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As an adjective - theoretical
As a verb - to remove or to summarize
As a noun - concentrated essence of a larger whole
A way of perceiving; a framework for perception.
- Life is perception. The way the individual perceives something - anything - determines how he or she responds.
Type of criticism:
- no external information
- limited to study of "product" and our experience of it
- art exists for its own sake
Type of criticism:
- begins with form
- seeks clues to meaning from context in which the artwork was created
- studies process, product, and experience
- appeals to people who see art as an artifact
- places to live
- places to conduct the ceremonies of our lives (churches, temples)
- places to commemorate our dead
- places to conduct our civic and commerical lives
The technical analysis of all the sound elements (e.g. rhythm, alliteration, rhyme) in poetry or speech.
In music, the way the composer sets the syllables of the text to the melody.
Something that stands for something else.
- A way of expressing the intangible as something tangible
- Has the power to act or be acted upon
When a character:
- speaks directly to the audience
- speaks to self without being heard by other characters on stage
When a solitary character is "thinking out loud."
- allows the audience to know the character's inner thoughts and/or back story
- 4th century B.C.
- First dramatic critic
- Wrote books called Poetics
- Poetry is better than history because it addresses the possible and the necessary (this was written after Plato's book)
- Wrote the book Repbulic
- Mimesis is imitation of reality and if somthing is an imitation, then it is not truthful
- Better to study history than to sit around imagining what didn't happen
Result of intersection between forces
- Without it, there is no drama
- When two or more forces meet, this arises
- Leads to action
- IS something that a character does that can be perceived by the audience
- DOES move the plot forward
Component of plot:
- background info
- Possible complication of plot.
- Major character learns something important
- Possible complication of plot
- Major character's situation changes (reverses), for better or worse
A type of vocal writing in opera that mimics speech or "recitation"
- Sets up for aria
In opera, a song for a solo voice and orchestral accompaniment.
- Usually do not drive the action of the drama but are moments of reflection for the character
- The time that the character tells you what he's feeling
- Big songs
- Zeno c. 300 B.C.
- "Men of the porch"
- Virtue is the greatest good, but all things (even virtue) in moderation.
- Purpose of life is not to seek pleasure, but instead to life a consistent life.
- "Man must live consistently."
- Epicurus c. 306 B.C.
- Lead wise, meaningful, tranquil lives
- Conquer fear of death
- Not a long life, but a pleasant one -> healthy body and tranquil soul -> avoid anything that causes pain
- Antisthenes c. 400 B.C.
- Individual solutions to human problems
- Human intelligence trained and disciplined by reason
- Is the highest functions of nature
- Balance = good
- Virtue = arete
- Type of Greek structure
- One part is the column and the other is the roof
- Comes from two Greek words that mean "goat song"
- Focus on one character (protagonist) - often we think of the protagonist as the "hero" but it's actually just the first "mover" in the story
- No outward help
- Miscalculated reality
- No "right" decision
Divine, rational order of the universe; source of all meaning.
- 4th century A.D.
- Established his capital in Byzantium
- Gave official recognition to the Christian church
- Formarly known as "Byzantium"
- The name was changed to this after Constantine took over
- Is known today as "Istanbul"
- Human figures seem "weightless"
- Size and placement in the composition show rank (Egyptian reminiscent)
- Background often gold (Heaven?)
- Rich colors to life the spirit
- Figures are flat, beautiful not "real," not substantial
- Holy image
- Usually painted on wooden panel
- Honored by believers
- Testament to belief
- Image which conveys and espcially focused and powerful cultural message
Governs by conventions of behavior, code of manners
- Unrequited love
- 10th century German nun
- Cycle of plays (more like play-lets)
- We don't know if they were actually performed, or if she and her sisters merely sat around reading them, but they were written in play form
- Celebrating the women of Christianity
- Bishop of Winchester
- Idea of Quem Quaeritis
- The play they were performing was a representation of the first Easter play
- Although it was very short, it was still in play format
- 1st liturgical drama
"Whom do you seek?"
- The play they were performing was a representation fo the first Easter play
- When something is referred to as this, that simply means that this is the first time that it has happened
- Ethelwold is credited with coming up with the first of these
- The first part of this word means "system of worship"
60 day event after Easter
1264 - Pope Urban IV
- Professional associations
- Similar to modern day unions
- Each guild became responsible for a different story
- They also became known as "Cycle plays" (or cycle of plays)
- "Living bible"
Eventually these cycle plays had to be moved outside and someone got the idea to put the mansions on little wagons
- Mystery play - illustrated as a bible story
- Miracle play - about life and acts of a saint
- Morality play - characters often personifications of human virtues, vices, or other abstractions
- Tried to harmonize Aristotle's writings with Christian doctrine. Attempt to understand and explain Christian doctrine by a process of definition and systematic argument.
- Concern with human life and human accomplishments
- The dominant intellectual movement of the Renaissance
- Reflections of this in art:
- Rise of wealthy, merchant class
- Private art
- Renaissance music
- Sacred text, usually in Latin
- Secular text
- Vernacular language
- Fun at home
- "If God didn't want me to be king then He wouldn't have made me king."
- Royal absolutism
- "I AM the state." - King Louis XIV
This meant that the power of the monarch was, in theory, unlimited except by divine law or by what was called ‘natural law’.
- Passionate, energetic art
- Light/dark contrast
- Solid form, much ornament but ornament never obscures form
- Characters caught in motion/emotion
- Strong motion (rhythm)
- Strong emotion
- Strong sense of organizatoin built on L-O-N-G phrases
- Gatherings in homes of wealthy
- Artists, philosophers
- Sharing ideas across class barriers
- Ornamentation is everything!
- "Luxurious, frivolous, sensual, clever, sentimental..."
- Not "emotional" but "sentimental"
- Not "adventurous" but "clever"
- Teach a moral lesson
- Make a political statement
- Used short, tuneful, memorable phrases to build a perceivable structure
- Usually composed to a specific form
- Fit the idea to the form
- Grand theatre!
- The background
- The chief festival in honor of Dionysus, celebrated in early spring and notable for the performance of dithyrambs, tragedies, comedies, and satyr plays.
- An English author of the early nineteenth century.
- A leader of romanticism; his poems include “ Kubla Khan” and “ The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”
- The plain song or cantus firmus used in the ritual of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Marked by performance in unison and free-flowing rhythms that follow the phrasing of the text.
- Often call for one syllable to be sung across several notes.
- A manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders and miniature illustrations.
- Can only refer to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver.
- (In music) the rhythmic element as measured by division into parts of equal time value.
- (In verse) poetic measure; arrangement of words in regularly measured, patterned, or rhythmic lines or verses.
- Greek era
- The nude human figure represents this idea.
- Their art had to be small because they were nomadic and they had to carry it with them.
- Epic poetry - heroes vs. monsters; bard - poet/singer who knew epic poems and would recite them to entertain people
- visual art
- The idealization of the human figure.
- Greek sculptors had learned to represent the human body naturally and easily, in action or at rest.
- inner emotions
- extreme pain, stress, anger, fear, and despair
Arete - Someone who uses this is someone who uses all of himself; glory and the power of the individual
Virtus - Excellence or merit in objects of art, curios, and the like
- Rococo is much less biblically oriented than baroque.
- Baroque reflects times and biblical natures.
- Rococo reflects fun, frivility, and optimist.
- A ruler of Greece in the fourth century b.c.
- As a general, he conquered most of the ancient world, extending the civilization of Greece east to India.
- In his youth, the philosopher Aristotle was his tutor.
- Long embroidered cloth which explains the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself.
- Annotated in Latin
- A form of bubonic plague that spread over Europe in the 14th century and killed an estimated quarter of the population.
- 1/3 Europe
- The church said bad things happened to you bc you deserved it.
- Religion moving from medieval world view
- The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire; his name means “Charles the Great.”
- King of France in the late eighth and early ninth centuries and was crowned emperor in 800.
- He is especially remembered for his encouragement of education.
- A general from the ancient city of Carthage.
- During the second of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome, he took an army of more than 100,000, supported by elephants, from Spain into Italy in an effort to conquer Rome.
- “It is neither safe nor prudent to do anything against conscience. Here I stand; I can do no other.”
- A sixteenth-century German religious leader; the founder of Protestantism.
- 95 edicts
- A French general, political leader, and emperor of the 18th/19th centuries.
- Rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804.
- Athenian statesman and leader of the popular party, who contributed greatly to Athens' political and cultural supremacy in Greece.
- In power from about 460 bc , he was responsible for the construction of the Parthenon.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
- French Revolution
- Rule of Robespierre of the revolution that brought terror upon the French monarchy and aristocracy
In Roman legend, twin brothers who were raised by a she-wolf and founded the city of Rome. They came from a city founded by the son of Aeneas. During the construction of Rome, one killed the other.
- There are a lot of Botticelli’s that we don’t have anymore because once he started following this man.
He destroyed a lot. It was like a little piece of medieval in that time.
- Dominican monk famous for his fierce opposition to moral license and Church corruption.
- The grand inquisitor
- He was responsible for the burning of some 2000 heretics
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