1. Ordered in 1972 and was advised by Henry Kissinger
2. Wanted to treat other countries normally and wanted to relax the mood among countries and eventually extract itself from Vietnam
Operation Babylift (2)
1. With the end of Vietnam war and the threat of North taking over, orphanages filled with babies
2. Orphans were sent to US and African to be adopted as a way of US citizens giving back
1. Win the white south so the party can go in a new direction
The "new" Right (4)
1. Traditional political concerns - Opposed détente + new deal / great society, beef up military, support states rights
2. New political concerns - Social conservatists
3. Appealed to people who turned away from traditional values
4. Issues included people rejecting liberal idea of Govt. $ spent to solve social problems
1. Rejected radical separatism
Equal Rights Amendment (3)
1. Approved in 1972
2. Said "Equality among the law should not be determined by gender / sex
3. 38 states ratify by 1973 showing it was long overdue
Roe v. Wade (3)
1. 1973 - Said Govt. opposition to abortion is violation of privacy (First trimester = safe zone)
2. Opposition from the catholic church emerged and they viewed the decision as "murder of unborn"
3. National Right To Life Committee formed
National Right To Life Committee (3)
1. Group that opposed Roe v. Wade
2. Said ability to get abortion promotes sexual promiscuity and individualism over family values
3. Mobilized people into the "New Right" and drew traditional Dems to switch sides
Stonewall Riots (3)
1. Police raid a gay bar, but people fought back.
2. Inspired a new openness "gay pride"
3. Advocates sought state and local laws to not discriminate based on sexual orientation.
Anita Bryant (1)
1. Led movement in Miami for gay rights on the Christian Right.
2. Her campaign sparked others across the nation
Reagan + End of Cold War (4)
1. Reagan wanted to revitalize national defense, thought they could make Soviets spend too much $, and wanted to help people overcome vietnam syndrome
2. Met with Gorbichev @ summit meetings
3. Jan. 1989 = end of cold war and Reagan leaving office
4. Critics say Reagan stopped cold war w/ skilled leadership and toughness, that the tough stance from US kept soviets in power for so long, and high costs
"End of History" (3)
1. Written by Francis Fukuyama (1990s)
2. Said major conflicts of political democracy are over and that liberal democracy has won
3. Said no more competitors of ideas left and that US needs to realize their role again (sense of purpose)
"New World Order" (3)
1. Would rest on American leadership and promote democracy abroad
2. Right said we were letting UN make our decisions about going to war
3. What is US role in world issues post cold war?
1. 1994 - 800,000 Tutsis killed by hutus
2. US ignored and didn't send troops or jam up radio stations like they were asked to.
3. US state depot called Rwands "acts of genocide" instead of genocide so they wouldn't have to intervene
Fair Deal (2)
1. 1948 - Truman's strategy to preserve FDR's new deal.
2. Also raised minimum wage, provided public housing, had old-age insurance extensions, supported lowering farm prices
Taft-Hartley Act ()
1. 1947 - monitored the power of labor unions and replaced National Labor Relations Act / Wagner Act of 1935
1. The fusion of traditional social conservatism with liberalism
2. Associated with Frank meter's.
Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
1. Civil rights group committed to nonviolent civil disobedience (1942)
Mississippi Freedom Summer (3)
1. A voter registration project conducted by members of civil rights groups
2. People went door to door to register black voters
3. Broke down the decades of isolation dealt with as a result of Jim Crow
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (2)
1. Organizers wanted a voice in Democratic Conventions and an alternative to the white democratic party
2. Consisted of working class people from all races
John Birch Society (2)
1. 1958 - An anti-communist desired to educate Americans about the evils of communism
2. Strong audience in the west
Tet Offensive (2)
1. 1968 - Military campaign during Vietnam war by N. Vietnam against S. Vietnam, the US, and their allies
2. Idea was to strike against military and civilians in South during a time when no attacks were allowed
Social Conservatism (2)
1. a.k.a. New Right / Radical Right
2. Focused on morality, protecting children from drugs / sex, organized prayer in schools, and tolerance of homosexuals
1. Communist rebels in south vietnam who fought the pro-American govt. established in South Vietnam in 1954
Cold War Consensus (3)
1. US political parties worked together to defeat the spread of communism
2. Marked the beginning of US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between R's and Dems
3. Focused on deterrence and containment
Election of 1980 (2)
1. Carter (D) vs. Regan (R)
2. Regan was self-confident and optimistic about the future, planned to make America stand tall again, and won the election
Communists who took over the Govt. of Nicaragua w/ help from Cuba and Soviet Union
Iranian Hostage Crisis (2)
1. Occurred when an islamic fundamentalist revolution broke out in the 1970s in Iran.
2. The US embassy was captured in Tehran which destroyed Carter's chance for a re-election.
1. Economic policy created by Reagan in 1980s
2. Plan was to reduce growth of Govt. spending, reduce income and capital gains taxes, reduce Govt. regulation, and to control the money supply to reduce inflation
1. Lead impeachment proceedings on Clinton
1. The systematic widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity (factories and plants)
First artificial satellite to orbit Earth that was launched by the Soviets in 1957
Phyllis Schlafly (2)
1. Opposed feminism and the equal rights ammendment
2. Believed ERA would take away women's rights, like exemption from the draft, maternity wards, and separate bathrooms
Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) (2)
1. Conservative, but had a shared concern for individual freedom and a spirit of rebellion
2. Consisted of young people pushing for change and rejecting the politics of their parents.
Reagan Revolution (2)
1. Policies of the first Reagan administration which focused on increased defense spending, reduced social programs, and cutting taxes.
2.Idea was to grow the economy by cutting government interference in them.
Berry Goldwater (3)
1. Ran against LBJ in the 1964 election
2. Rejected New Deal and his tactic was re-creating American conservatism
3. Lost in one of the biggest landslides in history.
"Voodoo Economics" (2)
1. Term used by H.W. Bush when talking about Reagans economic plan.
2. Reagan's platform included big tax cuts to stimulate the economy
Silent Majority (1)
1. Nixon's counteroffensive of appealing to the majority that still supported the war
1. Idea that if a nation falls to communism, the nations nearby will also fall under communist control
The First Gulf War (2)
1. 1991 - Iraq invades Kuwait
2. Bin Ladin offered help to Saudi Arabia, but they went to the US to defeat Iraq
Richard Posner (4)
1. Economist who developed a plan for economic growth
2. Tort - is a cost / benefit analysis
3. Believed the good principle is the one that maximizes wealth for everybody
4. The solution that encourages everyone to act efficiently is the best one.
1. Strong love for communism
2. Most people were Serbians
3. Capital = Belgrade
Humanitarian Interventions (1)
1. Deploying military forces across the boarder to protect foreign nationals / citizens from man-made violence (genocide, violation of humans rights, etc.)
Feminization of Poverty
1. The trend of women making up an increasing portion of the poor
Want to see the other 92 Flashcards in Final Exam?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!