Major characteristics of citizenship today include...
Being in a precaruous state, dwindling citizen involvement in the life of their communities, voter turnout well below other countries, and the lowest level of trust between citizens and elected national leaders.
America's democracy is characterized by....
Majority rule and protection of minority rights.
Democracy is practiced in the US and most other Western Nations is best described as...
Which intitution best exemplifies direct democracy?
a New England town meeting in which all memebers of the community are allowed to express their opinion and cast their vote on each issue.
Which of the folowing statements about democracy as currently practiced in the US is most accurate?
In the US public policy is determined by the people reps, not by the people themselves.
The current American political system includes elements of all the following types of government EXCEPT...
Approximately how large is the US population
What isn't correct about John LOcke's political philosphy
Locke believed that the primary role of govbernment was to ensure and equal distribution of property.
Which of the following statements about American demographics is most accurate?
Hispanics are the highest minority, just surpassing blacks.
The graying of American population is likely to create tensions because...
fewer workers will have support for retirees.
Which trend is LEAST evident in the United States today?
Visible markers of economic status are disappearing.
What is the most commonly cited reason that citizens between the ages of 18 and 24 fail to vote?
Which system is intended to prevent the arbitrary use of power and to give leaders sufficient time to forge consensus on divisive issues?
checks and balances system
Which clause of the Constitution affirms that the federal government, in exercising any of the powers enumerated in the Constitution, must prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power?
The core problem with the Articles of Confederation is that this system of government
was based on the idea that each state was a sovereign entity
Which of the following statements about the American Revolution is LEAST accurate?
When the first continental congress met in 1774, every state was represented by a delegation.
The Framers of the Constitution overcame internal squabbling by agreeing to the Great Compromise, which created a
bicameral system, based on proportionment representation in one house and state-by-state voting in the other house.
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the Constitution's explicit provision about voting rights at the time that it was drafted?
State governments could establish their own requirements for voting
Which of the following instances is the best example of the principle of checks and balances?
the senate approving an international treaty.
What is the fundamental concept behind federalism?
Some powers belong to local governments; others belong to the national government.
Which of the following topics is NOT covered by Article I of the Constitution?
explicit provisions for protecting civil rights
Which of the following is NOT included in Article III of the Constitution?
the explicit power of judicial review
Which article of the Constitution defines the amendment process?
Which article of the Constitution includes the supremacy clause?
Which of the following was NOT among the concerns raised by Antifederalists about the new Constitution?
the weakness of the national government
The Federalist Papers were written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and
The powers necessary to carry out constitutionally enumerated functions of government are referred to as
What term describes the arrangement where powers of the state and national governments are distinct and autonomous in their own domains?
"Marble cake" federalism is also known as
The difference between the American federal system and a confederation is that in a confederation, state governments
retain their full sovereignty.
Under the United States Constitution, the federal government's ability to coin money is an example of
an enumerated power.
Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of the term "elastic clause," when applied to the U.S. Constitution?
The federal government can assume additional powers as needed in order to accomplish the functions established for it by the Constitution.
The U.S. Constitution denies certain powers from the national government, and bestows them instead on the state governments. Such powers are called
In the U.S. federal system, the powers to establish courts and to tax citizens are both
Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of "dual federalism"?
State governments are autonomous and supreme in matters of state affairs, and the national government is autonomous and supreme in matters of national affairs.
In political science, the term devolution refers to
the dissipation of power away from a central authority.
Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the trend in federal-state relations from the 1980s to the present day?
Although the federal government has relinquished much power to the states, it has repeatedly used financial incentives and other means to impose national standards.
A federal program that gives a state government federal funds to address a specific need, but gives the state wide latitude in deciding how the funds will be spent, is known as a
The full faith and credit provision of the Constitution requires
state governments to recognize and uphold the legal judgments of other states.
Where can the Bill of Rights be found?
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution
According to the incorporation doctrine,
the due process clause requires states to abide by provisions in the Bill of Rights.
The establishment clause
prohibits the adoption of an official national religion.
The constitutional doctrine that government cannot prohibit speech or publication before the fact is called
The direct incitement test allows government to limit speech
that is intended and likely to result in imminent lawless action.
Which of the following types of speech can government restrict?
According to various Supreme Court decisions regarding the Fourth Amendment, what can the police search without a warrant or consent?
a person being arrested
Someone who "takes the Fifth" has
refused to testify against himself.
In 1966, the Supreme Court ruled that arrested individuals must be informed of their constitutional rights in
Miranda v. Arizona.
When can someone be tried twice for the same offense?
When can someone be tried twice for the same offense?
The Eighth Amendment prohibits
excessive bail and excessive fines.
The foundation for the Court's decision in Roe v. Wade is the right to
The Supreme Court has ruled that burning the American flag is protected symbolic speech and can not be outlawed by government.
The right to privacy is specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights.
Where does the Constitution discuss equality?
the Fourteenth Amendment
What was the purpose of the Missouri Compromise?
to maintain the current balance of slave and free states
Slavery was banned by the ________ Amendment.
What were Black Codes?
laws passed in southern states that denied legal rights to newly freed slaves
Laws enacted by southern states that resulted in segregation by race were also known as
Jim Crow laws.
In the years after the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, public accommodations in the South were largely
segregated and unequal.
The 1954 Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy was
Brown v. Board of Education.
In 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott began with the intent of ending segregation on public transport. Who acted as a catalyst for the boycott by refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger?
In August 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. led a huge march on Washington that culminated in
King's "I Have a Dream" speech.
Following the assassination of President Kennedy, what was President Lyndon B. Johnson's legislative priority?
civil rights reform
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 made slavery illegal in all states north of a specific geographical boundary.
Jim Crow laws were abolished immediately following the Civil War.
The Nineteenth Amendment guarantees women the right to vote.
Thanks to the pioneering decision in Brown v. Board of Education, there are currently no racial or ethnic differences in the quality of education American students receive.
The median income for men is currently about $10,000 more than the median income for women.
The U.S. Congress is
The structure of the legislative branch of government is described by ________ of the Constitution.
There are ________ members of the House of Representatives and ________ members of the Senate.
Apportionment and redistricting typically occur every
The Senate has the sole power to
approve major presidential appointments.
The leader of the House of Representatives is called the
Speaker of the House
The congressional leaders who line up members on partisan issues and serve as a link between the rank-and-file members and the leadership are called
How is a tie broken in the Senate?
The vice president of the United States breaks the tie.
Committees allow for
A senator may agree to vote for a bill that will bring money to a colleague's district. In exchange, the colleague will agree to vote for a future bill that the initial senator supports. This is called
No bill can become law without the consent of both houses of Congress.
Members of Congress use earmarks to help support their districts and win reelection.
Women are underrepresented in the U.S. Congress.
When making decisions about whether or not to support a bill, members of Congress are often influenced by their partisan affiliations and their colleagues.
All proposed bills must first begin in the House.
What is the major function of the vice president?
to succeed the president if she dies or becomes disabled
Which of the following is a constitutional requirement to become president?
to be at least 35 years old and a natural born citizen
Presidents are elected for
If the president dies in office and the vice presidency is vacant, the next in the line of succession is the
Speaker of the House.
In order to make a treaty, the president must
have the advice and consent of the Senate.
How are presidential vetoes overridden?
with a two-thirds majority in each chamber
Which of the following is a presidential check on judicial power?
For several decades, the trend has been for the president to play a more important decision-making role. This trend began in earnest with
Franklin Roosevelt's legacy includes all of the following EXCEPT
an anemic military and diminished national morale.
The membership of the Cabinet is determined by
The Executive Office of the President was established in 1939 to
help the president manage the bureaucracy.
When are presidents most likely to get their policies through Congress successfully?
early in the president's first year
The Office of Management and Budget
prepares the president's budget proposal.
An executive order of the president
has the effect of law.
When a president "goes public,"
he is trying to persuade the public and hopes that the public will persuade Congress.
The ability of a victorious president to fire current executive branch employees and hire loyalists instead is known as
the spoils system.
An agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy is called
an independent regulatory commission.
The number of federal government employees was largest
during the New Deal and World War II.
Franklin Roosevelt believed that the best way to get the country out of the Great Depression was
through far-ranging government intervention in the economy.
The largest number of civilian federal employees works for
the executive branch.
A typical low-level federal civilian employee gets her job by
doing well enough on a civil service exam.
A business established by government that performs functions that could be provided by the private sector is called a(n)
The process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy is known as
Most bureaucrats have some leeway in their ability to make choices regarding the best way to implement policies. This is called
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties is called administrative
Which of the following is a check on the bureaucracy that only the Senate can exercise?
confirming presidential appointments
During the early history of the United States, the Post Office was a major source of patronage.
President James A. Garfield was assassinated by a disgruntled person who had sought a patronage position in his administration.
The federal workforce under-represents African Americans and Hispanics.
Who is the ultimate authority on what the Constitution means?
Federal courts lower than the Supreme Court are established by
In which decision did the Supreme Court declare that it could exercise judicial review over acts of the national government?
Marbury v. Madison
What is the term of office for Supreme Court justices and federal judges?
All of the following are checks on the judiciary EXCEPT
Congress can pardon those convicted by the courts.
The Judiciary Act of 1789
established the basic structure of the federal court system.
Courts with appellate jurisdiction typically
review the legal procedures of a lower court for mistakes.
Which of the following lists of federal courts is in order from the lowest court to the highest court?
district courts; courts of appeals; Supreme Court
In court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions on new cases is called
How many justices sit on the Supreme Court?
Cases heard by the Supreme Court are most likely to involve
Bill of Rights
Who is most likely to write an amicus brief?
Most criminal law cases are decided in the state court systems.
The Constitution sets the number of justices on the Supreme Court at nine.
Most cases reach the Supreme Court through its original jurisdiction.
What is the most common method of political participation in the United States?
Voter turnout is typically lowest in which of the following countries?
the United States
Which of the following is the most helpful in understanding why fewer African Americans turnout to vote?
African Americans have lower incomes.
Which of the following reasons is most frequently given by registered nonvoters for why they did not vote in 2004?
Which of the following is a reason for the low U.S. voter registration rate?
Citizens are responsible for registering themselves; the government does not do it for them.
What is ticket-splitting?
voting for candidates from different parties in an election
A primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to participate is called
a closed primary.
The process that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the electorate for popular vote is called
Which of the following governors has been recalled?
What is the "scare off" effect?
High-quality challengers are less likely to run against an incumbent.
What is gerrymandering?
redrawing district lines for partisan gain
Political parties are not as effective at mobilizing voters as they used to be.
What kind of interest group focuses its attention on achieving collective goods?
public interest groups
A labor union is an example of a
economic interest groups
Corporations can contribute money to political campaigns by forming
Which of the following is a single-issue group?
National Rifle Association
During the 1960s and 1970s, what kinds of interest groups were most successful?
public interest and civil rights groups
The activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support a group's positions is called
Which of the following lobbying techniques are interest groups most likely to engage in?
contacting government officials
Lobbyists tend to concentrate their efforts on
representatives who share their policy preferences.
Interest groups lobby the federal courts through
sponsoring lawsuits and filing briefs.
What is grassroots lobbying?
interest group activity aimed at getting citizens to contact their representatives
What is a collective good?
something that improves society
The railroad industry was one of the most successful early organized interests in the United States.