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test ascertains whether a drug is bacteriostatic and the lowest concentration of that drug that is bactericidal, or completely kills the bacteria.
the ratio between a drug's therapeutic benefits and its toxic effects, higher the TI the safer the drug
are resistant to 3 or more types of antimicrobial drugs. (staphylococcus, streptococcus, enterococcus, pseudomonas, mycobacterium tuberculosis, and plasmodium.
i. Cell replicates DNA (attached to cytoplasmic membrane)
ii. Cell grows and cytoplasmic membrane elongates, separates the daughter DNA from each other
iii. Cell forms a cross wall, invaginating the membrane
iv. Cross wall completely divides
v. Daughter cells may separate, parental cell disappears
look like a cluster of grapes, when cell division happens in random planes and they stay attached.
divide along the long axis or traversely. They can stay together or separate.
by the similarities in RNA, DNA, and protein sequences. 99.5% of prokaryotes have been isolated or cultured using their rRNA, “Fingerprint”Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edition, classifies prokaryotes into two phyla Archaea and 24 phyla of Bacteria
- have cell walls, composed of Chitin,
- lack chlorophyll, do not perform photosynthesis,
- different from animal cells since they have cell walls.
- Beneficial organisms that decompose dead organisms. & We can eat them!
- Help make bread, and soft drinks.
- They make antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin
· inert macromolecules outside of a cell, become active in a cell,
· do not divide or grow,
· obligate intracellular parasites,
type of nucleic acid, presence of envelope, shape, and size. Groups and some families are established.
single large mitochondrion that contains a unique region of mitochondrial DNA
Describe stages of infectious disease
· Incubation Period
· Prodromal Period
· Decline -
short time of generalized, mild symptoms that precedes illness. Not always a stage.
· Airborne Transmission
· Waterborne transmission
· Foodborne transmission
· Bodily fluid transmission
1. based on taxonomic groups
2. body systems
3. longevity and severity
increased eosinophils indicate allergies or parasitic worms infections
Nonspecific response to tissue damage from various causes, characterized by redness, heat, swelling and pain.
A membrane attack complex drills circular
holes in a
Adaptive immunity is the body’s ability to recognize and then mount a defense against distinct invaders and their products regardless of whether they are protozoa, fungi, bacteria, viruses or toxins.
It has 5 distinct attributes:
Cell-mediated immune responses
– are the portions of cells or structures that make the immune system respond to.
There are several different types of antigens., these can be broken down into areas that are recognized called Epitopes
The major function of B cells is the secretion of soluble antibodies.
1. complement activation,
3. neutralization of toxins
4. Opsonins (FLAGS to phagocytes) for opsonization
5. direct killing by oxidation,
7. antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).
bound to cytoplasmic membranes of B cells during an initial phase of antibody immune response.
IgDs are like BCRS.
You can lack the IgD and there isn’t much consequence of some animals.
a cluster of genes that code for proteins on the outside of the cell that function to hold and position epitopes for presentation to T cells.
Each MHC has an antigen-binding groove.
from activated B cells that are replicating in the lymph nodes.
These cells have BCRs that are complementary to the epitope that triggered their production.
They retain their BCRs for more than 20 years.
Perforin and granzyme
1. Stratum corneum (microbiota live here),
4. basale (basal cells reproduce and melanocytes provide pigment to our skin live here)
· Staphylococcus, (S. epidermidis)
· Corynebacterium diptheriaePropionbacterium acne
Distinctive sloughing off of skin, fluid blisters don’t contain S. aureus because toxins come from site elsewhere in body.
TX: IV antibiotics Cloxacillin.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria).
Almost everywhere in the soil, decaying matter, swimming pools.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION -- common in fire burns,
Characteristically blue- green
It can cause fever, chills, and shock if it gets into the blood stream.
- fimbriae and adhesins attach to host cells and enable biofilms
- capsule made of mucoid polysaccharide shields from phagocytosis and helps make biofilm.
- Neuraminidase modifies host cell receptor molecules to make attachment more likely
- Elastase breaks down elastic fiber, degrades complement components, cleaves IgA, and IgG.
- Endotoxin (lipid A) trigger, blood clotting, inflammation shock,
- Exotoxin A, Exoenzyme S – inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis causing host cell death
Non-itchy spotted rash on the trunk and appendages. sudden fever, headache after exposure to ticks.
Transmitted: via ticks (lives in their salivary glands), rodents are reservoirs.
DX: serological test such as latex agglutination and fluorescent antibody stains confirm diagnosis.
TX: doxycycline or chloramphenicol
Clostridium toxins kill tissue, blackening of infected muscle, frothy brownish fluid
Found in soil, water, sewage, our GI.
Virulence is from endospore survival and secretion of 11 toxins that lyse RBCs and WBCs, reduce BPs, kill cells.
40% mortality rate.
TX: antitoxin, large doses of PCN and clindamycin.
Shock, kidney failure, and death can follow within a week of infection.
Tissue becomes anaerobic and tissue dies.
Harmless in children, causing swollen lymph nodes, mild rash of flat, pink to red spots that last 3 days. Infection in adults is more severe and can lead to arthritis or encephalitis.
Can cause birth defects in fetuses, can move across the placenta even if mother is asymptomatic
Transm: respiratory secretions
Dx: observation, confirmed by serological test
Tx: none. MMR protects against it.
cause chromoblastomycosis, which progressively manifests as lesions, warts, and tumors.
typically caused by invasion of ascomycete (fungal) spores in traumatic or surgical wounds.
is a cutaneous or subcutaneous disease caused byinoculation with Sporothrix, often by thorn pricks from roses
DX: microscopic identification from lesions, or immunoassays
Which of the following ascomycetes causes a cutaneous mycosis?
Malassezia furfur (causes tinea versicolor)
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by
Rubella caused by
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is caused by
__________________ toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus
Pyoderma is a contagious skin disease also called
Four types of folliculitis caused by Staphylococcus are
Untreated cat scratch disease is fatal.
o Weak T-cell immune response develop,
o bacterium spreads, in skin, mucous membranes, nerve cells, destroying tissue and leading to loss of facial features and digits
muscle affected by, some 30-40 years after the original bout.
attaches to human intestinal cells:
intracellular replication cycle, stable outside body
Incubation period: 6 to 20 days
Susceptibility: children at most acute sign.
· another Enterovius species, and stable outside the body, each of the strain can be identified by their antigen
African Sleeping Sickness
small hemorrhages of
blood vessels in the skin.
The most common form of meningitis is
The type of poliomyelitis that accounts for about 90% of the cases
The cytoplasmic processes that carry messages toward the neuron
cell body are
__________________ are small, dark purplish hemorrhages of
blood vessels in the skin sometimes seen in meningitis patients
any microbial infection of the blood that produces illness.
A common cause of bacterial meningitis acquired by babies at
birth is __________________.
bacteria blood infection, bacteria often remain at infection site,
o Signs and symptoms depend on what type of toxins.
exotoxins – released from living microorganisms, Botulism, and tetanus
Endotoxin – part of LPS, from dying gram-negative bacteria
The type of endocarditis that develops slowly over a period of
weeks or months is described as
What are vegetations of endocarditis called when released into
A cardiologist examines a patient with history of drug abuse
and a recent tooth extraction and notes darkening under
the fingernails. What should the diagnosis be?
In malaria, which portion of the life cycle occurs in the mosquito
Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome
is a toxemia
Bacterial endocarditis caused by
Streptococcus viridans, think oral cavity
fever caused by
“Black vomit” associated with what disease
- Transmitted by mice excrement via inhalation
- infection causes widespread inflammation leading to shock
Coccidioides immitis causes coccidioidomycosis,
- resembles pneumonia or TB
In immunocompromised patients the manifestations include meningitis, headache, nausea, and emotional disturbance
Blastomyces dermatitidi , a systemic fungal
disease that begins as a flulike infection. The fungus may spread to cause lesions on the upper body and destroy tissues in bone, prostate, testes, and other organs
Group A Streptococcus is camouflaged from phagocytes by
a hyaluronic acid capsule.
The action of streptolysin results in
breaks in the membranes of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and
Which pathogenic fungus is found in the droppings of bats,
chickens, and blackbirds?
Which term associated with tuberculosis refers to protein and fat with a cheese-like consistency in the lungs?
Which of the following is associated with the fusion of
respiratory syncytial virus
RSV is characterized by the formation of giant multinucleated
cells in the lungs called __________________.
A drug commonly used to treat systemic fungal diseases is
A condition in adolescents associated with taking aspirin to treat
viral infections is __________________ syndrome
Antigenic _____ accounts for an increase in flu infections at a
locality every two years
Flagella to burrow in stomach lining
Urease neutralizes stomach acid
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