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What is achievement in the context of this course? Explain why there is normally no ‘walking achievement’ or ‘housecleaning achievement’? Which two areas particularly are studied in the context of adolescence?
Achievement is the development of motives, capabilities, interests, and behaviors that have to do with performance in evaluative situations.Includes performance in educational settings, hopes and plans for future scholastic and occupational careers.
Why particularly is achievement an adolescent issue?
Preparation for adult work roles. Teens evaluate differences in school preformance in regard to future success. Educational decisions are numerous and consequences of decisions are serious.
What is the Need for Achievement? Explain the context of the theories from which this notion originated.
The need for achievement is Extent to which an individual strives for success and is intrinsically motivated to perform well. This comes from the wider theories of motivation including Henery Murray- Many Needs, and David Mclelland- Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation, and Need For Power.
What is Fear of Failure?
The psychological fear that you will fail, which means you will end up undermining your own efforts.
Explain your book’s notions of Motive to succeed and Motive to avoid failure.
Motives to Succeed: A need or sensitivity to the positive feelings that arise from succeeding at a task. Motives to avoid failure: A Sensitivity to the negative feelings that arise from failing at a task and a need to avoid those feelings.
Explain what self-handicapping strategies are, and why a person might use these.
Self handicapping strategies can be a variety of things by putting obstacles in the way of a successful performance so that there is an excuse. An example would be going out and partying the night before an exam and having a good excuse to not study.
Explain why intrinsic motivation involves learning goals and extrinsic motivation performance goals. How do parents sometimes stimulate extrinsic motivation?
Intrinsic motivation involves learning goals due to the fact that they strive to achieve because of the internal pleasure they get out of learning and mastering the material. Extrinsic motivation relates to performance goals: The strive to achieve because of external rewards or punishment for performance.
Explain how the stereotype threat beliefs work.
Minority and non middle class adolescents may also be held back by the low expectations the larger society holds for them. Those effected by the stereotype worry that if they fail, they will simply be confirming the majority negative opinions about them.
Explain how people’s beliefs about the nature of intelligence can affect their achievement.
The more negative thoughts people have about the intelligence of themselves just leads to the lesser probability of achievement happening.
Explain the difference in attributions of success and failure in learned helplessness and mastery orientation.
Attributions of Success: Ability, Effort, Task, Luck. Failure In Learned Helplessness: A Condition that ay follow failure if the person comes to believe that the outcome is uncontrollable and that the further efforts are pointless. Mastery Oriented- Attribute success to ability, failure to lack of effort, Incremental view of ability( can improve by trying), and focus on learning goals.
Explain how parents’ values & expectations relates to adolescents’ achievement.
Effect Parents offer support and encouragement, but they also communicate a sense that learning is important and a belief that the teen has what it takes to learn well. Teens who see their parents as being authoritative were more interested in learning new skills and enhancing their learning.
What are the influences of SES on educational achievement? Why are children from lower SES groups thought to perform poorly? What interventions are thought to work best to counterbalance this?
The Influences are the better SES status you have....the better chance of educational achievement you will be able to accomplish. Children from lower SES do poorly because most of the time in the area that they live in, teachers have less experience, fewer teachers are certified, larger schools.
What ethnic differences in educational achievement are there? What are the differences that have been found in beliefs about ability in ethnic groups?
African American and Hispanic American students achieve less then white students. While educational achievements of all groups lag behind asian american students.
What is John Holland’s perspective on people’s choices of occupational fields?
Holland suggested that "people can function and develop best and find job satisfaction in work environments that are compatible with their personalities"; (Holland based his theory of personality types on several assumptions. People tend to choose a career that is reflective of their of their personality. Because people tend to be attracted to certain jobs, the environment then reflects this personality.
What are the three ways in which identity development has been studied. Be sure you can explain the differences among these three ways of looking at identity.
Identity development has been studied in physical changes of puberty: appearance and relationships with others, cognitive changes: imagine possible selves and develop a future orientation, and social changes: in self-conceptions, in self-esteem, and in sense of identity.
How does self-conception change from childhood to adolescence? What does it mean that self-conception becomes better organized and integrated?
Self-conception is the way individuals think about and characterize themselves. This becomes more complex, and abstract self-conceptions develop from childhood to adolescence. Adolescents begin to think of themselves in a few different ways (their actual self, ideal self, and possible self). This plays a role in planning, setting priorities, and self-regulation.
What is false self-behavior? In which situations are adolescents more likely to show it? Think of examples from your own past.
False self-behavior is acting in a way that one knows is inauthentic or fake. This is most likely to appear in dating situations and least likely to happen around close friends.
What is self-esteem? Explain the difference between baseline self-esteem and barometric self-esteem.
Self-esteem is how an individual feels about him or herself. Baseline self-esteem is a level of positive or negative feelings about the self that is fairly stable over time. Barometric self-esteem is temporary changes in positive or negative feelings about the self that occur in response to particular incidents.
What happens to barometric self-esteem during early adolescence?
Adolescents’ feelings about themselves fluctuate day by day so barometric self-esteem is more prominent and there is an increased volatility in barometric self image. The swings in barometric self-esteem are wider and more frequent.
*Explain the notion of multidimensional self-esteem.
Multidimensional self-esteem is a mix of academic competence, social competence, athletic/physical competence, appearance, romantic appeal, moral conduct, and job competence. All of these factors play into self-esteem.
*What are the main sex-differences in self-esteem? What are the causes thought to be?
Boys tend to have higher self-esteem than girls. Boys have higher self-esteem in every factor except for conduct, where girls have a higher self-esteem.
What are SES differences in self-esteem?
The middle class has higher self-esteem then lower SES, and this discrepancy grows larger over the course of adolescence. However, African-American girls have higher self-esteem than girls and white girls have higher self-esteem then hispanic, native american, and asian girls.
Describe the differences in self-esteem in various ethnic groups. What causes have been put forward for these differences?
African American girls are thought to have higher self-esteem because do not feel as negative about their appearance. They have also received strong support from parents and other adults in the Black community because of their shared experience of racism.
What appear to be antecedents for high self-esteem across all groups?
Across all demographic groups, self-esteem is related to parental approval, peer support, and success in school.
Explain how James Marcia organized identity development.
How does identity develop over time? Which aspects are developed earlier and which later? What is the effect of college on identity development?
Identity is generally not established before age 18. During college, vocational plans solidify, not not religious and political beliefs. College may prolong psychosocial moratorium, especially for political and religious beliefs. Individuals may move from one identity status to another, particularly during adolescent and young adult years.
What are the three general trends in the development of value autonomy during adolescence?
The three trends are 1) increasingly abstract in the way they think about moral, political, and religious issues 2) increasingly rooted in general principles that have some ideological basis 3) increasingly founded in young person’s own values and not merely in a system of values passed on by parents or authority figures.
Explain how moral reasoning is assessed.
When assessing moral reasoning it is not the particular content of the answer that is important but rather the structure of the person’s reasoning. Kohlberg described moral reasoning in terms of six stages, at three levels.
What are the levels of moral reasoning distinguished by Kohlberg?
The levels of moral reasoning are 1) Pre-conventional morality 2) Conventional morality 3) Post-conventional morality.
What are the developmental trends in moral reasoning?
The pre-conventional decreases with age, and the higher levels increase with age. The movement to higher levels depends on cognitive development and formal operations doesn't guarantee you will reach level 5 or 6. Most adults are at level 4.
*Explain the difference between intimacy and sexuality.
True intimacy is characterized by self-disclosure, trust, and concern. It is an emotional sense of attachment to someone with whom one shares personal knowledge and a concern for one another’s well being. Whereas sexuality is more of a biological response to changes that come about during puberty.
When does Erikson believe the issue of intimacy comes up? What is the relationship between identity and intimacy?
Erickson believes that the issue of intimacy comes up in young adulthood. The main challenge young adults face is to develop an intimate relationship that can take on a life and identity of its own without submerging the individual identities of of the partners. Only those who have already achieved a firm sense of identity are able to move on to develop a mature intimate relationship or else they will experience pseudo intimacy in their relationships.
How does friendship change from childhood through adolescence as far as the characteristics required in friends? How does conflict change?
Friendship changes from childhood through adolescence because companionship is always there, it emerges before adolescence but intimacy emerges later. In early adolescence self-disclosure and trust emerge as dimensions of friendship. Adolescents look for friends that offer companionship, intimacy, trust, loyalty, warmth, assistance, acceptance, support, and guidance. Adolescents resolve conflicts with their friends more frequently by negotiation or disengagement, not fighting, threatening, etc.
What are the changes in display of intimacy over adolescence?
Adolescents become more knowledgeable about their friends and more responsive to close friends and less controlling. Friends become more interpersonally sensitive and show more empathy.
What are the gender differences in intimacy during adolescence? *What are thought to be the origins of these differences?
Girls’ relationships are more intimate than boys’ across many different indicators. Girls disclose more to their friends, they are more sensitive and empathetic to their friends, and they are more concerned with trust and loyalty.
What are the different activities that can constitute “dating”? What are the reasons for dating?
Dating can mean a variety of things. Dating consists of group activities involving boys and girls, casual dating in couples, and serious involvement in a steady relationship. Dating gives adolescents a socially recognized way to satisfy a variety of needs that are important to them, including: recreation, socialization, status, companionship, sexual experimentation, intimacy, and courtship.
What are the advantages of dating? What are the disadvantages of dating? Is there a difference between dating in early adolescence and later in adolescence?
When it is a moderate degree of dating, without serious involvement until late adolescence, better mental health and well-being are associated with dating. Serious dating before the age of 15 has a stunting effect of psychosocial development. However, adolescent girls who do not date at all show slower social development, more dependency on parents, and feelings of insecurity. Therefore, dating is important to social development but is potentially harmful if before the age of 15.
What is serial monogamy?
Serial monogamy is when someone has only one sexual partner at a time but have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime, this implies a regular change of partners.
*What are usually the successive stages of becoming sexually active?
For boys, the first adolescent sexual experience is through masturbation. Girls are much less likely to masturbate. Partnered sex typically follows a regular age-linked sequence of increasingly intimate activities leading to intercourse. The sequence is the same for girls and boys, but girls report engaging in each activity about a year later than boys do.
What percentage range of adolescents has had intercourse by the end of high school?
A little over 60% of adolescents have had intercourse by the end of high school.
How has sexual behavior of adolescents changed in recent history? Is there a gender difference?
The percentage of sexually active adolescents increased during 1970s and 80s, and then decreased slightly from 1995 to 2001. The greatest increase in prevalence of premarital intercourse has been among females.
What is considered early sexual activity? What behaviors does it appear to be related to?
Early sexual activity is before age 16, and it appears to be related to experimentation with drugs and alcohol, lower levels of religious involvement, higher tolerance of deviant behavior, and lower interest in academic achievement.
What appears to be the consequence of authoritative parenting on sexual activity of adolescents? What appears to be the effect of parent-adolescent communication about sex?
Authoritative parenting appears to result in less early sexual activity and less risky sexual activity. Parent-adolescent communication about sex results in less risky sexual activity, but no decrease in overall sexual activity.
*Compare the effects of parents and peers on adolescents’ sexual activity.
Having sexually active peers establishes a normative standard that having sex is okay. Peers can also directly communicate about sex and risk factors for sex are usually cumulative. Parents seem to influence mostly how much risky sexual behavior is performed, but it seems like peers have a bigger influence.
What are some risk factors for early sexual activity?
STDs are a big risk factor when it comes to early sexual activity. Unintended pregnancy is also another major risk of sexual activity.
What is the difference between sex-role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation?
Sex-role behavior is the extent in which an individual behaves in traditionally masculine or feminine ways. Gender identity is which gender an individual believes he/she is. Sexual orientation is the extent in which an individual is oriented toward heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual activity.
*What are some of the STDs mentioned in class, what is pernicious about the viruses?
Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, and HIV/AIDS are STIS. Some STIs have long latency periods before symptoms show themselves and in some the symptoms are not easily noticed. This makes it more likely that someone who is infected will unknowingly infect others.
*What are some of the reasons that adolescents do not use contraceptives?
Contraceptives may not be readily available for all adolescents.
What three categories of externalizing problems are there?
The three types of externalizing problems are conduct disorder, aggression, and delinquency.
*Explain the difference between oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder.
Conduct disorder is a pattern of persistent antisocial behavior that routinely violates the rights of others and leads to problems in social relationships, school, or work. Oppositional-defiant disorder is a related diagnosis to conduct disorder but it is less aggressive. Antisocial personality disorder is diagnosed is conduct disorder lasts beyond age 18. It is characterized by a lack of regard for moral standards (psychopaths).
What is the age progression and gender difference in aggressive acts?
Males are more aggressive then females, and they have a higher aggression starting at age 4. However, male aggression declines along with female aggression throughout life (male aggression has a sharper decline) and then eventually male and female aggression meet up at the same point (.05 of aggression) at age 18.
What is juvenile offending? Explain the age-crime curve.
Juvenile offending is delinquency in underage people (if they were adults it would be a criminal offense). Violent crimes increase in frequency between the preadolescent and adolescent years. It hits its peak during high school and then declines in young adulthood, which is the age-crime curve.
What different forms can antisocial behavior take? *Explain how each different type escalates.
Antisocial behavior takes the form of authority conflicts, covert antisocial behavior, and overt antisocial behavior.
What is the most common internalizing disorder? What are the symptoms? *Why has this become more common?
The most common internalizing disorder is depression. The emotional symptoms are dejection, decreased enjoyment of pleasurable activities, and low self-esteem. The cognitive symptoms are pessimism and hopelessness. The motivational symptoms are apathy and boredom, and the physical symptoms are loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping, and loss of energy.
What are thought to be reasons for a sex difference in depression?
Before adolescence, boys are more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. However, after puberty, female are more likely to be depressed because of gender roles, greater levels of stress during early adolescence, ruminating more (process of dwelling on negative events, recalling other negative events from the past, and amplifying the long-term significance of negative factors), and greater investment in others.
What are the sex differences in suicide-related incidence (ideation, planning, attempts, deaths)
Girls have more thoughts, plans, and actions when it comes to suicide but boys have more deaths.
What is the diathesis-stress model of depression?
The diathesis-stress model of depression explains that depression occurs when people with a predisposition (a diathesis) toward internalizing problems are exposed to chronic or acute stressors (stress). The diathesis may be a biological factor or cognitive style, and the stress may be primarily from high-conflict family, being unpopular, or reporting more chronic and acute stressors.
What are gender stereotypes and what is the difference with gender roles? What is gender identity, and what is gender typing?
Gender Stereotypes are characteristics that are attributed to a person that they should follow based on their gender. Gender roles differ from society to society. Certain Jobs are seen for only men, while other jobs are seen by only woman. Gender Identity is the aspects of a persons sense of self that relate to masculinity or femininity. Gender Typing is the process by which children come to take on gender roles expected in their society.
What are instrumental and expressive traits?
Masculine(Instrumental): Active, adventurous, independent, dominant, competitive, outspoken, and self confident.
Feminine(Expressive Traits): considerate, emotional, gentle, neat, kinda, passive, needs approval.
What do biological approaches to gender development argue is the main mechanism for gender differences? How does this work (in general)?
Hormones and prenatal tesosterone. From the moment of conception, males and females are genetically different, these genetic differences affect the production of hormones such as testerone that play a role in organizing the structure and functioning of the body.
How does the argument from cultural similarities in gender differences work? How is it biological?
The cultural argument to support notion that gender differences are biological, intrumental---expressive dictotomy is pervassive across cultures.
Through which routes are gender differences socialized?
Parents, peeers, media, culture.
What is the social cognitive theory of gender development?
In this model, personal factors, such as thoughts, desires, and f eelings, interact with learned behavior patterns and social I nfluences to produce tendencies to act in particular ways.
How do parents and siblings influence gender typing?
Parents encourage gender specific play and behavior, reinforce dependence in girls, independence in boys
How does the media influence gender stereotypes?
There are still a lot of gender stereotypes in TV programs, commercials, and moives. In these, woman are mostly thin and good-looking.
What is the difference between traditional and modern cultures?
Traditional: Men are more important than woman, appropriate for them to dominate. Modern Cultures: Women and men equal in rights, educational and occupational opportunities, social position.
How does culture have an effect on gender?
All cultures define gender roles, but the content of these roles varies with different cultures. Children aquaire a knowledge and acceptance of gender roles as they interact with the social contexts around them.
What is gender constancy? What stages does Lawrence Kohlberg propose for development of gender constancy?
Gender Constancy is a childs realization that gender does not change over time. The stages in order are, Gender Labeling ( children identify others as male or female. Gender Stability*second stage( is when children realize gender is stable over time) Third stage: Gender Consistency (children full understand the nature of gender).
Briefly describe how gender schema theory works.
A set of ideas that concerns the way, children, adolescence, and adults gather and orgganize information about gender and then use t his information to gudie their attitudes/actions.
What is gender intensification and when does it occur?
It is the proposal that, with the approache of adolescence, children come under increased pressure from others ro conform more closely to expected gender roles. This happens around the time of puberty.
What are the general sex differences in mental abilities? What are the biological and environmental influences on these sex differences?
Verbal: Girls do better from early ages throughout school: Biological Influences: Girls: advantage in left hemisphere of brain: Environmental Influences: Parents talk more to girls.
Math: Boys are better at abstract reasoning, gap larger at higher l evels, but shrinking. Biological Influences: Boys: better numerical memory, spatial reasoning. Environment Influences: Mathematics considered Masculine.
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