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2. How does neocolonialism resemble and differ from colonialism?
a. Colonialism was European countries taking control of Africa, India, etc. In some
cases, it was all control (government, economy) and in other cases, they let the
government continue running, but had power over them. b. Neocolonialism is colonialism in practice, but not in nature. Western powers
retain economic, but not formal political control. c. The end of colonialism left colonies with little preparation for independence.
Colonizers set up artificial boundaries, which created conflicts and instability, and made the economies only able to offer raw materials (not worth much money on the global market).
d. Colonialism was a European phenomenon, while neocolonialism was primarily American.
3. What role does the U.S. play as a neocolonial power?
a. Teddy Roosevelt started the rough riders b. Teddy got the Panama Canal built c. 1898 marked the rise of US imperialism with the Spanish-American War d. After WWII< US emerged as world’s hegemony
e. US has had more wars since WWII and many interventions to make the world safe for American corporations
i. ii. iii.
China 1945-49, Italy 1947-48 US-backed regimes during the Cold War Dictatorships justified by appeal to anti-communism
f. Neocolonialism is primarily American
10. What drives rural-to-urban migration?
a. Rapid population growth, which exacerbates economic problems. b. High poverty and low wages in 3rd world. Infrastructure sucks. c. Structural adjustment programs from the IMF – hurts agriculture, move to
megacities. d. In the Western world cities grew during their respected Industrial Revolution's.
Synonymous in West, but not in 3rd world.56% of world lives in cities. Most large cities and most urban growth are in Third World. They are growing much faster than 1st world cities did. Insufficient jobs and massive supply of labor leads to high unemployment/poverty.
13. Why are so many cities in the developing world surrounded by shantytowns?
a. There is insufficient housing for the number of people these cities are holding,
especially those from formal supply (e.g. construction company). Instead, people create their own houses from mud bricks, cardboard, tin, or whatever they can find.
b. Cheap, condensed housing for the large amount of urban dwellers.
c. Due to unequal distribution of wealth.
21. What parts of the world are the most heavily populated?
East Asia – China, Japan, and Korea - composes 1/3 of the world population South Asia – India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh – composes of another 1/3. Europe Countries, specifically:
i. China – 1.3 billion ii. India – 1.1 billion iii. USA – 307 million iv. Indonesia -230 million v. Brazil – 190 million
24. What were Malthus’s “checks”?
a. "Checks" to population: i. "Preventative": lower BR ("moral restraint"). ii. "Positive": Raise DR (war, famine, disease)
29. Why is the overpopulation thesis simplistic?
a. Ignore legacy of colonialism, oppressive social relations, and dynamics of world economy.
b. Does not look at the reasons why people have kids. c. Blames the poor for poverty, which really poverty and population growth is a
two way street.
33. What are the stages of the Demographic Transition and what reasons explain BR, DR, and NGR at each point? 41 71 82
The Demographic Transition is a model of birth rates, death rates, and natural growth rates over time based on historical experience of industrialized nations. Stage 1 – Pre-industrial (agrarian) society
i. BR is high because women are pregnant all of the time. Children are important sources of labor in the farms, fields, fetching water, and selling stuff on the streets.
Children at 3 produce more than they use. Provide old age security – kids take care of you when you get old. Poor people have high BR for very rational reasons.
ii. DR is also high (low life expectancy) because of high rates of infant mortality and infectious diseases due to lack of physicians and health care and food/water supply. (Lack of overall infrastructure).
Acute respiratory infections, AIDS, Diarrheal diseases (cholera and dysentery), TB, Malaria, measles
iii. NGR is low because the birth and death rates are both high. iv. Population pyramid is a triangle because there are a lot in the younger
population. Poor societies tend to be young societies. Average age is low.
Stage II: Early Industrialization
i. Death rate drops. Why does industrialization cause this?d.
i. BR drops because of benefit/cost ratio of children falls. The major cost of having a child is the value of mother’s time from not working - forgone income is the amount of money given up to stay out of the labor market to take care of a child.
A low-income woman/mother would lose less than a higher-income woman. (LIM = $20,000/year * 3 years = $60,000, but HIM = $80,000/year * 3 years = $240,000)
Less beneficial for the man to stay home because he makes more. ii. Birth rate drops AFTER death rate drops. iii. As birth rate drops, the NGR begins to decline.
ii. Stage III: Late Industrialization (countries that are already urbanized, implemented public health, etc)
Birth rate stays high, death rate goes down, NGR is high.
they’re dying). Often government programs to stimulate fertility.
Stage IV: Post-industrial Soceity
i. Very high standards of living, etc. ii. Low DR (high life expectancy) iii. Low BR have small, nuclear families iv. NGR levels off.
v. Shift to behavior and environmental causes. – We’ve eliminated the major causes of death. Life expectancy starts becoming diminishing terms. vi. Many developed countries are losing population (high old population and
Better medical care? No. In the US between 1900-1973, the vaccinations came out AFTER the disease begins to decline.
Because of better diets – reflects industrialization of agriculture Public health measures (e.g. clean water system, sewers, sanitation). Lower infant mortality with better help for mothers and prenatal care.
41. What are the 3 major types of hunger?
a. Famine- lack of aqequate calories -> mass starvation, 10 to 15 million people die each year
b. Malnutrition- Chronic deficency of a nutritional requirement (mostly protein) ~1billion people(15% of world) are malnourished. children most vulnerable, caused by poverty
c. Food insecurity- occasional shortages of food, including 10 million in the US. There is plenty of food in the world hunger is a political problem
71. Why is someone who claims that globalization is “new” uninformed?
a. It’s been around since the 16th century, but not to the same extent that it is today. b. Before – trading systems across Europe, Middle East, northern Africa, China c. Earliest example is from the 14th century: medieval Europe trade with Arabs, to
Egyptians/Indians, to Chinese, back to Europe. Colonialism was also another
example (use of the Triangle Trade of slaves and goods).
82. Why are some people deeply morally offended by globalization?
a. Globalization creates a breakdown in traditional support and value systems (who they are, where they belong)
b. May try to change traditions (or offer alternative). c. The Sacred is rendered profane by cheap, tawdry goods. Businesses don’t care
about the Sacred, only profit. (e.g. Koran)
90. Why does the world simultaneously love/hate the U.S.?
a. Loves our culture, but not our foreign policy b. Culture loved and imitatedc. Most wars since WWII, many invasions
What is the difference between sex and gender? Why doesn’t the former explain the
Sex: biological differences between males and feamles, what the person is born as Gender: social sciences
i. Includes gender identity, how one sees his/herself. ii. Gender - "the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes
that a given society considers appropriate for men and women"c. Gender cannot describe a person’s sex because gender is socially constructed and can vary from culture to culture.
How can there be a geography of cyberspace?
Access is highly uneven worldwide, mostly in wealthiest countries. In poor countries, Internet cafes are critical Mainly English, but its dwindling Internet is unevenly distributed within as well as among countries
i. 73% of the US have internet access and use it on a regular basis Differs in US More in West, lower in South
ii. Varies with incomes, age, and education iii. Social inequalities are reinscribed in cyberspace
Changes our notion of space – what is near/far is changing (ability to talk to
people, find out about foreign countries, etc)
What is the digital divide?
Vast majority of young people have and use, while older people don’t.
What is time-space compression? Give 3 examples.
Corporate-led, feminized, digitized Places all over the world are being brought closer together The power of transnational corporations binds global space through their networks. Air flights Changing patterns of accessibility favor some and not others.
i. Cities like New York has flourished – fiber-optics, steamship ii. Hawaii tourism/etc has decreased because planes don’t need to stop there
anymore to refuel. Telecommunicationsinstantaneous time-space convergence Global fiber-optics system making internet possible and connecting financial centers. Cyberspace is latest manifestation of time-space compression.
Change in population=(BR-DR)+(I-O)
=Natural growth- net migration
World NGR=1.1% per year
150 million births for every 50 million deaths
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