HISTORY - MISC. Interconnected trade routes connecting the Eastern and Western worlds. Culture, ideas, religions, resources, and technology were all passed along the trade routes. Existed since the explorations of the Western, Central, and Eastern Civilizations made contact with the other parts of the Old World.
HISTORY - MISC. Indian Ocean Maritime System
HISTORY - MISC. A multilingual, multiethnic society of seafarers.
HISTORY - MISC. Sub-Saharan Africa
HISTORY - MISC. The region of Africa located south of the Saharan Desert. The Majority of the population of this region migrated to the area when the Saharan Desert formed.
HISTORY - MISC. Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
HISTORY - MISC. The caravan trade routes that crossed the Sahara Desert. Primarily used camels to cross the Desert. Connected North African and Sub-Saharan African Civilizations.
HISTORY - MISC. Savanna
HISTORY - MISC. The extensive (subtropical) grasslands located south of the Sahara Desert. Many kingdoms and chiefdoms of Sub-Saharan Africa were (and some still are) located.
HISTORY - MISC. Mecca
HISTORY - MISC. The birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad. Holy City of the Islamic Religion located in Western Arabia (modern day Saudi Arabia).
HISTORY - MISC. Sunnis
HISTORY - MISC. A branch of Islam whose followers believed that the communities should select their own leaderships. The majority religion in most Islamic Countries. Created at the end of the Prophet Muhammad's life. The Split that created the Sunnis group was caused by a succession dispute.
HISTORY - MISC. Muslim
HISTORY - MISC. A follower of the Islamic religion. Term has existed since the life of the Prophet Muhammad (ca.610). A person who submits to the will of God (Local term for God= "Allah").
HISTORY - MISC. Islam
HISTORY - MISC. The religion created by the Prophet Muhammad. One of the three world religions (2nd Largest, not Buddhism or Christianity). Began in the 7th Century (ca. 610), continues to this day.
HISTORY - MISC. Investiture Controversy
HISTORY - MISC. The dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held the ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands. The dispute occurred in the 11th Century. Led to the disintegration of the Holy Roman Empire.
HISTORY - MISC. Fief
HISTORY - MISC. Land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military forces if need be. Term used in Feudal Europe.
HISTORY - MISC. Monasticism
HISTORY - MISC. Living in a religious community apart from a secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. A prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism. Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe.
HISTORY - MISC. Papacy
HISTORY - MISC. The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church. Located in Rome (Vatican City). The head of this administration is the Bishop of Rome (aka the Pope). Began when Catholicism brought its center to Rome.
HISTORY - MISC. Crusades
HISTORY - MISC. Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to retake the Holy City of Jerusalem from Muslim rule. This event brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. Took place during the 13th and 14th Centuries.
HISTORY - MISC. Manor (Manorism)
HISTORY - MISC. A large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (the manor house), outbuildings, the local peasant village(s), the surrounding land(s). Existed during Feudal Medieval Europe.
HISTORY - MISC. Pilgrimage
HISTORY - MISC. A journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for their sins. Other religions also have these journeys, such as the Islamic journey to Mecca.
HISTORY - MISC. Grand Canal
HISTORY - MISC. A series of man-made canals spanning between the North and South China, connecting the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. Spans over 1,000 miles. Allowed smooth travel and trade between North and South China.
HISTORY - MISC. Tributary System
HISTORY - MISC. A system in which countries in East and Southeast Asia not under direct control of empires based in China nevertheless became tributary states of China. Existed since the time of the Han Empire.
HISTORY - MISC. Bubonic Plague
HISTORY - MISC. A bacterial disease spread by fleas and rodents to humans. Humans could also spread the bacteria in the later stages of the disease. High Mortality Rate. Disease of the Black Death pandemic. Originated in Central Asia and spread to Europe.
HISTORY - MISC. Neo-Confucianism
HISTORY - MISC. Term used to describe the new approaches to understanding the Classic Confucian texts. Became the basic ruling philosophy of China from the Song period to the 20th Century.
HISTORY - MISC. Zen
HISTORY - MISC. The Japanese word for a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on highly disciplined meditation. Known in Sanskrit as dhyana, in Chinese as chan, and in Korean as son.
HISTORY - MISC. Chiefdom
HISTORY - MISC. A form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than empires and kingdoms. Based on Gift-Giving and Commercial Links. Has existed since the beginning of Homo Sapiens abandoned their nomadic way of life.
HISTORY - MISC. Nomadism
HISTORY - MISC. A way of life caused by a scarcity of resources. Groups of people would that would continuously migrate to find pastures and water. Lifestyle that was used when Homo Sapiens emerged.
HISTORY - MISC. Malacca
HISTORY - MISC. A port city located in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia. Founded ca. 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca.
HISTORY - MISC. Monsoon
HISTORY - MISC. Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean that affect South and Southeast Asia. Caused by temperature changes in the region. The predictable winds were used by sailors to navigate the area. Winter winds blow dry winds from the northeast. Summer winds blow rain to South and Southeast Asia.
HISTORY - MISC. Black Death
HISTORY - MISC. An outbreak of the Bubonic Plague. One of the deadliest pandemics in human history. Originated in Central Asia and eventually migrated to Europe.
HISTORY - MISC. Renaissance
HISTORY - MISC. A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity in Europe. In Europe, it was divided between two renaissances: the Italian and Northern Renaissances. Spanned from the 14th to 17th Centuries in Europe.
HISTORY - MISC. Three-Field System
HISTORY - MISC. A rotational system for agriculture. One field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. Replaced the two-field system in medieval Europe. Was invented in Italy during the Roman period, and used until the technology was lost. Rediscovered in the 8th century.
HISTORY - MISC. Reconquest of Iberia
HISTORY - MISC. The effort to retake the Iberian Peninsula. Began in the 11th century and lasted until all territory was retaken from the Muslims in 1492.
HISTORY - MISC. Latin West
HISTORY - MISC. Historians' name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period ca. 1000 - 1500.
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