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-Evacuated feeding Groove
-have plastids from secondary endosymbiosis w/ red algae
-theory that says that prokaryotic cells were swallowed by eukaryotic cells and were not digested or destroyed because they were useful or helped the eukaryotic cell in some way; they have just stayed
-ex. mitchondria and
1. homosporous- all spores are made same
2. gametophyte is most prominent
3. dependent on gametophyte for nutrition
4. require H2O to reproduce- sperm must swim to female egg
they are young sporophytes that develop from zygotes
Sexual reproduction- compatible hyphae fuse.
zygotic life cycle- everything is haploid except zygote, evenafter mating haploid condition, rapid cell division, occurs with in substrate,development of fruiting body, fuse- nuclei put together but do not fuse.
Asexual- 20,000 asexual reproduction,rapid reproduction, well-adapted, identical spores
Heterotrophs-primarily absorptivenutrition, sharing capability, hyphae growth can grow very fast
Decomposers- break apart things , that many other organisms cantbreak down.
Predators- fungus digest/ capture about 200 species.
Mutualisms- mycorrhizae up to 80% of plants have a relationshipwith fungi. Can be a challenge with restoration work. More affective atabsorbing water, phosphate, zinc, and copper. 2 forms- endomicorise (down inbetween cells membrane) ectomicorisy (branching around the cell), diverse inform
Applied importance- benefit from fruiting bodies, yeast,brewing, toxins (hallucinogens) cause liver failure, antibiotics, black mold,pests (fungal infection), yeast infections, lung infection is most serious
Earliest ancestor would reflect chanoflagellate, starteddividing (multicellular) specialization began. All animals would have a sharedcommon ancestor
Multicellularity and heterotrophs would be the foundation. Nocell walls, specialized structure for movement, true nerve tissue, noautotrophs, similar rRNA
Animals with spiral cleavage arecalled protostomes, and those exhibiting radial cleavage called deuterosomes.
· Compareand contrast the traditional classification of animals with currentviews of animal diversity – and the major changes from the old classificationto the new
Lessons importance of chelom, no segmentation, now ecdysisincludes the nematode and arthropoda. Protosome development is split into twogroups the ecdysis and the lophotrochozoa.
* no tissue level, no cephalization, no germ layer, no coelom,lack of segmentation, cellular, asymmetrical
polypand medusa forms of the Cnidaria and describe cnidocytes
Cnidarians exist as two forms polyp and medusa. Polyp is asessile structure, the medusa is mobile.
soft body and external or internal shell, require moisture, mostlive in water, movement to land contributed to the diversity, the FOOT is amuscular form that helps with mobility, celomate, filter or scrape food fromsubstrate, no real blood vessels except the cephalopoda,
15,000 species includes segmented worms and leeches, repeatedsegments, redundancy of functions, some specialization mostly in digestivetract, hydrostatic skeleton
· roleof the cuticle and growth via ecdysis in the Ecdysozoa
The ecdysozoans are named after their ability to shed theircuticle, a nonliving cover providing support and protection. The two mostcommon phyla are nematodes and arthropods. Ecdysis causes an increase in growthfollowed by a plato.
evolutionarysuccess and diversity of the arthropods
Arthropods are the most successful animals on earth because oftheir unique dervived features, exoskeleton, jointed appendages, tagmatazion,complex sensory, excretory, nervous, respitory structures, metamorphosis.Arthropod diversity-most diverse animals on the planet, 80% are insects, halfare beetles, 30 million species of insects, 200million:1 human, inhibit everyhabitat on earth, most small,
cuticle ( non-living part of exoskeleton) is secreted by theepidermis the living portion of the exoskeleton. Most successful arthropodshave an exoskeleton that is composed of chitin& protein that is strong andflexable. Crustaceans add calcium carbonate into their skeleton that makestheir skeleton even harder. Benefits- protection, water conservation, muscleattachment forms (complex movement). Disadvantages- heavy, limits growth
adaption that allows fast movement, and complex movement,Adaptable legs then can swim, jump ect.. appendages for eating (mouth parts)sucking, chewing, manipulating. Appendages for sensing, antennae, wings-dervived from cuticle
Chelicerata- 74,000 species ex) spiders, scorpions, mites,ticks***8 legs
Myripoda-13,000 species ex) centipedes, millipedes,***differentmouth parts, lots of legs
Hexapoda- over a million ex) insects such as flies, bees***3tagmata
Crustacea-45,000 ex) crabs, lobsters***usually marine has 2-3tagmata
o hinged jaw
o bony skeleton
o tetrapod limbs
o amniotic egg
o mammal adaptations
Evolution of hinged jaw
· From gill arches (supporting rods)
· New food sources available
o Still use gill slits for respirationFist seen in Placoderms
- postive effect and negative to others
As area increases the number of species increases. On island, the rule is that the number of species doubles when habitat area increases by a factor of 10.
More area = more habitats = more species.
Extinction plays an important role
· - 1) Humans depend on plants, animals, and microorganisms for awide range of food, medicine and industrial products. 2) Preserving theessential services provided by ecosystems, such as clean air and water. 3) Wehave an ethical responsibility to protect what are our only known livingcompanions in the universe.
· genetically programed behaviors
Denoted as “r”
This is the proportion of shared genes between 2 individuals
The higher r = the more closely related
1.0 – yourself, your identical twin
0.5 – parents, siblings, offspring
0.25 – aunts & uncles, nieces & nephews, grandparents
0.125 – cousins, great grandparents
Allele that favors inclusive fitness
rB > C
YOUNG EARTH VIEW
believed that all species were created as they currently exist and that they are immutable (non changing). Any variations were seen as temporary imperfections. Any data that was gathered was to support the supernatural.***Scientific method did not exist yet***
Differential survival andreproduction-
Increased allele frequency
· crossing (in mitosis) over of alleles leads to diversity ingametes then recombination at fertilization produces a whole new combination ofallele***contribute to genetic diversity
· gene flow (moving of alleles into and out of the population)decreases differences between populations but increases diversity within thepopulation
· changes in allele frequencies due to random chance events**favors fixation over time*** decreasesdiversity, Doesn’t have to do with fitness, Strongest in a small population
· decreases differences between populations but increasesdiversity within the population***increases diversity overall
· In the absence of the antibiotic the bacteria may not persistbecause of either ecologically- competitionwith the normal bacteria against the one mutant or evolutionarily- selection/ drift may get lost
· used to distinguish species. A species is a group of individualswho members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature toproduce viable offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members ofother species.
· used to distinguish species. Considers a species within itsnative environment and states that each species occupies its own ecologicalniche
· used to distinguish species-states that a species is dervivedfrom a single distinct lineage and has its own evolutionary tendancies andhistorical fait.
· physical isolation-migration or change in habitat
· gametes are incompatible ex) external fertilization with fisheggs or pollen
· not through isolation**the whole group experiences change andcould eventually forma new species over time.
· more than 2 chromosomes, a failure in meiosis, causes adifferent number of alleles which then can only breed with that same number ofalleles which causes reproductive isolation
the proposalthat two species with the same resource requirements cannot occupy the sameniche
· on a phylogenetic tree, is represented by the different lengthsof each branch and all taxa would not be equal
· includes all common decedents of the ancestor
· using molecular traits to find similarities
· The simplest explanation is probably the best
· Best would be fewest # of changes in the sequence
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