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Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor
-Administrative Principles: Henri Fayol
-Bureaucratic Organization: Max Weber
Is that a need at any level becomes activated only after the next-lower-level need is satisfied.
-Values: Are broad beliefs about what is appropriate behavior.
-Terminal Values: Are preferences about desired end states.
-Instrumental Values: Are preferences regarding the means to desired ends.
-Conflicts of interest (taking bribes)
Are well-thought-out personal rules and strategies for ethical decision making.
-Preconventional Level (self-centered behavior):
-Stage 1: Avoid harm or punishment
-Stage 2: Make deals for personal gain
-Conventional Level (social-centered behavior):
-Stage 3: Act consistently with peers, others
-Stage 4: Follow rules, meet obligations
-Post-conventional Level (principle-centered behavior):
-Stage 5: Live up to societal expectations
-Stage 6: Act according to internal principles.
Are people and institutions most directly affected by an organizations performance.
The obligation of an organization to serve its own interests and those of its stakeholders.
Of organizational performance includes financial, social, and environmental criteria.
-Classical view of CSR: Is that business should focus on the pursuit of profits.
-Socioeconomic view of CSR: Is that business should focus on contributions to society, not just making profits.
-Virtuous Circle: Exists when corporate social responsibility leads to improved financial performance that leads to more social responsibility.-Shared Value: Approaches business decisions with understanding that economic and social progress are interconnected
Measures and reports on an organizations performance in various areas of corporate social responsibility.-Zone of compliance/ zone of conviction
Is a goal that addresses the rights of present and future generations as co-stakeholders of present day natural resources.
-Sustainable business: Is where firms operate in ways that both meet the needs of customers and protect or advance the well being of our natural environment.
-Sustainable development: is making use of natural resources to meet today’s needs while also preserving and protecting the environment for use by future generations.
Is a global quality standard that certifies organizations that set environmental objectives and targets, account for the environmental impact of their activities, and continuously improve environmental performance.
Is one in which the underlying business model directly addresses a social problem.
-Social entrepreneurs: take business risks to find novel ways to solve pressing social problems.
1. Attracting a quality workforce
2. Developing a quality workforce
3. Maintaining a quality workforce
occurs when an organization denies employment or a job assignment or an advancement opportunity for reasons that are not performance relevant.
-the right to employment without regard to sex, race, color, national origin, or
-Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, amended by the Equal Employment opportunity Act of 1972 and the Civil Rights Act (EEOA) of 1991 protect these rights
-Intent is that employment should be based only on ability and job performance
-Generally applies to organizations that employ 15 or more people
-is an effort to give employment preference to women and minority group members
-Affirmative action plans - designed to ensure that an organization’s workforce represents women and minorities in proportion to their labor market availability
-Reverse discrimination - claims of discrimination by majority populations
-Bona fide occupational qualifications - criteria for employment that person can do job
-women earn approximately 77% of men in the U.S. The struggle for equal pay continues.
-Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act became law in 2009 allowing workers to file discrimination claims longer than previously allowed.
ü False Positive vs. False Negative
o Three types of costs incurred by a false positive error
§ Production or profit losses, damaged public relations or company reputation, accidents due to ineptitude or negligence, absenteeism
§ Costs associated with training, transfer, or terminating the employee
§ Costs of replacing the employee, recruiting, selecting, and training a replacement
o The cost associated with a false negative error is generally difficult to estimate.
- the process of influencing the expectations, behavior, and attitudes of a new employee in a desirable way
- a set of activities designed to familiarize new employees with their jobs, co-workers, and key values, policies, and other aspects of the organization as a whole
-gathers inputs from the many people that work and depend on the person being appraised (boss, subordinates, peer, and others)
ü Improved validity of multi-rater
ü Help identify important blind spots for individuals
-Hard to ignore similar comments expressed by colleagues and are then motivated to address needs
-Individuals invest more effort in development activity and skill increases as a result
-Avg ratings of subordinates have acceptable predictive validity of future performance
-Potential for linking everyday behaviors to the strategic intent of the organization.
-Can change the culture of the organization to one thats more open, honest, and concerned about collective performance.
-Merit pay - ties compensation to performance. High performing employees receive larger pay
-Bonus pay - provides one-time payments to employees for contribution or performance
-Profit sharing - distributes a portion of profits to employees as a reward and incentive
-Gain sharing - distributes a portion of savings when costs are reduced
-Stock options - the right to purchase shares of company stock at a fixed price in the future.
non monetary compensation such as health insurance and retirement plans
-Family friendly benefits
-Employee Assistance programs
-organizations to which employees belong and that deal with employers on the workers’ behalf; a collective “voice” for their members for added power
Labor contracts – a formal agreement between a union and an employer which typically specify the rights and obligations of employees and management with respect to wages, work hours, work rules, seniority, hiring, grievances, and other conditions of work
-the process that brings management and union representatives together in negotiating, administering and interpreting labor contracts
-is the pattern of planned HR activities and deployments intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals.
-value of workers that have skills, knowledge, innovation, creativity, energy and commitment to offer to the organization.
-According to resource-based view, in order to attain a sustainable competitive advantage, a resource needs to be:
Power is the ability to get someone else to do something that you want done; the ability to make things happen the way you want them to.
Position power - the power of a position, and includes:
-Legitimate power -
- who you are and what your presence means in a situation
-Expert power - the capability to influence the behavior of other people because of special knowledge and skills
-Referent power - the capability to influence the behavior of other people because they admire and want to identify positively with you.
-Vision is a clear sense of the future
-Visionary leadership - is the ability to communicate a clear sense of the future and how to accomplish the vision
-Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale (LPC) - instrument used to classify leadership styles as either task or relationship motivated
-suggests that successful leaders adjust their styles based on the maturity of followers and their readiness to perform the task at hand
-Delegating - low task, low relationship
-Participating - low task, high relationship
-Selling - high task, high relationship
-Telling - high task, low relationship
-suggests that leaders are effective when they help followers move along paths to achieve both work and personal goals
Four leadership styles
Directive leader /Supportive leader / Achievement-oriented leader / Participative leader
-recognizes that in most leadership situations, the leader does not treat everyone the same
-In-groups are considered the best performers and receive special high-exchange relationships with the leader
-Out-groups have low-exchange relationships with the leader and are often excluded from some information and privileges
-Authority decision - is made by the leader and communicated to the group
-Consultative decision - is made by a leader after receiving input from the group
-Group decision - is made by the group themselves
criteria for best decision:Decision quality / Decision acceptance /Decision time
Charismatic leadership - the ability to inspire others in exceptional ways
Transactional leadership - somewhat “mechanical” in style; directs through tasks, rewards, and structures
Transformational leadership - the ability by leaders to use their personalities to inspire followers, to strive for extraordinary performance accomplishments
-an ability to understand emotions in oneself and others, and use this understanding to handle one’s relationships effectively
-Self awareness / Social awareness / Self-management / Relationship management
-Interactive leadership style - democratic, participative, and inclusive, often approaching problems and decisions through teamwork
- often associated with female leadership
-Ethical leadership - leaders who practice high ethical standards, build ethical cultures, and who both help and require others to behave ethically in their work
-Integrity - honest, credible, and consistent behavior that puts sound values into action and earns the trust of followers
Servant leadership - based firmly on a commitment to serving others, to helping people use their talents to full potential while working together for organizations that benefit society
Existence (desires for physiological and material well-being)
Relatedness (desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships)
Growth (desires for continued psychological growth and development)
-Collapses maslows 5 into 3
says that an already satisfied lower level need can be reactivated when a higher level need cannot be satisfied
-Need for achievement is the desire to do something better or more efficiently
-Need for power is the desire to control other people
-Need for affiliation is the desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people
-The need for personal power is exploitative and involves manipulation for the pure sake of personal gratification
-The need for social power involves the use of power in a socially responsible way, one that is directed toward group or organizational objectives rather than personal ones
-Satisfier factors (motivator factors) are part of job content; sense of achievement, feelings of recognition, a sense of responsibility, the opportunity for advancement, and feelings of personal growth
-Hygiene factors (“turn off workers”; dissatisfier factors) are part of job context; working conditions, interpersonal conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies and administration, technical quality of supervision, and base wage or salary
-involves building into a job more opportunities for people to manage themselves and exercise self-control over their work. Job enrichment increases job satisfaction according to Herzberg
-Feedback from the job itself
J. Stacy Adams developed this theory
-says that employees continually compare their situations to others; any perceived inequities in those comparisons will motivate them to engage in behaviors which correct the inequities
-Perceived negative inequity creates a sense of anger; and causes employees to try and restore perceived equity to the situation, such as by reducing current work efforts to compensate for the missing rewards or by even quitting the job
-Perceived positive inequity is associated with a sense of guilt; and the individual restores perceived equity by increasing the quantity or quality of work, taking on more difficult assignments or working overtime
ü Expectancy is a persons’ belief that working hard will result in achieving a desired level of task performance
ü Instrumentality is a persons’ belief that successful performance will lead to rewards
ü Valence is the value a person assigns to the possible rewards and other work-related outcomes
-MBO can be a good example
says that people generally repeat behavior that results in a pleasant outcome and avoid behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome
-strengthens or increases the frequency of desirable behavior by making a pleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence
=Negative reinforcement strengthens or increases the frequency of desirable behavior by making the avoidance of an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence
-Punishment decreases the frequency of or eliminates undesirable behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence
-Extinction decreases the frequency of or eliminates undesirable behavior by making the removal of a pleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence
-for a reward to have maximum reinforcing value, it must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited
administers a reward each time a desired behavior occurs
-rewards behavior only periodically
-Generally, continuous reinforcement will elicit a desired behavior more quickly than intermittent reinforcement
-Behavior acquired under an intermittent schedule will be more permanent than will behavior acquired under a continuous schedule
-is a collection of people with complementary skills who work together to accomplish shared goals while holding each other mutually accountable for performance results
-Teamwork is people working together to accomplish a shared goal
-Synergy is the creation of a whole that exceeds the sum of its parts
-Social loafing is the presence of “free-riders” who slack off and allow other team members to do the work
ü To prevent social loafing:
Ø Make task assignments more interesting
Ø Keep group size small
-Other problems can be personality conflicts, differences in work styles, ambiguous agendas, or members who can’t or won’t do group work
-is officially designated for a specific organizational purpose
-comes from natural or spontaneous relationships among people
-brings together people outside of their daily job assignments to work in a small team for a specific purpose; the task agenda is specific and ongoing
ü is a group of people who work together and solve problems through computer-mediated rather than face to face interactions
-should be accomplishing three output goals – task performance, member satisfaction, and viability for future action
-Team size - teams larger than 6-7 members can be difficult to manage
-Nature of the task - complex tasks require more information exchange and interaction than simple ones
-Organizational setting - the key issue is support in information, resources, technology, rewards, and even physical space
-Norms are behaviors expected of team members; rules or standards that guide behaviors
-Performance Norm is the amount of effort expected by team members.
-is the degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain on a team
-Task activities contribute directly to the team’s purpose
-Maintenance activities support the emotional side of teams as an ongoing social system
makes every member continually responsible for recognizing and taking actions when task or maintenance activities are needed
such as aggressiveness, excessive joking and non-participation cause problems and limit effectiveness
-Decentralized communication networks - all members communicate directly with each other
-Centralized communication networks - when members divide up the work and then simply coordinate the final results
-Restricted communication networks exist when subgroups fail to adequately communicate with one another, become antagonistic and restrict communication.
-Decision making is a process of selecting a course of action from alternatives
-Consensus means that after thorough discussion, most team members encourage one decision alternative and the other members agree to support it
involves disagreements over such things as goals and tasks, the allocation of resources, rewards, policies and procedures, and job assignments
- involves disagreements from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment, as well as relationship problems
-plays down differences and highlights similarities and areas of agreement
- based on pluralism and operates with inclusivity and respect for diversity
-are informal groupings of person with shared identity
-Can form around such things as:
-Can create diversity challenges
-May be students at school who group around their majors
- is the belief that one’s membership group or subculture is superior to all
-is a real barrier to career advancement-not publicized barrier that acts as a limit to women and minority members advancing into higher positions
-is the display of majority culture characteristics that seem necessary to succeed in the work environment
-commits the organization to hiring and advancing minorities and women
-commits the organization to education and training programs designed to help people better understand and respect individual differences
-is always seeking ways to make an organization truly multi cultural and inclusive
-is feelings of confusion and discomfort when in or dealing with an unfamiliar culture
-Stages of adjustment to a new culture include:
-Irritation and anger
-what is said or written may convey only part of the real message
· Body language, physical setting, and non-verbal signals important
-Low-context cultures - most communication tales place via the written or spoken word (U.S., Canada, and Germany)
- one in which people do things one at a time
-See Figure 16.2 for a depiction of these
-is the degree to which a society accepts or rejects the unequal distribution of power among people in organizations and the institutions of society
-is the degree to which a society emphasizes individuals and their self-interests
-is the degree to which a society emphasizes short-term or long-term goals
-fallacy is acting with the mistaken assumption that a generalized cultural value applies equally and always to all members of the culture
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