Fallacy in logic. Draws conclusions from scanty evidence.
Faulty causality (or Post Hoc)
Fallacy in logic. Arguments confuse chronology with causation: one event can occur after another without being caused by it.
Fallacy in logic. Is a statement that does not logically relate to what comes before it. An important logical step may be missing in such a claim.
Fallacy in logic. A half-truth, or a statement that is partially correct but that purposefully obscures the entire truth.
Begging the Question
Fallacy in logic. Occurs when a writer simply restates the claim in a different way; such an argument is circular.
Fallacy in logic. An inaccurate, inappropriate, or misleading comparison between two things.
Fallacy in logic. Represents only one side of the issue, thus distorting the issue.
Fallacy in ethics. Audiences agree with the assertion of a writer based simply on his or her character or the authority of another person or institution who may not be fully qualified to offer that assertion.
Using Authority Instead of Evidence
Fallacy in ethics. Occurs when someone offers personal authority as proof.
Guilt by Association
Fallacy in ethics. Calls someone's character into question by examining the character of that person's associates.
Fallacy in ethics. Shuts down discussion by asserting that the writer's beliefs are the only acceptable ones.
Fallacy in ethics. Compares minor problems with much more serious crimes (or vice versa).
Fallacy in ethics. Arguments attack a person's character rather than that person's reasoning.
Fallacy in ethics. Arguments set up and often dismantle easily refutable arguments in order to misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to defeat him or her.
Emotional Fallacy. Use emotion to distract the audience from the facts.
Emotional Fallacy. (The fishy fallacy). Use misleading or unrelated evidence to support a conclusion.
Emotional Fallacy. Try to frighten people into agreeing with the arguer by threatening them or predicting unrealistically dire consequences.
Emotional fallacy. Encourage an audience to agree with the writer because everyone else is doing so.
Emotional fallacy. Arguments suggest that one thing will lead to another, oftentimes with disastrous results.
Emotional fallacy. Reduce complicated issues to only two possible courses of action.
Emotional fallacy. Arguments that create an unnecessary desire for things.
Want to see the other 21 Flashcards in Final Review: Chapter 7?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!