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Because the German Nazis could not find a reliable marker to identify Jews, the Jews were forced to:
Refers to systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships.
Inequality is acceptable so long as everyone has the same opportunities for advancement and is judged by the same standards.
Idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue his or her goals
that society was divided strictly into two classes — the proletariat, or working class, and the bourgeoisie, or employing class.
The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two “pure” classes defined by Marx.
A system of stratification based on social prestige.
Increased dramatically in the past 500 years.
Occurs when people essentially trade positions — the number of overall jobs stays the same, with some people moving up into better jobs and others moving down into worse ones.
Who argued that private property creates social inequality and that this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict.
Who viewed inequality favorably, but only as a means for controlling population growth
thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict
Who believed most social relationships were based on a master-slave model.
— over time, society would have more and more free people and the master-slave model would die out as the primary social relationship.
Desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior
A social construct that consists of a set of social arrangements that are built around sex
Sex, Sexuality, and Gender concepts different from each other?
Gender: how a person behaves
An intellectual, consciousness-raising movement based on the idea that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect
All social relations, including relations between workers and the owners of the means of production, stem from unequal gender relations
The social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with people of the same sex, is a concept or identity that emerged in the mid-nineteenth century.
What are some problems faced by women today in the workplace?
make less than men for same education, training, skills
- sexual harassment
- tracking into ‘certain’ (typically lower paying, less opportunity for advancement) jobs
- glass ceiling
- when women are in ‘male’ jobs, they criticized for both being too masculine and too feminine
How do schools impact gender?
boys and girls are treated differently by teachers, and there are different expectations for their behavior and performance
-Perceived physical differences
-a social construct that changes over time and across different contexts.
The belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal human traits.
Since racist views are not as openly displayed, we sometimes think that racism no longer exists; this is wrong – racism still exists, but it is more covert today
Ethnicity that is individualistic in nature and without real social cost for the individual.
the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society, with no one group being in the majority.
The legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity.
Refers to negative thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group.
Refers to inter-racial relationships
A condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances that is severe enough that the individual in this condition cannot live with dignity in his or her society.
There is a sub-culture within society that has different beliefs, traditions, values and norms that perpetuate poverty
Focused on encouraging work and offering benefits that directly serve children.
How we present ourselves to others using symbols impacts the degree of social power a person is considered to have
-increase in food production
-gives greater power to the producers of these technologies
How does the US rank with other industrialized nations regarding infant mortality?
Are attraction, the ability to get along and shared life goals the only reasons people become romantically involved with others.
-legal and cultural factors that affect our choice are very important as well
heterosexual, married couple and their biological children (usually father is either the sole breadwinner or the primary breadwinner)
-family networks beyond the nuclear family
-(usually beyond the home of the nuclear family)
can consist of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins
refers to marriage to someone within one’s social group (race, ethnicity, class, education, religion, region, or nationality).
-1967 Supreme Court case that ended antimiscegenation laws (laws that said that interracial couples could not marry).
-Mildred Jeter Loving and Richard Loving
-the practice of marrying (or being in a relationship with) one person at a time.
- the only legally recognized form of marriage in Western culture today
-a system of marriage that allows people to have more than one spouse at a time.
- does occur in some other cultures, sub-cultures around the world; not as likely to be considered a legitimate form of marriage
-kind of work that became valuable was the kind that happened outside of the home
-Men were associated with the public world of wage-earning work.
- Women were relegated to the private world of managing a household and raising children, work for which they were not paid.
What is unique about families in the US during the 1950s into the 1960s? Why?
- the process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools are developed, maintained and perpetuated
sociological definition of education
Intended, easily observable; includes curriculum (specific skills taught to particular age groups
Not obvious, not necessarily intended (gender roles, how to interact with peers)
Refers to the knowledge and skills that make someone more productive and bankable.
How is manifest functions applied to education?
How is latent functions applied to education?
-overemphasis on credentials, such as college degrees, for signaling social status or job qualifications
-As more and more people meet the qualifications for certain types of jobs, employers upgrade the requirements in order to weed out more people.
How can Cultural Capital impact educational attainment?
-greater parental involvement
-more informal educational opportunities outside of school
-more confidence in dealing with school bureaucracies
The processes that create and intensify worldwide social exchanges and interdependencies.
Collective organization that formally unites workers
– allows for collective bargaining (more successful than individuals trying to bargain)
What were Weber’s thoughts on capitalism?
Why do employers currently have the opportunity to be selective about workers
- Competition helps maintain a cohesive society.
- Specialization increases productivity and innovation.
- Using money, rather than barter, makes trading more efficient.
- These are the basic tenets of capitalism.
-make profits for shareholders
How are corporations considered to be the same as a person?
an entity that has all the legal rights, duties, and responsibilities of a person
-their primary goal is generally pursuit of profit
What did Simmel propose about capitalism?
- trade with currency rather than barter, corporations and employers found it easier to deal with employees in a “professional” manner.
- is it better to have a depersonalized workplace or if personalization helps to facilitate a better workplace
What did Simmel propose about the economy?
-Changing from piecework payment to wage labor to a salary would depersonalize exchange.
- This was a great way to separate public and private spheres and give workers more freedom to enjoy the private, or leisure, sphere.
the justifiable right to exercise power
What are the types of legitimate authority?
Authority based on the personal appeal of an individual leader
authority is based on legal, impersonal rules that have been routinized and rationalized.
What is a bureaucracy?
What is coercion?
What are the 3 types of citizenship rights described by Marshall?
What rights to participate in politics, hold office, or vote
guarantees protection by the state
The use of military or economic force to influence behavior.
The use of cultural or ideological means to influence behavior.
A system of government where the power lies with the people, who can vote and participate in the political system.
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