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T/F: Archaea do not have typical peptidoglycan structure found in bacterial cell walls
T/F: Most of the prokaryotic organisms found in nature have never been grown in culture
T/F: A differential medium is a nutrient medium designed to favor the growth of certain microbes and inhibit the growth of unwanted contampinants
T/F: Most of the prokaryotes in a deep ocean vent ecosystem (a “black smoker”) get their energy by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide found in the vent fluid
T/F: In nature, biofilms usually consist of a single species of bacteria
T/F: Most strains of E. coli cause gastrointestinal illness in people that carry them
Agar is an important component of media because:
Agar provides a solid surface for bacterial growth
The short, numerous appendages used by some bacterial cells for adhering to surfaces are called
In eukaryotic cells, which of the following contains DNA?
Which is the correct order of taxonomic categories going from most general (broadest) to most specific?
Which of the following procedures is the most accurate and reliable for identifying evolutionary relationships of organisms?
Sequencing of 165 ribosomal nucleic acid
Lipopolysaccharides are an important component of:
the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
If you were told that a motile bacterium was exhibiting long “runs” and infrequent “tumbles” you could assume that the bacterium:
Microbes that have rigid cell walls such as fungi and bacteria:
Will carry out extracellular digestion
Which of the following are essential in all types of cells (bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes)?
Plasma membrane, ribosomes, DNA
Where would you expect to find a barophilic, chemiautotrophic, hyperthermophilic prokaryote?
At the site of a deep ocean vent (ie. black smoker)
Which of the following structures is involved in gene exchange between bacteria?
Which of the following organisms would be likely to exhibit phagocytosis?
70s ribosomes are found:
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Which of the following structures is best at surviving extremely stressful conditions (dessication, heat, etc.)?
Endosymbiotic cyanobacteria are believed to have evolved into the eukaryotic cell:
The microtubules and microfilaments that make up the cytoskeleton:
Are found only in eukaryotic cells
In eukaryotes the proteins of the electron transport system are located:
in the mitochondria
A major difference between the archaea and the bacteria is that:
bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell walls and archaea do not
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells differ in that:
Cilia are short and more numerous than flagella
What was a major contribution each of the following made to the field of microbiology? Robert Koch
What was a major contribution each of the following made to the field of microbiology? Carl Woese
first described the three domains of life
What was a major contribution each of the following made to the field of microbiology? Anton de Bary
Proved that fungi could cause disease in plants
What was a major contribution each of the following made to the field of microbiology? Leewenhoek
What was a major contribution each of the following made to the field of microbiology? Louis Pasteur
Autoclaving will often fail to inactivate prions
Enveloped viruses are usually released following lysis of the host cell
A fungistatic agent would be one that kills fungi
Although boiling will not sterilize water it will effectively eliminate waterborne pathogens
The methods of antiseptic surgery were first developed by an English physician, Joseph Lister
Dry heat is usually more effective than moist heat in killing microorganisms
The first virus to be isolated in pure form was:
An obligate halophile requires
high salt concentrations in its environment
During the lysogenic cycle, the nucleic acid of a bacterial virus:
Is incorporated into the host cell’s DNA
In which of the following phases of the bacterial growth curve are more bacteria being produced than are dying?
An experiment starts with 150 bacterial cells in each milliliter of medium in the culture flask and at the end of the experiment there are 4800 bacterial cells per milliliter. How many generations have occurred during the course of the experiment?
Most prokaryotes have restriction-modification systems:
Ignaz Semmelweis, an Austrian physician in the mid-1800s, was responsible for:
Discovering that hygiene (hand-washing, etc.) was extremely important in controlling the spread of disease
Which of the following components would be found in all viruses?
A restriction endonuclease enzyme:
will recognize and cut a specific DNA sequence
The first thing that must happen upon reactivation of a lysogenic phage is:
Excision of the viral DNA from the chromosomal DNA of the host bacterium
Which of the following are most resistant to adverse environmental conditions?
Food irradiation can be used to sterilize food products, but may leave them radioactive.
The source of the outer membrane of an enveloped virus is usually:
the plasma membrane of the host cell
Bacteria can grow only in the absence of molecular oxygen are called:
During which growth phase is a bacterium usually most susceptible to control by physical or chemical agents?
Increasing turbidity in a liquid culture of bacteria usually indicates:
A virus with a sing-stranded RNA genome would likely carry a gene for the production of a:
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
The first step in the infection process for a virus infecting an anima cell is:
specific attachment of the virus to receptors on the cell surface
Transcription and translation can occur simultaneously in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A DNA polymerase enzyme would be responsible for making copies of mRNA during transcription
The Ames test is used to assess whether a given chemical compound acts as a mutagen
Introns can be found within the lac operon
Lactose is a co repressor in the lac operon
Specialized transduction may occur following the reactivation of a lysogenic bacteriophage
An operon is a set of genes that is regulated and transcribed together
An inducible enzyme would be produced only when its substrate is abundant
It is most likely that a mutation will be beneficial, rather than harmful to an organism
If a protein is coded for by 450 nucleotides bases, how many amino acids are in the protein?
In a eukaryote, translation occurs in the:
The genetic element that can move from one place in the bacterial genome to another is called a(an):
In a eukaryote, introns must be removed before mRNA can become functional. This process occurs:
When lactose is present in the genes of the lac operon are transcribed because:
Messenger RNA is formed by ____________ of a gene on the DNA template strand
It is likely that a mutation resulting from the addition of one base pair:
will cause a shifting the reading frame during translation
The repressor protein that plays a critical role in the functioning of the lac operon:
If E. coli were growing in an environment where both glucose and lactose were unavailable:
The genes for arginine biosynthesis are located on a repressible operon. This would most likely mean that:
the genes for arginine synthesis are turned off when arginine is plentiful in the cell
The drawing above illustrates
During mRNA processing in a eukaryotic cell:
non-coding regions (introns) of the RNA are removed
Cell-to-cell contact is essential for the gene transfer to occur in the process of:
Which of the following statements about the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is NOT true?
S. cerevisiae is an obligate anaerobe
RNA polymerase binds to the
If a codon for alanine is GCA, then the anticodon is
Enzyme activity can be regulated through negative feedback mechanisms when a buildup of ________ reduces the level of enzyme activity
In a eukaryotic organism, crossing-over:
The repressor protein involved in regulation of the lac operon:
A mutation that changes a codon specifying tyrosine into a stop codon:
will create a short or truncated version of the protein
A sex pilus would be involved in the process of:
The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called
A sequence of bases on a gene that does not code for a protein is called a/an
Full induction of the lactose operon requires
Lactose present without glucose
In Griffith’s experiments with Streptococcus pneumonia, rough non-encapsulated Streptococci were converted into smooth encapsulated Streptococci in the presence of the heat- killed smooth encapsulated Streptoccoci. What is the term that describes this process?
In immunological tests one can detect a particular antibody by using a known antigen
In order for a DNA vaccine to be effective, the DNA must be taken up by the host cells and then transcribed and translated
Neutrophils are able to recognize some microorganisms as foreign because the microbes have MHC II molecules on their cell surface
The antibodies a baby receives while nursing would be an example of natural, active immunity
Herd immunity is only attained when 100% of the people in the community have been vaccinated
Since a polyclonal antiserum contains a mixture of antibodies, it cannot be used in immunological tests
After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells
All nucleated cells contain
A living microbe with reduced virulence that is used for vaccination is considered:
The chemotactic factors released during the early stages of the inflammatory response:
Stimulates the migration of white blood cells to the site of the infection or injury
In passive immunity:
The patient receives antibodies produced by another individual
an enzyme found in tears and saliva which breaks down peptidoglycan
Our bodies must be able to produce antibodies that specifically recognize thousands of potential antigens. For this reason:
Produce T-cell receptors that recognize antigens presented by cells bearing the MHC class I molecules (found on all nucleated cells)
In the graph shown above, the amount of IgG produced during the secondary response is very great. This is because:
The picture above illustrates the process of T-cell maturation in the thymus. During this process:
random rearrangements of the genes coding for the T-cell receptors occurs resulting in many cells each having a receptor specific for a particular antigen
When interferon binds to the surface of a host cell it:
A membrane attack complex is composed of:
When a complement protein binds to the surface of a bacterial cell it may be more efficiently destroyed by macrophages. This is an example of:
In the diagram above, if a line appears at B, but not at C, it indicates:
the test did not work properly
Nonspecific chemical defenses include
All of the choices are correct
Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines
Contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses
Immunological memory refers to the ability of the immune system to:
recall a previous immune response
Monoclonal antibodies are desirable because
they consist of a single type of antibody as opposed to the mixture of antibodies present in an antiserum
The CD4 co-receptors on T-cells:
will interact with the MHC-II molecules found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes
Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?
An example of natural active immunity would be
Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity
Has been in direct contact with a T-helper cell or a T-independent antigen
Which of the following is NOT able to present antigens to helper T-cells?
Match each of the following statements with the correct type of white blood cell. Plasma cells
Match each of the following statements with the correct type of white blood cell. Macrophages
Match each of the following statements with the correct type of white blood cell. T-helper cells
Match each of the following statements with the correct type of white blood cell. B-lymphocytes
The internal organs and body fluids usually remain free of microbes
Edward Jenner was an English doctor who developed the vaccination procedure for smallpox
It is possible for an adult to catch shingles from a person that has chickenpox
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are opportunistic pathogens
The genes for cholera toxin are located on phage DNA in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This bacterium would be in a lysogenic state
The environment within the _______ is unfavorable for survival of most microbes
Foot and mouth disease of livestock
is an extremely contagious disease
The most effective strategy for controlling a smallpox outbreak would be:
to rapidly isolate and vaccinate all infected people as well as those that have been in contact with them
Which of the following pathogens is often carried in the nasopharynx of healthy people?
There is much concern today about MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). This pathogen:
is resistant to many antibiotics that used to be effective for control
The global eradication campaign for smallpox was successful because:
The diarrhea-causing E. coli:
Which of the following pathogens is NOT spread by the fecal-oral route?
Which of the following bacteria produces endospores?
The time from entrance of an infectious agent until the onset of illness is called the:
Koch’s postulates are carried out in order to:
establish the cause of an infectious disease
A disease that exists primarily in animals but can be transmitted to humans is called a:
The USDA-APHIS facility at Plum Island, New York (where high security veterinary research is carried out):
will be moved in the near future to Manhattan, Kansas
The infectious dose for Salmonella is quite high because:
most of the bacteria get killed by the acid environment in the stomach
Pathogenic microbes that can cause disease in otherwise healthy people are called
The primary, natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the
An animal, such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a:
If disease A is much more contagious than disease B, one would expect that the basic reproduction rate (RO):
Match each of the following diseases with the type of pathogen that causes it. scalded skin syndrome
Match each of the following diseases with the type of pathogen that causes it. necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating disease)
Match each of the following diseases with the type of pathogen that causes it. porcine (pig) epidemic diarrhea
Match each of the following diseases with the type of pathogen that causes it. foot and mouth disease of livestock
Match each of the following diseases with the type of pathogen that causes it. malaria
Human-to-human transmission of Lyme disease is very unlikely.
Influenza viruses do not cause the “stomach flu”
Gonorrhea has only become a serious problem within the last 30 years
The influenza virus only infects humans
With the influenza virus, antigenic drift results from repeated mutations that cause a gradual change in the antigens, on the surface of the virus
Some strains of HIV virus have become resistant to some of the antiviral drugs used to treat AIDS patients
The only way the AIDS virus can be transmitted is through sexual activity
Lyme disease is caused by a:
The flu shot you get this year is unlikely to protect you next year because:
Newborn babies can become blind due to infection by:
the bacterium that causes gonorrhea
Which of the following pathogens infects only humans?
The graph above shows the dynamics of virus antigen, antibodies, and T cells in the circulation of an individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Lines A, B, and C in the graph are identified as follows:
A = number of T cells, B = antibodies to HIV, C = virus antigen
Humans are considered a “dead end host” for the pathogen causing:
In an HIV infection, the virus preferentially infects:
The first viral enzyme to function when the HIV virus infects a cell is the:
It is not unusual to get several colds during a season because:
There are many serotypes of cold viruses and infection with one will not protect against another
Which of the following can lead to long-term, chronic infections?
Pelvic inflammatory disease would most commonly occur following infection with:
Which of the following pathogens is associated with cervical cancer?
Human papilloma virus
The tuberculin test is used to:
determine if an individual is infected with M. tuberculosis
An AIDS victim is usually killed by:
opportunistic pathogens that invade following collapse of the immune system
Antigenic shift can result in major changes in the influenza virus. Antigenic shift is caused by:
Exchange of a large segment of viral RNA from one strain of influenza virus to another
During infection of a T-cell by HIV, viral RNA synthesis:
Highly active antiretroviral therapy used to treat AIDS:
The 1918 influenza pandemic differed from the normal “seasonal” flu because:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen causing tuberculosis:
The three enzymes found within the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are:
reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease
The highest incidence of HIV infection is found in:
The avian influenza virus, H5N1:
Antimicrobial drug resistance is an important problem with:
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