Roots of the phonograph: Frenchman Leon Scott de Martinville invents the PHONAUTOGRAPH (Sound Writer), an instrument that made a visual tracing of sound vibrations
Edison's Talking Machine (plays cylinders)
Emile Berliner invents gramophone disc (flat, more durable, easier to store)
Columbia Records is formed
Introduction of double-sided 78rpm disc -- the standard recorded configuration until early 1950s
1 out of every 22 U.S. households had a phonograph
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