intraspecific interactions, factors that influence population characters
interspecific interactions, coevolved systems
species interactions with abiotic factors, movement of matter and energy
community of organisms and the abiotic factors influencing that community
assemblage of interacting populations that overlap in space and time
group of individuals of same species that occupy a specific space at a specific time
trophic structure of an ecosystem?
represents the movement of matter/energy through the living part of a system
model of trophic structure for a system, consists of multiple food chains
3 models of energy movement?
energy transfer, energy pyramid, energy flow
NPP represents total energy and matter available to trophic levels above, size of base limits number and diversity of organisms above it
total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis (gramsC/area/time)
net primary production(NPP)
amount of primary production available to other organisms as food, NPP=photosynthesis-respiration
the majority of actual weight(biomass) gained by plants as they grow comes from:
carbon dioxide in the air that enters through leaves
obtain carbon from atmosphere, CO2
breakdown of sugars(CO2)
tools of science? (5)
perform an experiment, collect graph and interpret experimental data, use data to construct hypotheses and design experiments to test, construct claims
as a scientist the first thing to do after collecting data is:
types of data:
categorical:data can be binned into discrete categories continuous:data can assume any value(sometimes within range)
when should you use a bar graph?
when should you use a pie chart?
categories are proportions of a whole
when should you use a line graph?
trends, relationships between 2 variables
when should you use a scatter plot?
show discrete values that represent relationships
3 things models have:
structure, behavior, function
what is structure?
components, parts (nouns, objects, concepts)
what is behavior
indicators of the relationships between structures, processes, descriptions of hierarchy (verbs)
what is function?
what does the model DO? what message/ information does it communicate?
represent aggregations of data, patterns, relationships simplified abstractions of reality physical, conceptual, quantitive can represent known phenomena(test hypotheses) replace "real" systems that cannot be measured
a tool for communicating, thinking
structure of a scientific argument:
claim(hypothesis and conclusion), evidence(data), warrant(why and how)
chromosomes are made of:
subunit of DNA, RNA
same length, size, centromere position; within a homologous pair, 1 chromosome from mother, one from father
number of complete sets of chromosomes, humans are diploid
2 rules that govern DNA structure
sugar-phosphate linkages hold adjacent nucleotides together(covalent bonds) bases pair in a regular and predictable way
H-bonds between bases hold complementary strands together
ex) for humans, n=23
in order of increasing size?
gene, chromosome, nucleotide, water molecule, glucose molecule
mutation is the source of new...?
duplicated chromosomes line up at equatorial plane; alighned by centromeres