Refers to the ways women/men are viewed in media & how we all learn to be gendered individuals -taught by culture- hegemonic way -Sex is biological -Gender is cultural -Gender is just a complex cluster of signs (not something "natural") ex.) cloths, hairstyles
a person being presented in through masculinity power
Gender Representation Divide
-Women as Image-valued for ability to be looked at -Displayed as Sexual objects -An erotic object both to characters in film and to audience -->concept of the guys-power is shared to both perspectives -the body is emphasized over the mind ex.) fashion magazines
Man is the bearer of the look
-Camera gaze is male gaze -we often see the male character's point of view -director is typically male -target audience male 18-34 -->young men tv shows -men rarely displayed as sexually as women films -->anyone naked tv-->more men revealed
Gender Dichotomy -Looker
Gender Dichotomy -Mind
Gender Dichotomy -Active
Gender Dichotomy -Voyer
Gender Dichotomy -Powerful
Gender Dichotomy -Whole
Parts -legs, ass, boobs
Gender Dichotomy -Contained
Leaky -crying, breast feeding, menstruation
Gender Dichotomy -Phallic
Lacking -lacking power
-Men are indifferent to the gaze when sexuality -When showing male bodies, we compensate -->masculine symbols (weapons, cigars, women) --->Sports, Torture, Challenging look to the gaze
You can't change gender but....
Can change how you present your gender -transgenders- men 1/10,000 women 1/30,000 -socially constructed gender -becoming who you are & celebrating you identity not always socially acceptable
-born that way, just because -society doesn't change b/c that's how it works -women are more nurturing than men b/c that's what we are taught
-not a binary but still classify it as that
-modern concept , scene as a disease until 1970's -Ellen -ppl cared big deal, nobody cares anymore lesbians-all about men approving gays-comedy, solve problem & leave
HEGEMONIC standardized conception or image of a specific group of people ex.) WI "eat cheese with every meal" -conception is shared by a large (or dominant) cultural group -conception reduces the subject to a simplified status -specifics of conception develop & change over time to maintain control
"Race is a slippery social concept..." -age, weight race is a concept that creates categories of human beings based on physically, biologically, & genetically distinct "types"
Is Race a product of racism?
Without the underlying desire for hierarchical categorization implicit in racism, "race" would not exist -race is and is NOT a social construction "take with a grain of salt"
What do racial/ethnic stereotypes do?
people reduced to skin color and associated traits
stereotyping and persecuting people based on their race
creating an "other" Us Vs Them --magical place--
not a part of a dominate group -all inclusive, stereotypical interchangeable
Examples of Stereotypes
--Halloween-sextualizing outfit Japs-Hawaii-Spanish -->ADS --Lebron v. blonde beautiful woman --King Kong v. women in distress --Terrorism --Drinking on St. Patty's day -Americanized -get drunk & fight -Irish -don't drink
Opposite opposed dominate cultures as being: -Limiting -Repressive -Problimatic
Groups work with ideas of transgression/rebellion -subcultures
-Identity is forged through transgression away from dominant society -these groups out not minority groups, there still is a majority-minority power relationship -these groups draw attention to the limits of the majority's practice -they establish personal/group enpowerment from their lifestyle
-represent groups of participation with commonality (choosing to do) -groups are often seen as frivolous -something to be grown out of -smaller groups in a community share interests, ideas -any walk of life -may or may not align with dominant culture values EXAMPLES) toy collector, goths, comic book guys, extreme sports fans, punks, grad students, Greeks
-Pose explicit challenge to existing order -More often political -exist on a bigger scale -anyone can join -->less inclusive -groups express antagonism towards existing social/political order -challenge common sense -strive for a different way of life EXAMPLES) Rallys, Protest Movements, Gay Pride Parades, Hippies 60s-70s
Fandom -->Counter Cultures
Important to people's identity in what they like EXAMPLE) Star Trek (Trekkies), Ringers (Kiss), The Kiss Army, The Dawg Pound, Dread Heads, Elvis devotees
appropriating (illegally) an element of the text to use in another context EXAMPLE) write offf of Star Wars
Reorganizing parts of a text to create a new or implied meaning -->Dominant Stereyotype --Nerd, Devoted EXAMPLE) Living by guids of Star Trek -dress, accessories
SO ...OTHERS SEE THEM (Devoted Nerds) AS SILLY-
Fans often take part in activies that are closely tied to enjoyment -participation-not always necessary, but large part EXAMPLE) -Green Bay -Ohio State fans
expand what original text never expected EXAMPLE) sexualized -->reading against the grain
Popular Culture Heros **
EXAMPLE) Indiana Jones; James Bond --Heros, embody particular nations in which they're from & their characteristics
Real/Fiction, are characters who represent for the members of a culture the ideals of that culture -->Humans icons which personality the most admirable perosn or culture is capable of producing EXAMPLES) Ab Lincoln; Donald Trump-buss. ; John Wayne
-Embody values most charishable by a culture -Model desirable behaviors -Provide concrete images of what we strive to become (something bigger) -"Perfected" members of a culture who became a source of pride for the culture...b/c it is the culture that has produced the hero EXAMPLES) Superman (flag, eagle, "truth & justice", country that created him) Obama (national characteristics) "Comparisons" -painting, comics-
Captain America -->another, National Figure Captain Britain -->England -The Formula of the Hero Mono-Myth **Map any hero with steps Ex.) Orphans--raised by elder figure-->win & save, star wars-harry potter-spider man
Purpose of Heroic Mono-Myth **
-Moral Lessons -Responsibility -Wright v. Wrong -Individual Maturation -Importance of friends & family -Community
**Outlaw Hero V. Official Hero
OUTLAW <---------> OFFICIAL Individuality v. community freedom v. restrictions honor v. institutions impulses v. rules solipsism v. democracy moral justice v. law maverick v. social responsibility EXAMPLE.) Batman & Robin Micheal Jordan & Rodmin Jackie Chan & Tucker (Rush Hour)
The study of how language produces MEANING composed of .... Langue & Parole Signigier & Signified
describes the social, language as a symbol of generic signs -overall system of language Ex.) Why a word is spelled -rules
actual Expression of language
the "shape" of a word, its phonetic components the signifier immediatly brings to mind the concept behind the letters of sounds
the concept or object that appears in our minds when we hear or read the signifier Ex. )Picture
The Relationship between Signifier & Signified
-socially constructed -total arbitrary -based on social agreement EXAMPLE) desk means desk b/c not chair
SINGLE THINGS CAN HAVE MULTIPLE MEANINGS
-->this means the word is POLYSEMIC (multiple meanings)
EXAMPLE OF SEMIOTIC -->LEVI JEANS
------------------------------------------>CLASSIC AMERICAN MAN Dust Bowl man John Wayne cowboy James Dean cool guy/hottie Motorcycle , gang guy ------------------------------------------->Changing GENDER & MEANINGS Sexy Women (early 60's) 60's hippie, political bell bottoms acid wash, mom jeans & thug 90's low rise, skinny jeans purposely torn & holes GUCCI, expensive designer jeans *Diff meanings where is the same thing (SEMIOTICS) *Creating meaning around obj that has changed over time
GENRE: Auteur Theory
analyze a film against the "artist" who made it, problematic-assumes 1 person has total control of film...really more ppl take part -->leads to snobbery in which it is assumed that you have to see all that artists work -->Auteur Theory can't deal with popular films -majority Ex.) Shutter Island V. HOP (easter genre)
--------------------------------------------------------------------->Golden Era of American Cinema -usage of "genre" originates in literature -came into cinemas in 20's -50's -formulaic films were coming out -1 company makes 30 films, same cast & plot -repetition
Conventions (Inventions) -GENRE
EXAMPLES) Western, Gangster, Horror Films --> if I call a movie western, have same characteristics, compare genres
Group of works that share stylistic & thematic properties EXAMPLE) Actions, Romantic Comedy --> can already tell the plot/predictable also.... -black medal -hip hop -rap -blues
-animation -live action -novel
-format of delivery ; comics, tv shows, movie
Why do genres emerge?
-Producers & consumers have sets of stored expectations -popular, want more, repeated EXAMPLE) Fictions teenage, =Vampires -Genres develop overtime -respong to cultural situations =depression-->comedy -respond to economics=80's=actions-->destruction
Construction the discourse of genre
-Syntax -certain elements need to be there -Plot/Narrative- how a story moves from conflict to resolution -Reccuming &/or expected situations -Iconography- costuming, props, settings -Characters- heroes, villains, damsels Ex.) Bruce Willis, Will Smith, Jackie Chan " GENRE IS WHAT WE COLLECTIVELY BELIEVE IT TO BE"
Things that repeat -become embodied in genre EXAMPLES) Heroes-"mirror scare" (bathroom) Suspense- "get out of there" Reality- "I'm not here to make friends" Action-"We got company"
new stuff in a genre EXAMPLE) space westerns horror comedies
Why Study GENRE?
Frankfurt school say about genre? =EVERYTHING IS REPEATED
Are genres representations of ideological control?
-good guy saves day -romance -heterosecual -contests: women sports
GENRES REPRESENT WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO A SOCIETY
ALL HAVE OUR OWN PERSONAL FAVORITE APART OF WHO WE ARE
Types of Specific Genre
Why is scare genre so popular?
Cathartic- letting out emotions & getting release Roller Coaster Important Cultural Lessons -->"Horror" is the over-arching genre classification -SUB-GENRES examples) slasher, animals (jaws), torture porn (saw), aliens
The central sub genre of "HORROR" is the CLASSIC MONSTERS
Dracula -->garlic Frankenstein-->fire Mummy The Phantom The Wolf man King Kong Dr. Jekyl & My, Hyde Creator of Black Lagoon
CLASSIC MONSTERS ARE>....
-Universal- every culture has them -Ahistorical-not tied to any specific time period -No origin to story -They have become mythological types -They are part of our cultural knowledge, even though they are not directly taught to us
Cultural function-General formula
Generic marker of whats going to happen **Evans (article) says =all monsters want to get into beds with ladies =don't know how so steel them & take them to their castle =all about having relationship
Classic monsters-A metaphor for adolescence
-raging hormones -awkward body -hair & acne -uncomfortable with opposite sex
SO.....classic horror monsters teach the "DO's & DON'TS of adolescence & sexuality
DO DON'T -Control impulses -Give in your urges -Observe social rules -Be selfish -Listen to elders -Make little monsters
A period of time. -we say we live in a postmodern era -world is flooded by postmodern ideas -things arn't about making s/thing new from scratch-->creating new combo of things -comes after modernism
WHEN Postmodernism begins.....
-after rise of tv -era of mass media -1950's American culture hits peek
WHERE Postmodernism begins ...
-strongest in developed, mass media countries -strongest in America -combined of are cultures -late capitalist culture
WHAT IS POSTMODERNISM
-process rather that the produce -concerned way things are made -everything is constructed -not idea of original constructions-->rather reconstructing culture -->take from our culture -->break them down -->use what we like=create new EXAMPLE) Remix Manifesto
*High & Low Culture Blured -Mona Lisa on T-Shirt -Campbell's Soup cans in museum *Art & Mass Production Blured -Art becomes commercialized -Commercial culture becomes our out *Death of the Mast Narrative - death of belief of hope, originality -flying cars. *Recirculation of the Already Said -We remake & consume older images Ex) Nick at Night, TV Land
referring to culture that has been brought in EXAMPLE) Book reference another book Tv reference tv Ex.) Roseanna including Mrs. Brady
referring to itself as a tv show, ect. EXAMPLE) That 70's Show Wayn's World -Knowing Viewers -->audience is aware of culture & post media -Were able to play with it -->encourage to laugh
reconstructed images of things that are not part of our actual reality EXAMPLE) Levi Commons is a simulacrum -created to be downtown shopping--> however, not downtown in a field -CREATING FAKE THINGS THAT SEEM REAL -usually being called a simulacrum is an insult EXAMPLES) Grapple Square Watermelon Blue Gatorade-cool-blue -arctic frost Vegas-->Iffle tower (simulacrum of France Disney Lang-real fake magical kingdowm
not Fake but not Real =hyperreality EXAMPLE) Pop art picture of face with little pics of big pic round apartment
Postmodernism in literature
-books becoming self aware -books about writing -movie about making movie -adaptation-charlie kaufman
-metro Epcot-->City of Tomorrow >The heart of Disney World American Industry + Creative Disney Industry=Futuristic Epcot (city living) -Wanted to make city, utopea =under dome ------>NON of that Happened -modernism, endless progression making insane vission happen -schedualling of life, community fun v. reality
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