Local facilities operated by regional governments such as cities and parishes. Hold short term felons, those awaiting probation or parole hearings, and people with mental disorders awaiting transfer. Jail costs have increased.
Secure facilities where people serve a year or more. Run by the federal government. Both costs and population are rising.
Holds offenders what have short sentences, are non violent, and are unlikely to escape.
Approximately 25% of all federal and state prisons are medium security. Close surveillance. Barbed fenced perimeters. Prisoners may take part in limited educational, vocational, and therapeutic programs. Inmates share cells.
High levels of control. Physical barriers restrict inmate movement. Shackled when moves. Lethal electrical fences, infrared and motion sensing devices. Holds death row prisoners. 15% of prisons.
Highest level of security. All inmates are isolated, because of their level of violence poses a danger for other inmates and correctional staff. Judges dont normally sentence prisoners here, they get here by misbehaving in other prisons. 23h in cell
Classification determines which inmates go to which institutions and the specific conditions under which they will be confined. Look at custody levels- the rick of danger the pose to others.
Prisoner Rights: Civil Rights.
Until the 1960's convicted felons had no civil right other than those granted by specific laws, all under the hands off doctrine. An individual serving time today still loses certain rights.
Prisoner Rights: Due-Process Rights.
Supreme court gave rights to prisoners that guaranteed them not only access to the courts but also due process in disciplinary hearings.
Women in Prison
Make up about 7% of prisoners. In the last 15 years there has been a 50% increase. Typically women are young, have a low education, minorities, and are serious offenders.
Problems with incarcerated women?
Drug abuse: 80% of women in jail have substance abuse problems.
Separation from family and children: 65% of women have minor children.
Sexual Abuse: Most common form is from forced sex with male staff.
Early conditional release of prisoner from incarceration after the person successfully serves a portion of the sentence in prison. Parole rests on 3 concepts: grace, contract, and custody. Parole boards not judges grant parole.
Released on parole: mandatory
The law requires early release after an offender has served a specified time in prison. Serves sentence minus good time.
Released on parole: Discretionary
A parole board decides whether the offender meets the eligibility requirements and is ready to go back into the community. Release with supervision.
Charged with helping offender readjust to the community and preventing new crimes from happening. Also develop plans for the parolee that specify what an inmate must do before released.
Not very successful. 70% of parolees who returned to prison had committed a technical violation. A parolee accused of a new crime normally faces a more severe consequence. Most parolees fail within the first 6-12 months.
Strong public support for sex offender registration. Sex offenders can experience harassment, threats, eviction, job loss, family breakups, or loss of life as a result of registration. Little evidence that registration actually protects the public.
Significant cases: Gault(1967)
Children brought before the juvenile court were entitled to several of the most basic rights, the right to be notified of charges against them, to confront and cross examine witnesses, and have the right to an attorney.
Significant Cases: Winship(1970)
Burden of proof is to be "beyond reasonable doubt."
Significant Cases: Mckevier v. Pennsylavania (1971)
Children in juvenile proceedings are not entitled to juries.
Significant Cases: Breed v. Jones (1975)
A person cannot be tried in both juvenile and adult courts for the same offense.
Process during which an official decides whether to release the juvenile or refer the case to court or to put the juvenile under other supervision. Police, schools, protective services, parents, or agencies can refer juveniles to intake.
Any act that avoids the formal processing of juvenile throughout the court system. Formal: on "permanent record". Informal: "confidential record". The police and court can divert.
Juvenile: Emphasis on correction, court oversees the use of sanction power.
The judge determines whether a juvenile has committed an offense. Another term for hearing. No jury present.
Result for those juveniles that are convicted at the adjudication hearing. Four basic choices on what to do, which are: dismissal, probation, custodial care placements, and alternative dis positional.
Two main options: Probation or commitment to an institution. probation is most common option. Institutions are either secure(cant leave) or not secure(you can leave).
Juvenile equivalent to parole.
Factors that influence police actions.
Seriousness of the offense, willingness of the parents, child's behavioral history, and officers beliefs and attitudes. Police use a great deal of discretion.
Lockyer v. Andrade (2003)
Lockyer was attorney general of CA. and Andrade was convicted felon accused of of new offenses (stealing $150). Main ?: should everyone who commits the same crime get the same punishment? Andrade was sentenced 25 yr claimed 8th. Ruled constitutional.
Graham v. Flordia (2010)
Graham 16 yr old charged with armed burglary, goes on probation and violates it. Florida has no parole system. He is sentenced to life in prison cites 8th. Court ruled unconstitutional. No juvenile should be sentenced to life for non murder offenses.
Impact of crime
Economic Costs: Loss of property, lower productivity, and medical care.
Physiological and emotional costs: Pain, trauma, and cost of quality of life.
Costs of operating CJ system.
Any crime that relies on a computer and electronic network for commission. Hacking, identity theft, online fraud, and bullying.
According to the U.S. code is "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups, usually intended to influence an audience."
Threefold Role against terrorism
Protection of the community, emergency response, and intelligence gathering and sharing.
A criminal offense committed because of a victims race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or other group affiliation. Most common is race, and lease is victim disability.
Controlling Civil Disorder
Disturbance by a group. Social protests: breaking laws with a point. crowds: With a point to make but law abiding.
Mobs: Non law abiding group with a leader and ruled by emotion.
Riots: Mob turns violent.
Preventing Civil Disorder
The quality of relationship between the police force and the community Is the most significant factor in preventing civil disorder.
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