An actual instance or piece of communication that humans create. Three factors affect the nature of the text: the medium, the tools used to create it, and the tools used to decipher it.
Or audience, refers to any recipient of communication through different kinds of media.
A loose term used to refer to anyone who uses communication. An author could be one person or many people.
Constraints are are factors limiting or affecting a situation. Constraints in a setting: affect the time of author and audience, the place of author and audience, and the community or conversation in which authors and/or audiences engage.
A part of the situation that signals that something controversial has happened.
Which elements have to be in place before you begin to write?
Reader, constraints and Exigence.
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