Presidents (In Order): Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR): (D) #32 1933-45. Initiated New Deal program to help recovery and reform from the depression. Pres. during WWII until his death Truman took over. Created FDIC and Social Security. He wanted to remain neutral during WWII although allowed Land- Lease policy to the allies until Pearl Harbor and we entered the war. Implemented Japanese internment camps, Manhattan (Atom bomb) project. Harry S Truman: (D). Took over after Roosevelt died. Ended the War. Dropped the Atom bomb. Pro civil rights. Every decision made through cold war lens. Vetoed Taft-Hartley act (although it passed), Fair Deal, UN, Berlin Air Lift, Chinese- Civil War, and Korean War. Dwight D Eisenhower (Ike -leader of NATO. His election ended two decades of New Deal Coalition. 1953 Coup of Iran, Supported Israel, and ended Korean War with China with Military threats. Opposed McCarthyism and contributed to its end. Moderate conservative. Sent troops to Arkansas to protect Little Rock Nine. Continued and expanded New Deals Social Security and Interstate High way. John (Jack) F Kennedy (D) - Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, Berlin Wall, Space Race, Civil Rights, and Vietnam. Assassinated. Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) (D). ?Great Society? which included civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicare, medicate, aid to education, environment protection, and War on Poverty. known for escalading Vietnam War. Richard (Dick) M. Nixon- #37 (R) (1969-74) California. Initiated relationships with China, which was breakthrough. Originally escalated Vietnam War originally with bombing and invasion of Cambodia, but then backed down and began ?Vietiminzation? to end the war, initiated Détente and Anti- Ballistic Missile treaty with USSR. War on Cancer and drugs. Environment protection. State Power. Desegregation. Arab Oil embargo. His vp Spiro Agnew resigns and then Water gate scandal causes him to resign and his new VP Gerald Ford to take office. Gerald R. ?Jerry? Ford- #38 (R) (1974-77) Michigan. Signed Helsinki Accords, which furthered Détente. With North Vietnam conquest of South US involvement in Vietnam ended. He pardoned Nixon. Weakest economy since depression. Lost re-election. James Earl. ?Jimmy? Carter Jr.- #39 (D) (1977-81) Georgia. Created Department of Energy and Department of Education. Panama Canal. Human Rights. Iran Hostage Crisis, Several Energy Crisis?, Boycott to Moscow Olympics in 80, Eruption of Mount St. Helens, and Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Ronald Wilson Regan- #40 (R) (1981-89) California. Was an actor. Governor of Cali. Really Conservative. ?Reganomics?. Survived assassination attempt. Invasion of Grenada. Ending Cold War. Arms race with Soviets. ?86 bombing of Libya. Contra- Iranian affair. George Herbert Walker Bush- #41 (R) (1989-1993) Massachusetts/ Texas. Oil- was millionaire, ambassador, congressman, Vice-president, CIA director; his dad was also a senator. Foreign Policy. Panama, Persian Gulf. Berlin Wall and USSR dismantled. ?New Right?. William Jefferson ?Bill? Clinton- #42 (D) (1993-2001) Arkansas. ?New Democrat? Married to Hilary (Secretary of State) North American Free trade agreement. Gay military policy ?Don?t ask don?t tell?. Welfare reform. State Children?s health insurance. Rwanda, and Bosnia genocides. Impeached for purgry for lying about having ?sexual relations? with Lewinsky but then acquitted. George Walker Bush- #43 (R) (2001-2009) Texas. Son of George H.W. 9/11. War on terror- war in Iraq and Afghanistan. No child left behind. Patriot act. Partial birth abortion ban. Medicare. Background Information: Policy- accepting communism is spreading, but vowing US should be committed to long-term plan for countering any efforts of the Soviet Union to expand any farther. For the US to say no and have military backup. Berlin Airlift- One of the first cold war events. Tensions between Soviets and US had been building for a while. One particular disagreement was what to do with Germany. Soviets wanted Germany to be communist and under their control so that there was no chance of Germany rising again and attacking them. US realized economic importance and prosperity of Germany so wanted a capitalist recovery. Germany was therefore split into 4 sections one each belonging to one of the allies: Soviet, France, Britain, US. Berlin is the capital of Germany, but is located within the Soviet sector of Germany. Because it is capital it is separated like Germany into 4 sectors based on the allies. Western Berlin consisted of the 3 Western allies: France, Britain, and US. Eastern Berlin was the soviets and separated by the Berlin Wall. The Berlin Blockade happened when soviets stopped aid to western berlin so the US flew in supplies. NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization- agree to mutual defense incase of external attack. Composed of North America, and Western Europe. Warsaw Pact- a counteract to NATO and consisted of Countries inside the Iron curtain. Bay of Pigs- was an unsuccessful CIA attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro in Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis- 13-day confrontation between US with Soviets and Cuba. After the US tried to overthrow Cuban government the Cubans and soviets began building military bases with missiles able to reach the US. Kennedy issued a Naval blockade and demanded the bases be dismantled. A secret agreement was made between two governments and missiles were sent back to Soviets. Chinese Civil War- War between Republic of China and Communists party of China. 1927-1950. Led to division of china and Taiwan. Third biggest war behind WWI and WWII. Korean War- war between the republic of Korea supported by the US and the democratic peoples republic of Korea supported by china and the Soviet Union. North was communist and south was capitalist. Iran Coup 1953- was an overthrow of the elected leader of Iran by British and United States intelligence agencies. The replaced with an authoritarian leader hated by the Iranian people this later led to the Iranian hostage situation in 1979. Israel- The State of Israel is created as the only Jewish state. Britain, UN, and WE Jews fled there, backed it. Constant fighting- Arabs want Holy land back. Many conflicts including Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and other Arab speaking countries. Red Scare ? First red Scare was in 1919-21. This one was after the Russian Revolution and first communist state established. Spread and support for communism- reached America. Accusations and violence occurred. Second red scare was from 1947-57 this was due to Cold War and fear of Soviet and Communist influence in world. Fear that unstable Europe would fall to communism. Many eastern Asian countries were on their way to communism. McCarthyism is associated with Red Scare as everyone began accusing others of being Red?s or Soviet Spies. NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Formed in 1909. Major involvement in civil rights. UN-The United Nations. Formed after WWII. Universal governing power. Major decider in multi international conflicts and foreign policy. Generally the views reflect Western British and US views. Composed of many countries. Peacekeepers are sent to conflict areas including those where genocide occurs. Berlin Wall- built to separate East Soviet Berlin from the Western part of Berlin. Symbol of Cold War. Torn down in 1989. Space Race- After the launch of Sputnik in 1957 Soviets and US engaged in fight to be first in space innovations. Results in creation of N.A.S.A and moon missions. New Deal Coalition- alignment of voting and interest groups supporting New deal and Democratic Party policy. From 30?s-60?s with exception of Eisenhower. Watergate Scandal- 1970?s break in at Democratic National Committee headquarters at Watergate building. Men associated with Nixon campaign were wiretapping the office. It was linked back to Nixon and he resigned before being impeached. It forever tarnished Nixon and his administration. Indochina- Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Ruled by French 1884-1954 until Vietnam independence under Hoh Chi Mehn during French Indochina War. USSR- Union of Soviet Socialists Republics States created at Fall are 15: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. The Warsaw pact members were Albania, Bulgaria, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Soviet Union. This allowed for the military invasion of Hungary and Czech when there were threats of revolution even though Warsaw pact countries weren?t part of Soviet Union. Events of Cold War: Marshall Plan Czech Coup Greek, Turkey Wars Berlin Blockade Nato Chinese Civil war Korean Civil War Destalinization Warsaw Pact Hungarian revolt Iranian Coup Guatemala coup Congo Crisis Decolonization Space Race Bay of Pigs/ Cuba Berlin crisis of 1961 Cuban Missile Crisis Prague Spring Dominican Republic Vietnam Central America/ South America Nixon-Détente- China and Soviets improves relations Second Cold War Breaks out- invasion of Afghanistan Iranian Crisis Arms Race Garbage reforms Withdrawal from Afghanistan German unification/ Berlin Wall Baltic states, Poland, Hungary, Czech, and Bulgarian, Romania (Violent) Revs. Dissolvent of USSR creation of independent nations Events of Vietnam War: (1955-1975) French colony Japanese Occupation- Nationalism and independence instilled. Ho Chi Men vs. Dien Bien Phu- Election to be held. Plans for reunification. South Vietnam Civil War Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 400,000 US troops sent 1968- Tet Offensive ?Vietnamization? Cambodia, Laos plans Fall of Saigon Events of Civil Rights: NAACP formed 1909 Brown Vs. Board 1954 SNCC- 1960 1964- Civil Rights Act Freedom summer 1964 Voting Rights Act 1965 Black Power Final Study Guide: Keep in mind while studying all events taking place from the end of WWII (1945)- Early 90?s (1991) the backdrop is the Cold War. All events reflected this issue. Civil Rights Movement Cold War Civil Rights- The Cold War reflected many civil rights decisions by the United States government. Everything that happened from the late 40?s-early 90?s is viewed in the Cold War Spectrum. Any time something happened in the united states regarding racial violence The Soviets would publish it in their newspapers to sway world views of the US. Example Emmett Till. This embarraressd US officials and made them act on civil rights. The Cold War in a way helped along civil rights because the attention the Soviets were giving the issue in return made US give attention. ?To Secure These Rights ?-Truman was pro civil rights NACW march, 1946 National Association for Colored Women Middle class Marched in front of white house (400 of them) Maintained picket line for over a week Asked for federal government action to ensure that lynching would be prosecuted Truman set up a commission to investigate racial injustice Commission was called Presidents Commission of Civil Rights ?To Secure These Rights? 1947 Truman sets up commission to investigate racial injustice George McLaurin- A black man already with his master?s in education. He applied for his doctorate at the University of Oklahoma. He was allowed admission, but was forced separate accommodations including own lunch table. He had to sit outside the doorway of the classroom. Brown vs. Board of Education Separate but equal was a violation of the 14th amendment Overturned Plessey v. Ferguson Start of the civil rights movement [9 students were admitted to little rock but it was chaos & it was huge problem] Many states did not listen. Some preferred to close down schools instead of integrating. Martin Luther King Jr. A pastor from Birmingham Alabama Put in charge of the civil rights movement and preached peace Gondi, peaceful protest March on Washington (where he speaks famous ?I have a Dream?) 1964 Civil Rights act is passed which outlawed segregation, but didn?t protect voting rights so civil rights work continued (i.e. Freedom summer) Gets assassinated 1968 Ella Baker 1940s NAACP Helped created the student non violent coordinating committee (SNCC) in the 1960s In friendship (1955) Students began acting on their own, so Ella organized them Southern Christian leadership conference (SCLC 1957) She was a long time activist of the NAACP, people were taking initiative on their own and contacted those kids & then became a part of the SNCC Francois Georges- Haiti?s secretary of agriculture Complaint filed with US sec. of state Haitian newspaper coverage US embassy apologizes Massive Resistance The white peoples resistance to the civil rights movement The south movement (also happened in the north but not as open about it) White opposition Pro-segregation & pro-Jim crow Boynton v. Virginia black law student arrested for trespassing in whites bus station. Racial segregation & public transportation is illegal because violates interstate commerce act Not all states had segregation laws and interstate transportation cannot discriminate. case overturned the conviction the student was lifted. Trumball Park Ex: of racism in the north Gov. built public housing with federal housing money. Trumball park was all white Chicago housing committee adopted non-discrimination policy Betty Howard, light skinned black applied for a unit in Trumball, accepted, people started attacking their apartment because her husband was darker than she was. Chicago housing organizations desegregated Trumball even though blacks were getting threatens & harassed [scary & violent] De jure v. de facto segregation De jure: segregation by law/ De Facto: Segregation by customs Mississippi Freedom Summer Core & sncc established the freedom summer Send a bunch of kids & workers to register voters Mississippi was very racists Wanted to organize & change things by passing civil rights laws First day, 3 people get murdered but they stay there and continue to fight The people involved in the killings were never persecuted though Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Formed during the Mississippi freedom party it Encouraged blacks to get involved in politics & the elections Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)- Students civil rights group Ella Baker inspired. Grassroots movement. Moved the civil rights movement in new direction, but continued in MLK?s non violence strategy. Helped further it and got the young people involved. Included all races of college students. Staged the freedom acts Sit in movements Black & white people would go sit in (for example an ice cream parlor) and not move to fight segregation. Congress on Racial Equality- (CORE) ? Founder of Freedom rides. Co founded Freedom summer Non violent pacifist group Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner- 3 kids that were killed during the Mississippi freedom summer Two whites & one black The murder was never solved In 2005 someone was finally charged with manslaughter Didn?t stop Freedom summer from continuing. Watts Riot- also has to do with Johnson?s ?War on Poverty? 1965 Unemployment was extremely low Teenagers hated the way they were treated by all white police department (LAPD) A confrontation escaladed into a 6 day riot of violence 34 people were killed More than 1,000 were injured Significant amount of property damage Many civil rights activists saw the riots that they had to turn their attention north Causes of poverty and racism were harder to target in the North Learned that urban ghettos were really hard to organize Black church was weaker in urban areas Dramatized alienation of blacks in ghettos Black leaders had not been able to earn legitimacy by young Northerners Left argued that the poor needed far more than Great Society offered Right were equally certain that the poor didn?t deserve benefits if they were going to become violent Black Power People who were unhappy with progress of the SNCC and Martin Luther King approach to Civil Rights Younger generation. Malcolm X. Proud to be black! If whites were going to be racists to them they would be racists to whites. They were more radical, more riots. Black Panthers Evangelism Neo- Evangelicals Protestant Christian Movement dominated by the fundamentalist movement, which rejected liberal theology and focused on separation from the world Part of the protestant church movement Neo?s were non-separatists Split from them & the fundamentalists (who wanted to return to normal Christianity) Fundamentalists attacked the Catholics, immigrants, etc Separatists didn?t want to interact with people who had different views from them Harold Okenga & ?Christ for America? Preacher in Boston President NAE, 1942-1944 (national association of evangelicals) 1943: ?Christ for America? speech Challenged sex, drugs, booze, atheism & the new deal Expanded problems to global vision Thought America had fallen into sin and spiritual deadness Believed America needed a spiritual re-awakening that would end up saving the world from fascism and communism Reawaken the idea of manifest destiny Americans adopting the idea that they are guardians of freedom Because we are the world power after WW2, we are spreading democracy, so we need to spread evangelicalism Billy Graham ?Christ for Greater Los Angeles? Cold war as spiritual warfare LA, September 1949 LA was a completely immoral city Thought it was only a matter of time until LA was wrecked by God Safe haven for communists Anti-communism Communism is satanic Civic and Christian duty to stop communism from spreading By fighting communism, they were doing the work of God Prophet of neo-evangelicalism Civil rights Moderate view in order to avoid being labeled a communist Pastor to the Presidents Begins to have close friendship with Eisenhower Eisenhower adopts mantel of ?high priest? of anti-communism Adopting much of spiritual language of Graham Battle of communism was of Godliness ?Under God? and ?in God we trust? were added to pledge in 1954 National Association of Evangelicals St. Louis Missouri, April 7-9 1942 United evangelicals front. Didn?t like the separatist?s attitude (people who only wanted to be around people with their own views). Bring everyone together and make change. National lobbying group. Hope to counteract the influence of liberal Christians. Counteract. The NAE became popular and members of congress became born again Christians. They tend to be anti- New deal, shrink size of Federal government. Public Schools. Evangelicals and the Cold War Strongly anti- communism As US is global influence including spread of evangelicalism Vietnam War Opposition to Vietnam War- Not just new left. Working class- disproportionate, because wealthy got college exempted from draft so working class opponents hated anti- demonstrators more than the war. Resentment. Keeps from joining common cause Soldiers in Vietnam/ Veterans- drug use increased, soldiers became rude to officers, desertment, peace movements got to soldiers, many veterans returned and joined anti war movements, others were pissed at the unappreciated attitude for them- they weren?t viewed as hero?s. Hippies, Peace marches Anti- draft Working class- college students were exempt from draft so majority were poor working class Loss of strong public containment policy. Johnson is unable to justify war and the importance of stopping communism. No measurable victory. War was dragging on. ?Vietnam syndrome? Impact of Vietnam war on policy Reagan coined term ?Operation Baby Lift? Fall of Saigon- orphanages flooded with babies. South Vietnamese expected the worst punishment from North. US soldiers fathered many babies- they received postreaction. 2,000 Babies are sent out of Vietnam for adoption in US, New Zealand, and Australia. Vietnam Policies of Truman, Eisenhower, JFK, LBJ, Nixon Truman: Cold war lens Discount Vietnamese desire for freedom. Truman thought Ho Chi Minh?s desire to have country was a part of an effort directed by communist outside of Vietnam to spread communism. By 1950 Truman and US openly decide with the French. Eisenhower Nuclear weapons? To help French, but decided that wouldn?t be wise. Compromise with Ho. Vietnam divided (1954) Temporary Ho-north French- South Temporarily situation. Elections in 1956 to unify the country and French will leave. Eisenhower lately says that if the election would have been held right then in 54 Ho chi would win, hope for two years later support will build for pro democracy western Gov. 1954- direct US aid 1955-French gone US training SV army JFK 1963-16,000 us military advisors. Fear of communism growth and ?Domino effect? Asks Diem to reform. Even though Diem sucks he is an ally because he is against communism. Nov. 1963, Diem assassinated. Soon after that Kennedy was also assassinated. LBJ No us troops will be sent?, but in fact he was planning all along how to do it. It was important to Johnson that he not be the president who lost more of Asia to communism under his presidency. 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1965- 100,000 troops grounded. War escalades 1968- McNamara revelations- Series of highly publication that the United States citizens were misled. Gulf of Tonkin was in fact provoked, Johnson administration lied= growing protests against war. 1968- Tet Offensive Johnson?s Vietnam involvement really tainted his Nixon Nixon planned on invading Cambodia and Laos in pursuit of Viet Cong camps, trails, and headquarters. After the invasion the public freaked out and he stopped ?Vietnamization? plan to build up ARVN and pull out of US troops 1975- Fall of Saigon. All US troops finally pulled out. Ho chi Minh Vietnamese Independence. Tries to show Wilson through Wilson?s fourteen points to gain support. Communist- anti empiricist. He leads guerilla movement to get Japanese out. Ho Chi Minh was US ally during WWII because the fight against Japan. Nationalist Leads in war against French. With French withdrawal he looks to be new leader of a communist Vietnam, but US does not want that and has a temporary compromise in which North and South Vietnam are to be split and in 1956 there would be an election and reunification. Ngo Dihn Diem leads south. He founded Viet Cong and other Northern Vietnamese groups Died in 69 Saigon is remained Ho Chi Min city after its fall. Dien Bien Phu Battle that ended French involvement in Vietnam A city located in northern Vietnam Domino Theory- The Fear that if one country fell to communism then others would. One domino fall it creates a chain effect Used to justify Vietnam. If Vietnam falls so will Laos, Cambodia and all countries around. Viet Cong- National Liberation Front formed in 1954. Political organization and army in South Vietnam that fought the US forces and South Vietnam army. Used guerilla warfare, tunnels, and boobie traps. Hard to distinguish dressed in civilian clothes Harder than enemy than US suspected. Gulf of Tonkin- Gulf located in North Vietnam Vietnamese and US Naval confrontation. First event did occur with 3 Vietnamese torpedo ships and the USS Maddox, Second was made up by Johnson administration it was later revealed. Led to Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- congressional support gives president power to rage war even without a declaration from war from congress and that this resolution and his power of chief of military give him power. Sends 500,000 troops Tet Offensive 1968 Major military attack on Viet Cong Massive causalities Anti war sentiments strengthened. Student for a democratic society Student Activism Representation of New Left. Students for a democratic society (SDS) 1962-Privileged students create radical group and was founded at University of Michigan. Called for Americans to live up to their highest democratic ideals. Civil rights, problems of modern life. Inspired by SNCC/CORE knew their comfortable future was laid out. Campus reform. Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) Conservative youth activism group. Established to compete against SDS on college campuses. Conservative, but had a shared concern for individual freedom and a spirit of rebellion, maximize individual freedom Young people pushing for change Rejected the politics of their parents Invasion of Cambodia Viet Cong were able to go over the boarder to Cambodia to regroup. After Nixon is elected he makes the decision to invade Cambodia to chase Viet Cong. Highly controversial- Gulf of Tonkin. Pissed of the civilians, and the biggest anti war demonstrations. 500 universities erupted Kent State, 4 students were killed. Jackson State, 2 more killed. Washington DC, more rallies Nixon Withdraws After 1971 there were no more major anti war demonstrations. Combat deaths decreased, But Many were demanding for immediate withdrawal ?Vietnamization? Nixon?s policy of building up ASVN army and pulling out US troops. Truman McCarthyism- When people were afraid of Communism After WW2 communism was spreading because the soviets were going to make east Germany (berlin) communists (west Germany capitalists?we have them) Germany was split into 4ths (1/2 was soviets [communism], ½ was Us, France & Britain ? capitalists/democracy) Berlin was the capital so soviets have it We all have ¼ of Berlin, berlin wall separated east berlin from west berlin Berlin Airlift- US brought supplies to people trapped in Berlin Joseph McCarthy was elected republican senator of Wisconsin in 1944 He would accuse people of being communists and it caused a whole bunch of chaos (in the 40s & 50s) Searching peoples stuff because they thought everyone was communists (red) McCarthy was crazy! There was a panic everyone thought everyone was a communist. Famous speech on Feb. 9, 1950 in West Virginia US citizens Fear of government infiltration Fear vulnerable people will be ?converted? Intellectuals and liberals are targeted House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) In 1938 it became a standing committee 9 representatives Investigated threats of real & suspected wasn?t communists Even government officials were being accused (like the secretary of state, Alger Hiss) Hollywood Ten HUAC wanted to ensure that no un-American messages were being transmitted through America?s most popular entertainment. Hollywood blacklist People in the Hollywood industry were accused of being communist, so they were denied employment or fired because they were suspected or real communists. The industry was known for loose morals, foreign-born directors, wish producers, and left leaning writers. First 10 people were the first to be blacklisted ?Hollywood 10? the 8 screenwriters and two film directors subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) who were sent to prison in the late 1940s for refusing to discuss their memberships or to identify communist sympathizers citing the first amendment. FBI was involved Truman?s Loyalty Program Loyalty progrm for federal employees- it authorized the attorney general to prepare a list of ?totalitarian, fascist communist or subversive? organizations and made membership or even ?sympathetic association? with such groups grounds for dismissal. Trynding?s Committee Head by Millard Tynding Dem. Sen of Maryland Subcommittee of senate foreign relations committee July 1950 ?Hoax & a fraud? A committee that had to look into charges that McCarthy made (a list of individuals that were working for the state department) Investigated all the employees of the state Pink Scare Homosexual scare 1950 senate report on employment of homosexuals and other sex perverts in government Homosexuals were supposedly ?security risks? They could be easily seduced because they lacked the will to resist They didn?t want people working in the government & anywhere that were gay because gay men were weak, feminine & not strong Gay people were vulnerable to black men Reevaluation of McCarthyism McCarthy?s claims were so many in numbers and the facts changed daily. No one could keep up with the accusations. After he began attaching the US Army and a court case he quickly lost favor. He died isolated and alone of alcoholism. Long term affects of McCarthyism Atomic spies Anti-Semitism and nativism Southern and western resentment of nations ivy league elite Spinning out of control Conformity of thought Fair Deal Truman?s policy (kind of like the ?new deal?) Trying to be fair to the republicans since they haven?t had a voice for awhile 1949 state of the union address Fair deal is his proposal and his new agenda: Expanded public housing Expanded social security Min wage National health insurance (rejected) looked like communism Civil rights (rejected) but eventually he stopped discrimination in the workforce and integrated the Military. Cold War Consensus- US political parties worked together to defeat the spread of Communism Marked beginning of US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats; focused on containment and deterrence Taft-Hartley Act 1947 Robert Taft and Fred Hartley Monitored and limited labor unions. Reverse gains of organized labor. Ayn Rand Novel and Hollywood writer. The Fountainhead She wrote this novel in 1943 to express her extreme conservative views and her belief that communism was inherently unworkable. Her philosophy was that society functions best when each individual pursues his or her own self-interest, called objectivism. Libetarian. ?Fusionism? Combination of libertarianism and traditional social conservatism. National Review- Editor was William J Buckley (leading figure in YAF) Developed the term ?fusionism? Election of 1948- The Democratic Party was spilt. Truman ran moderate democrat. The Dixiecrats had two nominees Thurmond and Wallace. The republican was Tom Dewey who represented the ?all talk? republicans of the time. Truman at first looked as underdog, but won by quite a bit. Issues of campaign were civil rights, No Southern Democrats voted for Truman Dixie Crats- The State?s Rights Democrats. More politically left. Progressive Party. Two candidates in 1948 election. Liberal Henry Wallace and segregationist Strom Thurmond. Henry Wallace- was a Dixiecrats candidate in ?48 election. Was more politically left than Truman. Had been FDR?s vice president before being replaced by a more favored Truman. He was more soviet friendly and not Pro- cold war, which left many skeptical. National Housing Act of 1949 Part of Fair Deal Aimed to create housing for GI bills. Slum clearing Increased federal housing admiration and mortgage insurance Built new housing Eisenhower Sputnik 1957 Soviets beat us & put the first satellite in space ?Soviets are watching us? So we created NASA Kennedy Barry Goldwater Conservative republican. Arizona. Not ?me-too? everyone just went along. Opposed ?modern Republicanism? he was flat opposed to all liberal domestic policy any growth in government rejected freedom. Rejects: (Civil Rights 1964, housing, public places, education, jobs), New Deal, containment. He thought it was unconstitutional because it superseded state laws. He thinks United States should seek victory over communist?s enemies. 1960- he tries to get nominated. In 1964 he get?s Republican nomination. He is too conservative. Only states he wins are in Deep South. Beginnings of new political alignment. Conservatives in the south- no longer Southern Democrats. Election of 1960 Richard Nixon v. JFK Close race. Kennedy endorses Civil Rights movement. JFK wins John Birch society Radical Right wing conservative Johnson Election of 1964 Johnson vs. Barry Goldwater Johnson wins by landslide Southern states vote for conservative Goldwater Shows loss of old democratic south Great Society Domestic programs in the 60?s by Johnson Elimination of poverty and racial injustice Funding for arts, sciences, education Immigration reform ?Harvest of Shame? 1960 documentary on migrant farmers Poverty The Other America Michael Harington Book on study of poverty in America. ?War on Poverty? Johnson?s state of the Union address 1964 Addresses growing issue of poverty. Part of great society Critic?s warned of a welfare state Medicare, education, direct aid, head start, food stamps. National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO) Group that fought for rights and welfare of people. Women and Children Poverty Immigration Act of 1965 Replaced old 1924 act and abolished old National Origins Formula Numerical restriction of 170,000 visas. Not including ?special immigrants? or relatives of family. The Affluent Society- Book written by John Kenneth Gailbrath He critics how with our wealth we just produce. In a society where most people?s needs where are fulfilled it is dumb to keep consuming. Less materialism. More investment in public sector. Didn?t make a big splash Recognizes growing problems in public including Poverty and education. Pruit-Igoe(Johnson/Nixon) Millions of Americans moved during the war to where the jobs are. Federal Housing Act of 1949. Built 1954. Demolished 1972. Poor planning, racial issues. Urban renewal. Slum clearing. Why does Pruitt- igoe fail? Economic decline of the cities. Wealthier members are moving out to the suburbs. The growth they expected after the war was not happening. White Flight. Maintinance of Buildings. Federal money goes to building and clearing but not allowed to maintain the buildings that money has to come from elsewhere. Could have came from taxes, but the city is going broke so they charge the residents but they don?t have any money. Housing was blaming feds, feds blaming states. Chain of command failure. Who do you even blame? High Rise buildings don?t build neighborhood ideal. Isolation- no TV, phones etc. Creates dependency. ? Government solutions simply don?t work when trying to get involved? ? Problem was tenants themselves? Post- War St. Louis St. Louis Boomed with war Industry. As the war ended- jobs were lost and factories slowed. Planners expected population growth and also set out to clear slums. Public housing projects were created like Pruit-Igoe, but many failed, and were crime ridden. Deindustrialization Jobs shipped overseas to cheaper facilities. Post- Industrial Revolution era The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity, such as factories and plants. Nixon Détente- Political policy aimed at easing tensions and creating cooperation between USSR and US. Chinese visit. Nixon meets with soviets. Détente ends with Carter- invasion of Afghanistan and second Cold war. ?Silent Majority? Nixon denounces riots on campus, ghetto?s, and great society reforms. Aiming his message at the forgotten Americans- the non-shouters those who don?t break the law, pay their taxes, and love their job. Coming out of the radical 60?s Nixon campaigns to appeal to the majority of Americans the average patriotic Americans. Roe vs. Wade Abortion has been an issue for a while. After civil war women could have a ?therapeutic? abortion ? if the mother was at risk, the baby would be retarded, or if the women was raped or insets. Reform abortion laws. Medical Professionals- reform to have regulated abortions- they have seen bad effects Feminists- highly personal decision that belongs to women themselves. Results: ?Right to privacy? First trimester- absolute right for an abortion Second trimester- can regulate but not outlaw Third trimester-state could end abortion Opposition to ROE Catholic Church- life begins at conception ?Murder of unborn? National Right to Life Committee (1973) Promiscuity Individualism over family ?Southern Strategy? Republican strategy on winning votes out of southern racism. Goldberg won southern states- change in southern politics from democratic. Conservative and cutting back on social programs. Attacks new left. Election of 1968 Nixon vs. Hubert Humphrey Backdrop of MLK and Bobby Kennedy assassinations. Race riots Vietnam war Political realignment. Shift from democratic presidents to Republican Stonewall Riots June 27/28, 1969 Police Raid a Gay Bar in New York Resist police raid ?Gay Pride? Legal Activism Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) 1972- Proposed amendment that equality under the law would not be abridged on account of sex. Passed easily in Government went to States for ratification. Women?s movement was exploding- they were excluded from Harvard, medical schools, couldn?t get credit, and women were dependent on men even though there wasn?t always men in the house. It then went to the states to get ratified. 30 of the 38 needed were ratified by ?73. Never passed. Faced strong opposition from Religious, Republicans, and Democrats. Anita Bryant Once an actress Dade County, Florida (1977) repeal anti discrimination. The fact she was successful resulted in growing hostility. Physical attack on homosexuals Phyllis Schlafly Conservative Religious women opposed to ERA ?Your unhappy because you are a women and trying to make the constitution change? National Right to life Committee- Pro Life and anti abortion group Oldest and largest group Ford Carter Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979- Soviet Union sends in troops to prevent new Marxist government from Collapsing. Big moment- Carter has domestic pressure to take stance against Soviets Signals ?Second Cold war? Carter?s Response Thought rhetoric- says biggest threat to world peace since WWII Embargo/boycott- he also pulls Americans out of Moscow Olympics Military preparedness- starts register for draft, missiles, Soviet invasion signals that they don?t take us seriously anymore because of détente. Carter also has criticism because of Iran Iranian Hostage Crisis Shah of Iran (1953-1979) Helped him come to power with CIA sponsored Coup; he tries to modernize Iran with support of US. He was autocratic- dissenters were frequently jailed and tortured. In his efforts to modernize a new westernized class emerged. They also criticized modernization as well as his hostility to dissenters. Also there are Islamic fundamentalists Iranian Revolution (Jan. 79) Fundamentalist Reject US influence Reject secular culture Nov. 1979 US hostages seized because Carter administration allowed Shah to come to US for health treatment, but also keep him from the revolutionaries. The Islam?s take 66 hostages from American embassy. Leaves the US wondering- does people not take us serious? Are we not a world power Hostage situation lasted for 444 days- serious criticisms for Carter. Sandinistas Socialist party in Nicaragua. Rebels Overthrew the Somoza dictatorship- US had been friendly with, but we suspended military aid. US did not want left- winged government Reagan Election of 1980 Carter- Democrat Ronald Reagan (conservative)- he emphasized intent to increase Military budget- and US power aboard, he promised to reverse liberal trends in public policy since the new deal such as social welfare programs, active measures to eliminate racial discrimination, poverty programs. Government was not the solution to economic stagnation, poverty, and racial issues- government was the problem and making things worse. Regan won by a landslide aided by the slouching economy and Iranian hostage crisis. Reganomics Refers to the economic policies promoted by the U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s, also known as supply-side economics and called trickle-down economics. The four pillars of Reagan's economic policy were to: Reduce Growth of Government spending. Reduce Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax. Reduce Government regulation. Control the money supply to reduce inflation. ?Voodoo Economics? Reagan attracted votes with saying he was going to institute big tax cuts to stimulate the economy. George bush, Reagan's rival, ridiculed this plan as voodoo economics Regan Revolution- Term referring to Reagan?s presidency. The Revolution was due to the switch to a conservative president. Feminization of Poverty- Most of the poverty was women. Women paid less and less jobs available for them. Single mothers. Divorced. ?Evil Empire? What Reagan called the Soviet Union. Plan to exceed Soviet Union?s economic and military. Resulted in Military spending and buildup Reagan and the end of the cold War He was a militant anti-communist as seen in examples above. Yet he found himself more and more drawn to accommodation. A lot of changes is the Soviet Union itself- and was determined to have good relations with the US and western world. Mikael Gorbachiev. He started making reforms. He meets with him in 1985. At summit they make progress in arms reduction. Nobody predicted it at the time; the Cold War was almost over. Cold war ends after Reagan leaves office Jan 1989. Scared the Soviets? Diplomacy? Force Soviets into bankruptcy? By increasing military spending so much? Gaddis: Skilled leadership? Kennan: hard line prolonged Cold War? - They had used the hostilities of the British and US rationalized their authoritarian view to their people. Kennan- founder of containment policy said that the harder the US was on Soviets. Domestic costs to Cold War? Because Reagan spent so much on military it caused domestic price. Social conservatism Government should have role in social and moral issues of citizens. Should reflect the ?right? decision and not immoral issues. ERA School prayer Abortion Supported by Moral Majority (Farwell) Symbolic ?New Right? 1. Republican conservatives 2. Traditional New Deal Democrats switch parties. Many democrats didn?t like the social agenda of the 60?s. Illusions of the democrats-. 3. Mobilization of new groups. Traditional political concerns (foreign policy, power of Gov., states rights) Oppose détente- they thought stronger position on communism than Nixon. Strengthen military Oppose New Deal/Great Society New Political Concerns Social Conservatism Ideas previously ?taken-for-granted? Father-centered family Public life is Christian influenced Patriotism is uncomplicated Some issues Taxes Race Gender/ Sexuality Papa Bush Gulf War UN authorized force led by US on Iraq for its invasion of Kuwait. Included operation Desert Storm New World Order George. H.W. Bush?s term for the new post- cold war era. Promoting democracy and universal rights After half a century of cold war policy US had to find new foreign policy Clinton Humanitarian Interventions ?Never again?- slogan after Holocaust saying that genocide would never occur again Going off New World Order- promoting democracy and universal rights. Universal right is right to life. New foreign policy? Human rights and aid. Yugoslavia Multi-ethnic Baltic state consisting of Slovene, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzgenoeva, Serbia, and Montenegra Slavs, Catholic Croats, Orthadox, Muslim- many different races. After Fall of USSR many nations are being created, rise of nationalism. Slovene has revolution first- easy non violent. Croatia next, slightly conflicting. Bosnia is extremely diverse and when revolution arises- neighboring Serbia gets invoved and begains killing all Bosnian Muslims. Rwanda Hutu?s murder Tsuti?s No Us envolvement Peace Dividend Funds were relocated from military to social and domestic purposes. Newt Gingrich Co-author of Contract with America Contract with America outlined plan if Republicans would gain house majority for first time in 40 years they did with help of Newt Gingrich Baby Bush Timothy McVeigh- Veteran who blew up a van in front of an Oklahoma federal building. Killed 168 people and wounded 800. Was the biggest terrorist threat to date until 9/11. His reasons were the Waco siege and ruby ridge incident he wanted people to revolt against the government. Jersey Girls- 4 widows of men who died in 9/11. They publically through the media pushed for the 9/11 commissions and pushed for Condoleezza rice to testify publically. Without them the 9/11 commission may never have happened. Reaction to 9/11 commission report- Reactions varied. Mostly positive. Many were angry that no one was blamed. - shows picture of ill informed government and ill prepared. Offered ideas of terrorism prevention. Ability to show democracy is working. Others claimed that no one had been punished- no one takes the blame. With the acceptation of Tenant?s resignation of others had occurred. Richard Posner- pressure for unanimity deprives us for full account. Other view is everyone is to blame so no one is to blame. The Participation of family members wasn?t relevant- they aren?t experts, but family members got the commission to happen Housing as a national act has been going on since the 30s Part of the fair deal Trying to get rid of all the hoods Increased mortgage insurance & expanded federal money so they could make a ton of houses Cheaper living New projects, clear the slums Criticism of liberalism from left and Right (1960?s) From right- From left- American institution cannot be reformed Backlash against liberalism Conservatives benefit from denouncing new left. Left is closer to socialist and communism. Creating welfare state.
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