Geog 1100 - Final Exam Study Guide Change from the Top Down (Cultural Globalization I) ? Technology has given rise to a new global consumer society ? Large Scale Analysis: ? focuses on the movement of people, objects and images around the world through telecommunications, language, radio, music, cinema, television, and tourism ? examines homogenization ? Small Scale Analysis: ? examines the reassertion of local cultures in the face of global processes ? global and local processes interact to produce hybridized/glocalized outcomes ? ex: CNN has presenters with UK accents in the UK ? different accents make the difference ? cultures are systems of shared meanings that can exist on a number of different spatial scales (local, regional, national, global, among communities, groups, or nations). ? Dynamic rather than static ? Culture: ? specialized behavioral patterns, understandings, and adaptions that summarize the way a group of people live ? distinguishes one group from another by identifying common behavior for a group of people ? Aspects of common behavior are identified through: ? symbols: representations of a shared concept of belief (Christian Cross/national flag) ? Values: agreements about what is good (social equality vs. individual responsibility) ? Beliefs: agreements about what is true (Christian belief of a single god)-no way of necessarily proving belief ? Cultural traits: individual components of a cultural complex ? Cultural group: group of people that is distinguishable by its possession of a unique assortment of traits ? Three categories ? sociological: interaction forms, laws, regulations ? ideological: religion, politics and non-secular belief system ? technological: technical systems and abilities resulting in infrastructures ? Isolation and Cultural Landscapes ? few entirely isolated cultures exist and majority have been subject to outside influences ? Isolation is a relative concept (are you physically or technologically isolated?) ? Cities ? cultural isolation ? large cities in densely populated regions that are largely bypassed by globalized cultural flows ? referred to as black holes ? cultural non isolation ? distant cities in a country with a relatively small population are well linked with global cultural change ? All cultural landscapes remain unique but they are more complex and hybridized ? Cultural change and interaction ? cultures change at different paces across space and time ? Internal and external forces influence culture ? internal: new technology ? external: colonialism, global marketing, and tourism ? Cultural diffusion ? cultural hearth: geographic source of traits ? today shared meanings, ideas, and cultural norms are diffused through the broader spaces of flows ? diffusion from large cities down to rural areas ? Conceptualizing Cultural Interaction ? Assimilation ? culture changes completely and loses its original traits to a dominant one ? "spatial homogeneity" ? Acculturation ("Multiculturalism") ? one group assumes the traits of others whilst retaining some of its own ? glocalisation/hybridity ? keep language and cultural aspects when immigrate, adopt some American culture but mostly keep own culture ? Autarkism ("Olive Tree") ? culture reasserts its authenticity in face of a perceived or actual threat from another culture ? Is Cultural Globalization really taking place? ? Hyperglobalist ? globalization is leading to the homogenization of world culture ? radical hyperglobalists see it as "cultural imperialism" ? leads to "universalisation" ? Skeptics ? hyperglobalists extremely exaggerated ? national culture continues to exert the overwhelming influence on cultural change ? corresponds to autarkic and acculturation model ? Transformationalists ? processes of globalization are leading to an intermingling of cultures creating new hybrids and networks ? corresponds to acculturation model ? Historical Cultural Globalization ? Language ? 1st thing to do to ruin culture: get rid of language ? Religion ? Christianity and Islam are truly spatially global in nature ? Political and military force propagated respective religions, used as justification of conquering territory ? Empires ? Roman and British -- most successful ? used extensive reach of military/political power to reinforce reach of cultural power ? British empire-- extensive work in communications infrastructure allowed British to transmit cultural information to create a sense of shared identity ? Imperialism ? national culture (from nation state) was diffused ? secular ideologies of liberalism, socialism, and science were diffused ? Socialism: based on Marx ? Science: rationalizing element in society ? Capitalism: diffused across the world through the nation-state system ? World religions ? concept of nation-state was a Western one, diffused across the world through colonialism ? nation building: pursuit of a common language, education system, national symbols (flags) and a standing military ? Major trends in Contemporary Cultural Globalization ? New global cultural infrastructure of technology: operates at unprecedented scale, very fast and efficient ? Unparalleled rise of Western culture as the core marker of global cultural interaction ? TNCs in culture industries create and perpetuate infrastructure needed for cultural diffusion ? rise of business culture that drives cultural exchange ? shift in the "geography" of cultural interaction compared to the pre-WWII world ? Countering one way flows from the West ? migration, evolution of mass tourism, and rise of new sectors ? Case Study: Age of Migration ? Cultural Change ? migration is globalizing force because range of origin/destination countries diversified in recent past ? volume of flows increase ? migration is being feminized as women increasingly move for economic reasons and dominate refugee flows ? Population change ? Atlantic slave trade and mass migrations from Europe to the New World ? major growth in western countries today is through international migration ? Recent trends ? from third world to West ? significant diaspora populations now exist in West ? increase cultural hybridity ? Trends in North America ? hispanic migration is transforming the culture of US ? minority becomes majority in some states ? Who migrates ? Professional migrants ? highly trained/highly educated ? move for career prospects ? led to brain drain in 3rd world countries ? Unskilled labor ? move without specific offers of work ? led to increased flows from third world to west as employers look for low-wage labor ? Culture change ? once dominated by nation states ? become a political and economic process ? dominated by TNCs ? McDonaldization ? organizational, productive and representational principles of McDonalds are re-defining globalization ? model of efficiency and standardization being globalized ? Problems with Cultural Homogenization (Imperialism) ? potential loss of 300 million people who identify as members of an indigenous culture ? Global Cultural Imperialism ? Language ? English is becoming the lingua franca (dominant language) ? over 200 million students are studying English as an additional language ? Tourism ? world's largest industry ? when travel, stay at hotel chains and eat at chair restaurants ? Global Brands ? TNCs have pushed rise of global consumer culture built around world brands ? Coca cola is a transcultural item yet it is very much linked with US culture ? Media ? more expansionist and consumerist rather than aiming coverage at citizens of a particular nation-state ? 20-30 large TNCs dominate global entertainment industry ? Democracy ? typifies Western enlightenment belief that it is the most desirable form of governance Change from the Bottom Up (Cultural Globalization II) ? Criticisms Cultural Imperialism Ideas ? Ascribes globalization with too much determining power ? power of locality, and of local culture, is thus overlooked in a serious manner ? Some argue that globalization has actually led to a reassertion of ethnic and cultural difference ? reterritorialism: form of resistance to homogenizing tendencies ? Localized cultures and Globalization Examples ? revival in small European languages (Welsh, Irish, Catalan, and Basque) ? Localized Hybridity ? allows us to move beyond ideas of multiculturalism and melting pot ? allows immigrants to keep in touch with their home culture ? cultures mix to produce unique new outcomes in a particular place or region ? examples: ? Australian Cuisine mixes traditional British cooking with Australian ingredients ? Curry is most popular food in Britain but is actually a food from South India, however, Indians wouldn't recognize it ? Glocalization ? global and the local interact to produce hybridized outcomes ? diversity and uniqueness become part of cultural capital and can be utilized to promote livelihoods ? Diaspora ? hybridization takes place at migrants interact with "host" cultures to create new forms ? stretch across traditional boundaries, forging new connections between places ? Case Study: Niuean Diaspora ? small, remote island in South Pacific ? population around 2000 ? not a settled colony and has retained a strong indigenous identity ? far more Niueans living in Pacific Rim countries than on Niue ? only country in world where the entire population has free access to Internet ? internet allows culture to remain alive ? Globalization helps destroy and maintain ? Global cultural heterogeneity ? Language ? increasing number of people will learn English as second language ? many existing and evolving dialects ? Jamaican English and Fijian English are unintelligible to many English speakers ? Tourism ? media has made people more aware of otherness and increased demand for it ? if there is money to be made, there is a strong incentive to help preserve cultures ? Global Brands ? products are often adapted to local conditions ? Barbie comes in 30 different national varieties ? Case Study: McDonalds in Hong Kong ? McDonalds has to make changes to adapt to local culture, and local cultures adapt to McDonalds ? Hong Kong is not used to the diet of burgers and fries ? McDonalds high standards of cleanliness, especially in kitchens and bathrooms of small restaurants was not common in 70s ? Hong Kong not used to a service with a smile ? Veggie menu in India, McFelafel, seaweed burgers, rabbit, McCafe, alcohol ? Media ? global media increasingly concentrated ? Democracy ? Cultural Consumption ? consume at global level ? Cultural Commodification ? rise of cosmopolitan consumer has increased the demand for authentic and exotic cultural experiences ? increasing feature of global society ? ex: ? in supermarkets, new rows of produce from non-western countries have label "ethnic" foods ? Chinatown in NYC ? Cosmopolitanism: stay where you are and bring "hip" things to them ? seek unique cultural experiences ? accumulates cultural capital - such as music, clothing, food, beverages, to disassociate themselves from the mainstream ? Case Study: Tourism and invention of traditional culture in Fiji ? outside resort areas, most Fijians now live in urban areas and have westernized tastes and attitudes ? "Traditional" practices still exist in interior but today, traditional practices largely found in resorts, which are commodified cultural enclaves ? Music Industry ? music is a universal language ? bulk of music flows from West to elsewhere ? industry dominated by few, very large TNCs ? diffusion of music was limited by technology required to record and broadcast, or it was live ? slave trade from Africa brought musical hybrids ? led to blues, gospel, soul, R&B, hip hop/rap ? conquest of Americans by Spanish led to formation of new musical forms ? Technology ? storage and reproduction of music revolutionized ? rise of radio, TV, internet have lubricated increased flows ? Music has globalized in 3 major ways ? Music TNCs have evolved to foster global flows ? National markets have been increasingly penetrated by foreign performers ? Western styles and images have been diffused through the music industry ? US and UK musicians continue to dominate sales around the world ? Rap culture now goes hand in hand with neoliberal cultural globalization ? Government regulations to help preserve local music or develop and nurture local music ? keep Canadian music alive against the onslaught ? Cancon Radio Rules ? must play a certain amount of Canadian music ? to be Canadian, must fulfill at least 2 conditions (MAPL system) ? M (music): music is composed entirely by a Canadian ? A (artist): music and/or lyrics are performed principally by a Canadian ? P (production): musical selection consists of a live performance that is recorded wholly in Canada, or performed wholly in Canada and broadcast live in Canada ? L (lyrics): lyrics are written entirely by a Canadian ? helped provide platform for relatively unknown acts ? Reggae ? become hugely popular across Africa and the Pacific Islands ? often seen as a form of resistance to globalized music ? Tropical ? combines salsa, merengue, cumbia and other types ? adapted by Puerto Ricans and Cubans in New York in the 70s ? popularized by Gloria Estefan and Carlos Santana ? foreign styles have become acculturated into western pop music through the work of artists like Paul Simon ? TNCs are moving rapidly into digital download technologies in an attempt to regain control of the market ? new communications infrastructure has created space for alternative artists and labels ? New Cultural Spaces ? culture is important: gives people a sense of community, belonging, and identity ? Westernization and Americanization of global culture are powerful processes, but homogenization is resisted by individuals and the cultures they inhabit on a daily basis ? Globalization has led to the hybridization of culture to a greater degree than ever before ? reassertion of national culture is a trend that should not be underestimated Globalization, Inequality, and Development ? Development and Geography ? living standards vary widely between and within countries ? Inequality is caused by and affects all aspects of society ? wealth ? gender ? assets ? incomes ? opportunity ? physical environment ? Development Geographers ? describe and map inequalities, especially as they relate to poorer regions ? explain and interpret the factors giving rise to such inequalities ? uncover historical trends of inequality across space ? study competing theories of development and their spatial manifestations at various scales ? propose and assess frameworks for the reduction of geographic inequalities ? Problems of scale and development ? Nation-state may not be best unit for comparative purposes ? spaces of flows between cities which transcend boundaries are increasingly important and more common in rich nations ? black holes of marginalization and deprivation are more common in the poorer world ? Measuring development ? no universal measure of development exists ? when 'development' first conceptualized after WWII, it was assumed social progress would 'trickle down' through economic gains ? then measured as GNP per capita; economic growth; the level of industrialization (pure economic measurement) ? Problems with economic approach ? not always comparable due to poor data ? do not take social factors/ inequality into account ? scholars have found that little correlation existed between GNP per capita and social development ? UN'S Human Development Index ? relatively simple, combines factors ? longevity: life expectancy at birth ? knowledge: adult literacy (1/3) and years of schooling (2/3) ? standard of living: real GNP per capita converted to purchasing power parity ? traditionally only variable measuring development ? Patterns of Inequality ? growing spatial inequalities of well-being at global scale ? richest countries: OECD (organization of economic cooperation and development) ? Champaign Glass of Global Income Distribution ? Technological gap ? China has the highest number of users (larger population in general) ? Penetration: % of population ? China has lower penetration ? Dynamics of the Inequalities ? Good ? static measures do not necessarily imply a worsening in the distribution of well being over time ? Bad ? richer states, real income more than doubled between the 60s and 2000, whilst in the least developed countries it remained stagnant ? between 1820 and 2000, the income ratio between the richest 20% and poorest 20% of nation-states has risen from 3:1 to approximately 70:1 ? Poverty differences ? proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day increased from 48% to 50% between 1965 and 1999 ? represents a doubling in the numbers in poverty since population overall has increased ? Final Outcome ? absolute deprivation levels have risen to crisis levels and that the upper and lower end has increased markedly ? btw 1998 and 2002 ? index of human development fell in 21 countries ? economic growth declined in 54 ? poverty increase in 37 ? Modernization Theory ? growth/development take place in 5 stages ? nations must go through all 5 stages to become modern economies ? stages 1-4: take off stage ? stage 5: maturity stage ? Problems: ? too simplistic ? too Eurocentric (based on European and American experience) ? does not take into account cultural differences and globalization processes ? History of global development ? Energy Crisis ? Growth interrupted in early 70s by the oil/energy crisis ? hurt developed countries ? Debt crisis: given extensive borrowing in the 70s, it was not possible for countries to pay back for high interest on their loans ? Impacts ? Financial ? debt rose to levels 2 or 3 times higher than total GDP per annum ? World Bank/IMF developed structural adjustment programs (SAPs) to foster economic self- sufficiency and to make the most of globalization ? downsize: reduce public expenditure and taxation to reduce budge deficits ? privatize: sell off the state-owned enterprises and privatize government functions to release an efficiency ? deregulate: reduce the intervention and red tape of the state in the economy ? globalize: reduce tariffs in order to open borders to inward TNC investment to stimulate competition with world producers ? Economic Aspects ? Third world countries were plunged into negative growth and declining exports and lower per capita incomes ? Social Aspects ? income inequality increased as government spending was cut and other social programs pulled back through the application of SAPs ? poverty rose with women and children being hit the hardest ? Political Aspects ? ensuing socioeconomic chaos provided rationale for military interventions in many countries ? Averting Debt Crisis ? debts have been reschedule, but foreign debt of developing countries has continued to rise ? debt burden often prevents meaningful progress in poorer countries ? there are calls for Debt Relief ? Development, Globalization and Theory ? three views with respect to the developmental implications of globalization can be envisaged ? Neoliberal ? globalization is a positive force for development ? short term pain, in long run, everyone will be better off ? governments fail...causing inefficiency, crowding out private investment, lowering competitiveness ? a deregulated, privatized, economy is the best way to maximize welfare at the global scale and global free trade is the way to do it ? Problem: ? grounded in Western values of modernization, civilization, individualism, materialism, accumulation, and rationality, and thus impacts are not just economic ? important cultural impacts in terms of the rhythms and spatiality of everyday life, leading to the increased flow of Western cultural symbols especially ? first applied in Chile in 1973 ? privatize, open economy, and reduce the size of state to bare minimum ? Neostructuralist ? common to the transformationalist thesis, argues that the impacts of globalization on development depend on the way it is regulated ? structuralism: as global income increases, the demand/price of primary products will decline relative to manufactured products ? Dependency/post-structuralist ? links with skeptical and radical hyperglobalist views ? globalization perpetuates under-development ? globalization and development represent extensions of imperial/colonial strategies ? says inequality intentional ? emphasizes the 'dependence' of the Third World on international capitalism ? unequal exchange ? unifying characteristic of these linked approaches is that development turns in part on the historical,social, and cultural characteristics of a country
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