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The purchase decision and consumption process always occur in the context of _____.
To understand a consumer's behavior, we must know about the _____.
Which of the following also includes a situation-specific component?
Which of the following is a situational characteristic?
The sum of all the physical features of a retail environment is referred to as the _____.
With respect to the typology of service environments, a bank would be categorized as _____.
Which type of industry has developed around the use of ambient scents?
How does music influence consumer behavior?
Crowding generally produces which outcome for the retail outlet and the consumer?
Under conditions of crowding, consumers tend do to all of the following EXCEPT _____.
reduce shopping time, reduce purchases, and alter the use of in-store information
The other individuals present in the particular situation are referred to as the _____.
Some consumers are highly susceptible to interpersonal influence, which is a _____.
Shopping on the Internet provides which important time-related dimension?
It has the potential to reduce the amount of time required to make a specific purchase.
It provides the consumer with almost total control over when the purchase is made.
The reason the consumption activity is occurring is the situation characteristic of _____.
John is a salesman and gave one of his customers an expensive watch. Which of the following is the most likely reason John gave this gift?
James is giving his cousin, Conor, a new video game for his birthday. Which of the following is the most likely reason James is giving this gift?
One study found that wedding gifts tend to be _____ while birthday gifts tend to be _____.
A person who shops a nicer store than normal because he or she is buying a gift is influenced by the _____ characteristic of the situation.
Features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics, such as momentary moods or conditions, are called _____.
Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object are known as _____.
Which of the following are antecedent states?
Which of the following statements is true regarding moods?
Binge drinking among college students can be described as a(n) _____.
recognize a problem
acknowledge breakfast as important and make it a priority in the their busy day
What is the first stage of the consumer decision process?
Which of the following is a type of consumer decision making discussed in your text?
nominal decision making
limited decision making
extended decision making
low in product involvement; high in purchase involvement
Very high levels of purchase involvement tend to produce _____.
Which type of consumer decision making does NOT include alternative evaluation?
Which type of decision making process in effect involves no decision per se?
Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as _____.
A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of _____.
the "do not purchase" alternative
Nominal decisions can be broken into which two distinct categories?
A(n) _____ is the way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time.
Which of the following drives problem recognition?
The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on which factors?
Which type of consumer problem is one of which the consumer is not aware?
what are non marketing factors effecting problem recognition
What has research revealed regarding consumers' variety-seeking behavior?
Consumers are more likely to become bored on sensory attributes such as taste.
Which of the following is a concern marketing managers have related to problem recognition?
discovering consumer problems
developing the marketing mix to solve consumer problems
helping consumers recognize problems
suppressing problem recognition among consumers
What is the most common approach to discovering consumer problems?
Some companies attempt to initiate problem recognition through ______.
Which of the following is an approach to problem identification?
activity and product analysis
human factors research
generic problem recognition and selective problem recognition
Which problem recognition involves a discrepancy that only one brand can solve?
allows easy access to manufacturers' websites
allows easy access to other consumers
allows easy access to government agencies
expands the ability of marketers to provide information to consumers
Nathan is purchasing a new computer, so he asks his friends and family for help in selecting one. He also has searched the Internet and visited the Dell, Gateway, and Apple websites and has consulted Consumer Reports. Nathan is conducting which type of information search?
If, in response to a problem, a consumer recalls a single, satisfactory solution, no further information search or evaluation may occur. The consumer purchases the recalled brand and _____ has occurred.
Every winter, Laurie's skin becomes very dry and results in painful cracks in her skin on her fingers. Once this happens, Laurie remembers that Zim's Crack Cream works really well for this problem, so she stops at the store to pick some up. Which type of decision making has occurred?
When a consumer notices a new product in a store because of the point-of-purchase display, reads about the attributes of the product and recalls an unresolved problem that this product will solve, and then purchases the product, _____ has occurred.
For which type of decision making is external information search relatively important?
Deliberate external search that occurs in the absence of problem recognition and is done both to acquire information for possible later use and because the process itself is pleasurable is known as _____.
The desired features or characteristics required to meet a consumer's needs are his or her _____.
All of the brands that a consumer thinks of as potential solutions are known as the _____.
Karl and his wife are considering putting a built-in pool in their backyard. They were discussing who they could get to do it for them, and they realized they knew of five pool contractors in their city. These five pool contractors that they thought of as potential contractors for them represent their _____.
The brands or products one will evaluate for the solution of a particular consumer problem are called the _____.
The evoked set is also called the _____.
Brands that are found completely unworthy of further consideration are members of the _____.
Brands for which a consumer is aware but basically indifferent toward compose his or her _____.
Elaine is considering the purchase of a computer and is aware that Toshiba and HP are brands in this product category. However, she is basically indifferent toward them. These two brands represent Elaine's _____.
Past searches, prior personal experiences, and prior low-involvement learning are examples of which source of information?
Friends, family, and others are examples of which source of information?
Magazines, consumer groups, and government agencies represent which source of information?
Sales personnel, websites, and advertising represent which type of information source?
Which source of information includes inspection or product trial?
Lane is test driving several models of automobiles to help him decide which one to purchase. Which source of information does this represent?
Which information source is NOT actively acquired by consumers?
Susan actually knows quite a bit about some product categories that she doesn't actively seek out information concerning and doesn't even own. Which of the following is the most likely means by which she obtained this information?
Which demographic factor has the least influence on U.S. adult Internet usage?
Research has shown that most of the online search leading up to a purchase was _____.
Consumers conducting a generic search in an Internet search engine use which type of terms?
Bob is searching the Internet for information on digital cameras, so he types in the words "digital camera" in Google. Which type of search is Bob conducting?
Services that aid consumers in their search and decision making on the Internet are known as _____.
The percentage who click through a banner ad to the corporate website is known as _____.
_____ involves tracking consumer click patterns on a website and using that information to decide on banner ad placement.
Which of the following involves techniques designed to ensure that a company's Web pages appear high on an Internet search result list?
The segment of mobile phone users who are younger, grew up with cell phones, and find a cell phone central to life is known as _____.
The segment of mobile phone users who are younger, feel communication is key, and that a mobile device helps them connect socially is known as _____.
The segment of mobile phone users who are older and not into mobility or technology is known as _____.
The number of alternatives, price range, store distribution, and information availability are examples of which factor that influences the expected benefits and perceived costs of search?
Feature and quality variations across brands are referred to as _____.
Experience, familiarity, social status, shopping orientation and product involvement are examples of which factor that influences the expected benefits and perceived costs of search?
Consumers' general approaches or patterns of external search are termed _____.
Higher perceived risk is associated with _____.
Which marketing strategies are appropriate for nominal decision making?
maintenance strategy and disrupt strategy
Which marketing strategies are appropriate for limited decision making?
capture strategy and intercept strategy
Which marketing strategies are appropriate for extended decision making?
preference strategy and acceptance strategy
Which marketing strategy is appropriate if the brand is not part of consumers' evoked sets?
Coca-Cola has a large brand-loyal purchaser segment. Which marketing strategy is appropriate for this brand?
If the target market engages in limited decision making and the brand is not part of their evoked set, the objective will be to _____.
intercept the consumer during the search for information on the brands in the evoked set
One marketer for a brand of shampoo learned through research that consumers in the target market engage in limited decision making but that this marketer's brand is not part of their evoked set. Which marketing strategy is appropriate for this company?
Extended decision making with the brand in the evoked set requires which marketing strategy?
Which marketing strategy is similar to preference strategy but is complicated by the fact that the target market is not seeking information about the brand?
Online shopping services, such as PriceGrabber.com assist consumers _____.
with more complex decisions
with forming their evoked sets
Consumers make decisions with the help of recommendation agents or bots when ____.
Attribute-based choice requires _____.
the knowledge of specific attributes at the time the choice is made.
attribute-by-attribute comparisons across brands.
A limited capacity for processing information is known as _____.
A metagoal refers to _____.
the general nature of the outcome being sought
The fact that consumers have limited capacity for processing information is referred to as _____.
Which of the following is a type of consumer choice process?
Which of the following tends to be more holistic in nature, and the brand is not decomposed into distinct components that are evaluated separately from the whole?
Which of the following motives are most likely in affective choices?
Which type of motives underlie behaviors that are intrinsically rewarding to the individual involved?
Which type of motives activates behaviors designed to achieve a second goal?
Hannah asked her mother to buy her a certain brand of athletic shoes because that's what all the other kids are wearing at school. For Hannah, which type of motive is most likely underlying her request for that specific brand?
Which type of consumer choice process requires the knowledge of specific attributes at the time the choice is made, and it involves attribute-by-attribute comparisons across brands?
Which type of consumer choice process involves the use of general attitudes, summary impressions, intuitions, or heuristics, and no attribute-by-attribute comparisons are made at the time of choice?
Which of the following statements is true regarding consumer choice processes?
Evaluative criteria can differ based on ____
The two types of evaluative criteria are _____.
Cost and performance features are examples of which type of evaluative criteria?
Style, taste, prestige, feelings generated, and brand image are examples of which type of evaluative criteria?
To determine which criteria are used by consumers in a specific product decision, the marketing researcher can utilize which two methods of measurement?
Which measurement method involves asking consumers what criteria they use in a particular purchase or, in a focus group setting, noting what consumers say about products and their attributes?
Which measurement technique used to assess consumers' evaluative criteria assumes consumers will not or cannot state their evaluative criteria?
Which of the following are indirect measurement techniques used to determine consumers' evaluative criteria?
projective techniques and perceptual mapping
Which indirect measurement techniques used to determine consumers' evaluative criteria allow the respondent to indicate the criteria someone else might use?
Gwen is an elderly lady and is participating in a market research study. The researcher asked her to describe the criteria someone who needs adult diapers might use to evaluate alternatives. The researcher was not asking Gwen what criteria she would use, but rather, the criteria Gwen thinks someone else would use. Which type of technique is this known as?
A technique that requires consumers to judge the similarity of alternative brands is _____.
With the information provided by perceptual mapping the marketer can determine all of the following EXCEPT _____.
Which of the following is the most common method of direct measurement of the relative importance of consumers' evaluative criteria?
Which of the following is the most popular indirect measurement approach to measuring the relative importance of consumers' evaluative criteria?
In which type of indirect measurement approach to measuring the relative importance of consumers' evaluative criteria are consumers presented with several descriptions of alternatives and asked to rank all of them in terms of his or her preference for those combinations of features?
Which of the following is an example of a federal law passed to facilitate direct comparisons among alternatives?
The ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli is called _____.
The minimum amount that one brand can differ from another with the difference still being noticed is referred to as the ______.
An attribute used to stand for or indicate another attribute is known as a _____.
Sam is a retiree with considerable resources, so he doesn't really spend much time on purchase decisions. His belief is that the most expensive brand is probably also the best in terms of quality. Sam uses price as a _____ indicator of quality.
John drinks Schwepps Ginger Ale for dinner as a beverage, while Jack uses it only as a mixer in his cocktails. Which factor that influences the importance of evaluative criteria is this?
Speed of service and convenient location are criteria Jake considers when deciding at which restaurant to eat lunch during a work day. However, when he and his wife go out for a romantic dinner, the ambiance and quality of the food are more important. Which factor is influencing the importance he places of various criteria?
Which type of test is one in which the consumer is not aware of the product's brand name?
Which type of test enables the marketer to evaluate the functional characteristics of the product and to determine if an advantage over a particular competitor has been obtained without the contaminating, or halo, effects of the brand name or the firm's reputation?
Firms with a limited reputation sometimes do which of the following with a reputable firm so as to gain from the quality associated with the known brand?
Which decision rule establishes minimum required performance standards for each evaluative criterion and selects the first or all brands that meet or exceed these minimum standards?
Which decision rule establishes a minimum level of performance for each important attribute (often a fairly high level), and all brands that meet or exceed the performance level for any key attribute are considered acceptable?
Which decision rule requires the consumer to rank the evaluative criteria in terms of their importance and to establish a cutoff point for each criterion, and all brands are first considered on the most important criterion, the second most important, and so on until only one brand remains?
Which decision rule requires the consumer to rank the criteria in order of importance, and then the consumer selects the brand that performs best on the most important attribute?
Which decision rule states that the brand that rates highest on the sum of the consumer's judgments of the relevant criteria will be chosen?
The multiattribute model is which type of decision rule?
full-body scanner that collects full body measurements in 10 seconds
Which of the following is true regarding Internet shopping?
Most future growth will come from existing buyers.
Annual growth in the number of Internet users is low.
Any source of products or services for consumers is referred to as a _____.
Consumers acquiring product through mail, telephone, or computer orders is referred to as _____.
Jane was looking through the Pottery Barn catalog and saw some lamps she liked. Instead of calling the toll-free number to purchase the lamps, she went to Pottery Barn's website and ordered them. This is an example of _____.
Which online shopping segment found by Experian is the highest catalog shopper?
Which online shopping segment found by Experian is older, middle income, and only looking for functional necessity?
Paul's grandchildren gave him a computer for Christmas, but he seldom uses it to shop. He only goes to the grocery store to restock his pantry once a month. In which online shopping segment does Paul belong?
Which of the following is the major reason consumers give for shopping online?
Which online shopping segment found by Experian is younger, heavily female, and sees shopping as fun?
Hank is seen by others as the go-to if they have questions related to finding good deals on the Internet. He likes to shop online because, to him, it's more fun than going to a store. To which online shopping segment does Hank belong?
Which online shopping segment found by Experian buys in stores and does heavy online research prior to buying?
The top two barriers to Internet shopping are ______.
Shoppers who browse and/or purchase in more than one channel simultaneously are known as _____.
In order for online retailers to convert website visitors to buyers they must
What was the MAIN reason consumers gave in a survey for why they don't like shopping in stores?
Suzy is having her 6th birthday party at Club Libby Lu at a department store in the mall. She and six of her friends will get a complete "make-over" with glittery makeup and shiny extensions added to their hair. This is an example of which approach retailers are taking to improve the shopping experience?
Which of the following barriers to online purchasing is related to consumer fears regarding how personal information about them that is gathered online might be used?
How can firms enhance consumers' control with regard to online privacy concerns?
MVM (My Virtual Model) helps consumers shopping online overcome which barrier?
Financial cost, time cost, and effort cost are examples of
Consumers who browse and/or purchase in more than one channel are known as _____.
A given consumer's or target market's perception of all the attributes associated with a retail outlet is generally referred to as the _____.
The "Merchandise" dimension of store image includes _____.
The "Service" dimension of store image includes
Which dimension of store image consists of quality, selection, style, and price components?
Which of the following components represent the service dimension of a store's image?
layaway plan, sales personnel, easy return, credit, and delivery
The trustworthiness dimension of an online retailer's image is represented by which components?
Brands owned and sold by a specific retail outlet are known as _____.
What is the key to success of store brands?
Sales of additional items to customers who came to purchase an advertised item are referred to as _____.
A price with which other prices are compared is known as a(n) _____.
When a retailer represents a price as "regularly $15.99, now $9.99," the $15.99 is called the _____.
Leslie loves to shop at T.J. Maxx and feels she is saving a lot of money because the price tags usually have the manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) listed and crossed off and the T.J. Maxx price below much lower. The MSRP is being used as a _____.
Which of the following are types of reference prices?
Which type of reference price is presented by a marketer for the consumer to use to compare with the current price?
Todd owns a discount sporting goods store, and several of the items in his store have a manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) above Todd's lower price. Todd is using the MSRP as a(n) _____.
Which type of reference price or price range does a consumer retrieve from memory to compare with a price in the market?
A $10 savings on a $200 item should _____.
show the dollar savings but not the percentage savings
All other things being equal, consumers tend to prefer _____.
The retail attraction model is also called the _____.
Which model is used to calculate the level of store attraction based on store size and distance from the consumer?
Jim is trying to determine the level of his store's attraction by using the square footage as a measure of breadth of merchandise and the distance to the store from different geographic areas. Which model is he using?
Tylenol, which is an analgesic known as acetaminophen, warns in some of its advertising that consumers should read labels carefully because several other types of medications include acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol Sinus) and consumers could overdose on this medicine and potentially suffer liver damage. Which type of cost is associated with this risk?
Lori purchased new tires for her car, and she can bring it back every 5,000 miles to have the tires rotated free of charge. However, Lori doesn't do it because that would require that she take her car to the shop and either leave it and have someone get her and take her back later or sit and wait for the tires to be rotated. Which type of cost does this represent?
A shopping style that puts particular emphasis on certain activities or shopping motivations is called a _____.
Which of the following is a segment of consumers indifferent to shopping?
Which of the following is a description of the shopping orientation known as Enthusiastic Shoppers?
Purchases made in a retail outlet that are different from those the consumer planned to make prior to entering that retail outlet are called _____.
Unplanned purchases are further subdivided into which two categories?
A retailer being temporarily out of a particular brand is called _____.
Which of the following is an ambient condition related to store atmosphere?
Customer relationship management (CRM) programs are _____.
used to increase satisfaction, commitment, and retention of key customers
Doubt or anxiety regarding a purchase a consumer has made is known as _____.
Connie just purchased her first new car, and she's actually feeling a little bad about it. She's concerned about how much money she spent and how long she will be making car payments. She's not sure she made the right choice, either. She liked another car a little better, but ended up purchasing another model. Connie is experiencing _____.
Which of the following is NOT an action a consumer may utilize to reduce dissonance?
Increase the importance of alternatives that were not considered in the purchase initially.
Hailey purchased furniture for her living room and spent quite a bit of money. After she purchased it, she started regretting that she spent so much and she wasn't sure she liked the furniture. To make herself feel better, she told herself that the other furniture she was considering really wasn't that good and probably would not last as long.. Which of the following is Hailey using to reduce her postpurchase dissonance?
Decreasing the desirability of rejected alternatives.
Negative emotions or guilt feelings aroused by the use of a product or a service are referred to as _____.
Using a product in a new way is referred to as _____.
Why must manufacturers design products with both the primary purpose and other potential uses in mind?
Which of the following occurs when a consumer actively acquires a product that is not used or used only sparingly relative to its potential use?
For which product is no disposition involved?
Carl and his family purchased a new home, and the builder left half empty paint cans in the garage. Carl doesn't know what to do with them because he cannot put them out in the regular trash. Carl is concerned with which of the following with regard to the paint?
Exploding demand and short product life-spans for high-tech gadgets such as cell phones, personal computers, and various other personal electronic devices is creating growing concerns over _____.
Which disposition alternative is the most widely used by consumers?
Which of the following is NOT an alternative if a consumer decides to retain a product's package?
Which type of sale occurs when one consumer sells a product directly to another with or without the assistance of a commercial intermediary?
An outlet or brand whose performance confirms a low-performance expectation generally will result in _____.
A brand whose perceived performance falls below expectations generally produces _____.
Kristen purchased a chair and ottoman from a national chain furniture store. After only six months, the fabric started to fade and tear in some spots. While she didn't spend much money on this chair, she did expect it to last longer than that. Kristen most likely experienced _____.
When perceptions of product performance match expectations that are at or above the minimum performance level, _____ generally results.
Which of the following means that the consumer is enthusiastic about a particular brand and is somewhat immune to actions by competitors?
Pam and her friends ate at a new Italian restaurant, and the food, service, and ambiance exceeded their expectations. They all decided that this was the only Italian restaurant they will ever go to again in their town. This is an illustration of _____.
Which of the following factors is the MOST likely reason consumers change providers of a service?
Eric booked a hotel through hotels.com. However, when he arrived at the hotel, they had no record of his reservation, and he was unable to get a room. He decided then that he would never use this service again. Which reason for changing providers does this represent?
Service employees that are uncaring, impolite, unresponsive, or unknowledgeable will cause consumers to switch providers for which reason?
Kimberly loves the ham and turkey from the Heavenly Ham store. There is only one store in her town, though, and it is pretty far away. She usually ends up buying lunch meat at the grocery deli. Which reason for changing providers does this represent?
Simon was dissatisfied with the meal and service he received at a restaurant, so he complained. The manager came out and was arrogant to Simon, and Simon felt like he was trying to blame him for the bad experience he had by saying he was too picky. Simon vowed never to eat at that restaurant again. Which reason for changing providers does this represent?
Renee has been going to the same dentist for years. However, her employer changed her dental insurance plan, and her dentist was not part of the plan. She had to switch to an approved dentist. Which reason for changing providers does this represent?
Failure on a given product or service characteristic often has a stronger effect on consumers than success on that same characteristic. This is known as ______.
What are the two dimensions to performance for products?
Which dimension of product performance relates to the physical functioning of the product?
Which dimension of product performance relates to aesthetic or image-enhancement performance?
Dawn and her two daughters went to see Pride & Prejudice at the movie theater. They all loved the movie and came out saying "we're so glad she married Mr. Darcy!" This movie provided them with _____.
What is the first decision a dissatisfied customer will make?
Even if a dissatisfied consumer takes no external action, which of the following is likely?
Which of the following is true regarding word-of-mouth (WOM)?
Employees who deal directly with consumers are known as _____.
Factors such as information quality, navigation, price, merchandise availability, purchase process, and order tracking are part of which dimension in online satisfaction and dissatisfaction?
Factors such as timely delivery, order accuracy, billing accuracy, and merchandise quality are part of which dimension in online satisfaction and dissatisfaction?
fulfillment and reliability
Which of the following is true regarding the Net Promoter Score (NPS)?
_____ continue to buy the same brand though they do not have an emotional attachment to it.
The costs of finding, evaluating, and adopting another solution are known as _____.
Consumers who exhibit a positively biased behavior toward a specific brand are exhibiting _____.
Which type of customer has an emotional attachment to the brand or firm?
The term used to refer to turnover in a firm's customer base is _____.
Expenses associated with advertising, establishing a new account, and mailing catalogs are examples of _____.
_____ refers to the fact that repeat and particularly committed customers tend to buy the brand consistently rather than waiting for a sale or continually negotiating price.
For which type of firm has research shown that reducing the number of customers who leave by 5 percent resulted in the highest percentage increase in average profits per customer?
Marketing efforts focused on a firm's current customers are generally termed _____.
Every time Hannah buys a sandwich at Super Subs, she gets a stamp on a card. Once she has 10 stamps, she'll get a free sandwich. This is an example of a(n) _____.
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