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What general name is given to organisms that live on the bottom of the ocean?
What are nekton?
What are plant plankton called?
What are meroplankton?
Larval forms of animals that spend part of their lives as plankton
What role do bacteria serve in a food web?
Make nutrients from dead organisms
What is this formula showing? C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6H2O + 6CO2
Energy from food broken down by respiration
What are ultraplankton?
Extremely small members of the plankton community; 80% of photosynthesis
What problem can dinoflagellates cause?
Red tide which leads to pfiesteria
They make their predators(shrimp) visible to other predators
What are some symptoms in humans for Red Tide poisoning from Pfeisteria?
Sores in fish; memory loss and mood swings in humans
What is a type of brown algae that we get algin from?
Give two reasons why mangroves are important?
Start food chains and are nurseries for various different under water life forms
How do Porifera get their food?
Sucking water through their bodies; filter feeding
What is the most dangerous Cnidarian?
What is a Cnidarian with stingers and a gas float?
Portuguese man of war
Give an example of Mutualism?
Coral polyp and zooxanthellae
What is the relationship between the pearl fish and sea cucumber?
Why are crown of thorns starfish bad?
It eats and destroys the coral
Give two reasons why coral reefs are in trouble.
People touching coral and global warming
How do starfish get their food? How do they feed?
Pry open clams with tube feet. Evert stomach through their mouths.
What do black sea urchins do that help coral reefs?
Keeps the coral clean of algae
Give two things that arthropods have that other invertebrates don’t have?
Compound eyes, exoskeleton, & jointed legs
What kind of animal are barnacles?
Arthropod and or Crustacean
What kind of lobster lives in Florida?
What is a bivalve? How do they feed?
Lay of the bottom; scallops. Filter feeding.
What is the most expensive gastropod used for food?
What is a dangerous gastropod?
What is the most dangerous cephalopod?
Blue ring octopus
What is the biggest cephalopod?
How do snails reproduce?
They lay egg cases
What jawless fish is caught for its skin?
Give two adaptations that sharks have to help them survive.
Excellent sense of smell and excellent color vision
What is the biggest shark?
How do sharks reproduce?
Internally with a clasper organ
Describe one way in which sharks give birth.
Placenta birth with umbilical cord or egg cases
What are the ampullae of Lorenzini?
Detecting electrical fields in prey even those that are buried in the sand.
What is the biggest ray?
What ray can give an electrical shock?
How do bony fish reproduce?
Releasing 1000’s of eggs into the water; broadcast spawning
What do some bony fish have that the other classes of fish don’t have?
What is the fastest fish?
What are two defensive mechanisms that a bony fish might use?
Great speed and camouflaged color schemes
What is the only poisonous marine reptile?
What is the most common sea turtle that nests in Brevard?
What are three problems that sea turtles are facing?
Hit by boats, poached for meat, & caught in nets
What are two adaptations that sea otters have for living in cold water?
They have the thickest fur and high metabolism
What is the largest pinniped?
How do elephant seals reproduce?
The huge males fight over harems of females
What animal are manatees related to?
Give two reasons why manatee reproduction is so slow.
Gestation period is one year and calving interval is 2-5 years
Give three reasons why manatees are endangered.
Cold stress syndrome, red tide, and boat collisions
What are Cetaceans?
Bristly baleen to filter out plankton and small fish
Which whale has the largest testes?
What is the largest Odontoceti whale?
What might the oil sac in sperm whales be used for?
Echoloation and stunning prey
What are some techniques that killer whales use for hunting?
They hunt led by a dominate female. Females teach their young hunting strategies which they practice.
How does some humpback whales work together to get food?
They use their bubble nets that they release from their blow hole to concentrate prey
Why do some male dolphins form an alliance?
For reproduction and socialization
What are signature whistles used for in dolphin groups?
To attract other male dolphins
Give three reasons why whales are in trouble.
Red tide, whaling, and getting caught in nets
What toothed whale has a long tusk?
Which atom in a water molecule is negative?
Describe the name for the bond between the atoms in a water molecule.
Polar covalent bond
What term is used to describe the fact that water is slow to heat and slow to cool?
High heat capacity
What atom of one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen end of another water molecule?
Describe the three-layered ocean. ?
Warm mixed layer (less dense), transition zone - thermocline, & deep cold water (very dense)
The transition zone between top and bottom layer is called thermocline
How does the ocean moderate climate?
Store CO2 which slow global warming, store and releases heat, sea breezes, ocean currents transport heat, and ice caps reflect heat.
Why does a red fish appear black at the bottom of the photic zone?
He absorbs the remaining blue light and there is no red light to reflect off of him because it was absorbed by the water near the surface
What does refraction do to the image of a fish?
To make the objects in the water appear 25% closer or larger
How does a viper fish use light?
It utilizes his red flashlight under its eye to make red prey visible
How do angler fish mate?
Male anglers become permanent parasites on the females
Why does the Noctiluca plankton glow?
Noctiluca glow to make their predators visible to other predators
What is passive use of sound by people?
Listening with hydrophones & SOSUS Navy sound surveillance systems
How is passive sound used in animal research?
Population studies, finding mating area, & how they communicate
Give an example of Active use of sound by people?
Man makes sounds and listens to the results
How does a pistol shrimp use sound?
Snaps claw so loudly it is used to stun prey
What is the oil sac in sperm whales used for?
To produce loud clicks called codas for echolocation, possibly to stun prey, and a form of communication; a call for help
How do signature whistles vary between male and female calves compared to the mother?
In a way that the mother communicates to them
How do whales make their sounds?
The sounds are produced in nasal sacs and valves
What animals are affected most when a spill occurs?
birds, shellfish, fish, otters, and whales
How can we reduce the damage by oil spills?
Better regulations, crew training, and double hulled tankers
What is term that describes how a pollutant increases in concentration as you move up a food chain?
Bio magnification / bio amplification
Where does methyl mercury come from today?
Coal, plastics, and thermostats
How is plastic bad for animals?
Turtles and birds will mistake the miscellaneous plastic items for food and they can get entangled in the lines.
How can we prevent introduced species?
By not letting unwanted aquarium pets go into the wild and sterilize ballast water.
What does the hole in the ozone layer contribute to?
Increase in skin cancer and eye cataracts, decrease in ocean phytoplankton, lower crop yields, and affects amphibian reproduction
How can we prevent the hole from forming?
Phase out CFC’s and bromine
What is causing global warming?
Carbon dioxide and methane
Where do the greenhouse gases come from?
Fossil fuel burning, deforestation, landfills, and rice paddies
Sea level rises, larger hurricanes, more erosion and storm surge; changes in wildlife
How can we slow down global warming?
Population control, improve energy efficiency in cars, appliances, use compact fluorescent light bulbs, develop clean alternate energy sources such as hydrogen, solar, or wind
What ingredients do you need to make a cloud or fog?
Water vapor, condensation nuclei (particles), and cooling
What term describes how warm air rises and cool air sinks?
What alters the wind patterns? Ex. Seasonal variation (why does it happen/), jet streams (make weather go across the U.S. from NW to SE)
The earth’s axis is tilted in relation to its orbital plain around the sun; seasonal variation. Winds are also modified by stronger upper level jet streams. Weather systems are pushed across the US generally from NW to SE.
Give an example of how the oceans make the climate more moderate.
When and how do Asian monsoons form and what do they do?
They occur in summer over India, bring lots of rain; like a seasonal sea breeze
WA State – Ocean side of mountains is wet. Air rises over the mountains cools and rains. Eastern side (shadow of the mountains is desert like)
· West coast of the Americas – warm water, poor fishing, storms, coastal erosion flooding.
· Africa and Australia – drought
· Florida – Wetter weather, less chance of hurricanes
· Pacific – Coral bleaching, kelp dies off, and species migrate
Thunderstorms occur when air mass fronts collide
How can you avoid being hit by lightning?
Move to a sturdy building or car; avoid utility lines and metal pipes
In which direction do tornadoes & hurricanes rotate?
How does hail form?
Occurs when there are strong updrafts of air and water droplets travel up and down in a cloud accumulating layers of ice.
How do hurricanes form?
When the ocean is at its warmest temperatures the warm moist air rises and incoming air curves causing the system to rotate counterclockwise.
What causes storm surge?
Occurs when winds blow onshore (NE side) or in the eye of the hurricane
What does the wavelength of waves’ control?
Wave speed – longer λ faster speed. Depth of motion ½ λ motion stops.
What measurement is proportional to the wave energy?
Below a depth of ½ the wavelength
When waves bend through an opening in a sea wall or through a break in a sandbar this is?
When waves approach shore at an angle, a current move down the beach called?
Long shore current
In Florida sand tends to move from?
North to south
Why do waves break? “Feel bottom” at ½ wavelength
The wave motion becomes more elliptical and closer together, and the bottom wave slows down allowing the top of the wave to topple over itself.
What is the difference in the beach slope between plungers and spillers?
Plunger is a steep beach face and spillers are gentle beach slopes.
What is large dangerous open ocean waves called?
How can they form?
When positive interference takes place allowing one wave train to take over another
What are underwater waves called that could hurt a submarine?
What is a seiche?
Rocking standing wave in a bay or harbor caused by strong winds or a seismic disturbance
Under what conditions do dangerous standing waved form at Sebastian Inlet?
Ebb tide; outgoing tide meets incoming wind and waves.
What name is given to tsunamis that form from earthquake activity?
Seismic sea waves
Describe how they look in the open ocean.
In the open ocean they only reach about 3 feet tall and waves themselves are very wide
How many seismographic stations do you need to find the epicenter?
What happens when a tsunami approaches shore?
They get very big as they approach the shore (30”). There is a drawback, a very low tide, and huge onrush of water.
What made the huge wave that knocked trees down in Alaska?
A landslide into the ocean that formed a mega tsunami
What might produce a huge tsunami that could hit the east coast of the U.S.?
An underwater landslide
What produced a big tsunami that hit Texas at the end of the age of dinosaurs?
Meteorite, asteroid, or comet into the sea
When waves pass through openings in sand bars or sea walls in a circular pattern this is called?
A sloshing wave in a bay or harbor produced by winds, tides, or seismic activity is called
Waves produced by positive interference when two waves overlap around obstacles are known as?
These are produced when waves from different directions intersect as they approach the shore (also known as wave sets)?
The long, regular waves that form as waves travel far from storms areas are known as?
An up and down oscillating motion of the sea surface.
What makes water molecules move in a deep-water wave and this motion will stop once the wave has reached ½ wavelengths deep.
What waves are longer, regular waves which can travel for 1000’s of miles.
What will affect the growth of the wave?
An underwater wave that occurs along the boundary of water in various different densities.
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