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Name the gases in the atmosphere from most abundant to least abundant
It is the NATURAL heating of the Earth’s surface caused by greenhouse gases. Solar radiation reaches Earth’s surface and is reradiated as long wavelengths radiation. This radiation cannot escape through the atmosphere, and is absorbed and released by atmospheric gases.
Our planet would be cold, like Mars which has an extremely thin atmosphere and surface temperatures that dip to -90o C.
The movement of heat or electricity through something (such as metal or water).
Example - a pan on a hot stove will cook an egg that is on the pan because the pan has contact with the hot stove.
The TRANSFER of energy through space by visible light.
Example - Light and heat energy radiate from the sun to the earth and heat the Earth.
Convection-movement in a gas or liquid in which the warmer parts rise and the colder parts sink.
Example - On a hot day the 2nd story of a building is hotter than a basement bc heat rises and cool air sinks.
Most weather takes place here and most pollutions collects here.
Made up of primarily concentrated ozone. Heated bc the ozone traps heat.
No concentrated ozone in this layer so the temp cools down.
Contains a minute amount of the atmosphere's mass as there is very little air.
The air that does exist is heated to above 1000C.
is the lower part of the thermosphere and contains electrically charged particles which are responsible for the Northern Lights we see from Earth.
the outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere.
Light gases such as helium and hydrogen exist here.
Beyond this is outerspace.
Ozone layer is formed by the addition of a third oxygen atom to an oxygen molecule (O3), that exists in the atmosphere and absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Found in the stratosphere.
Explain how the ozone layer is necessary for life on Earth, how does it protect us?
It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
If ozone didn't do this, our fragile skin could not tolerate exposure to the sun for long.
Temperature- is the measurement of how fast or slow molecules or atoms move around. It is the measurement of kinetic energy (energy of motion) in a substance.
Faster moving molecules generate a higher temperature than slow moving molecules.
Heat- is the transfer of energy that occurs because of a difference in temperature between substances.
Polar, temperate, dry, and tropical.
Tropical- warm year round. Rainforests have high precipitation.
Mid Latitude/temperate- the only climate that has distinct seasons.
Warm summers and cool winters, depending on where you are.
We (in NC) live in the temperate climate zone.
Polar- temperature of warmest month doesn’t exceed 10 degrees C. Low temps and precipitation.
Dry- covers 30% of earth’s land area. Largest climate zone. Contains most of the world’s deserts. Many located near the tropics.
Low precipitation and vegetation is scarce.
Climate- is weather measured over a LONG period of time.Weather- is SHORT TERM variations such as temperature and precipitation. (the current state of the atmosphere)
evaporation- the process of water changing from a liquid to a gas.
condensation- is the change of water from its gaseous form (water vapor) into liquid water.
It deflects moving particles such as air to the right above the equator and to the left below the equator.
Caused by Earth’s rotation.
Responsible for wind directions.
Once they reach the ozone layer, they react with ozone to destroy it.
(cT) continental tropical - warm and dry
(mT) maritime tropical - warm and humid
(cP) continental polar - cold and dry
(mP) maritime polar - cold and humid
A "watch" means watch out for what the weather could do, be ready to act.
A warning means that the dangerous weather is threatening the area.
Why does the Earth have a hole in the ozone layer? Where in the world is the hole the largest?
The natural balance of stratospheric ozone has been upset by the production and release into the atmosphere of ozone depleting substances (CFC's).
The hole is the largest over Antarctica.
Sunspots are spots on the sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to their surrounding.
Dark because they are much cooler than the surrounding surface of the sun; can cause warming effect on Earth
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including light, radio waves, and X-rays. Our eyes can only see visible light which we perceive as the colors of the rainbow.
New moon->Waxing crescent->1st quarter->Waxing gibbous->Full moon->Waning gibbous->3rd quarter->Waning crescent
The word crescent refers to the phases where the moon is less than half illuminated. The word gibbous refers to phases where the moon is more than half illuminated. Waxing essentially means "growing" or expanding in illumination, and waning means "shrinking" or decreasing in illumination.
THE terrestrial planets in our Solar System are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
What is transpiration and where does it fit into the water cycle?
What is the difference between point-source and nonpoint source pollution?
Point source- we know the exact location that the pollution is coming from.
Non-point source- we know the general area of the pollution, but not the exact location.
Point source- sewage plant, factory.Non-point source- neighborhood, cars in a big city.
What does the US use most of its water for?
A recharge zone is the surface area surrounding an aquifer from which water in the form of precipitation or surface waters replenishes the groundwater stored in the aquifer.
Where do wells get their water?
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering? Give 2 examples of each.
Explain Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift.
can travel through anything.
Because they don’t know exactly where along a fault line stress will be released and where an earthquake would happen.
Composite: can be quiet or explosive, larger than cinder cone volcanoes and much more dangerous.
Shield: quiet, broad gently sloping sides.
What is the difference between an abiotic factor and a biotic factor? Name 3 examples of each.
Ex: oil, sky, temperature, clouds, precipitation.
What are some examples of human activities that cause CO2 to build up in the atmosphere?
During the dry season the vegetation dies and re-appears rapidly during the rainy season.
Puszta in Hungary, Veldt in South Africa, Pampas in Argentina and Prairies in the USA.
Renewable - can be replenished just as quickly as they're being used.
What are the 3 main types of fossil fuels? Which one do we have the most amount left of?
Explain how solar energy works. Also list at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage to each alternative energy source.
Disadvantages: costs a lot to install, some areas may not have enough sun to power this all day.
Explain how wind energy works. Also list at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage to each alternative energy source.
Explain how biomass energy works. Also list at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage to each alternative energy source.
Disadvantages: still creates air pollution because biomass has to be burned for energy, not efficient, expensive.
Explain how geothermal energy works. Also list at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage to each alternative energy source.
The process of using resources in a way in which they will still be available for future generations such as reducing consumption, increasing efficiency, and using renewable energy.
measures the total area of Earth’s surface that a given person or population uses impacts to maintain their standard of living.
Deforestation and overgrazing remove the natural vegetation of an area which causes the soil to dry up and become dust.
(That is how the dust bowl in the US came to be.)
How is climate and weather affected by the distance from or proximity to a large body of water?
Thus, the summer and winter seasons are milder.
If there are more people on Earth there will be increased demand on all of Earth’s resources such as water, land, food, and energy.
If the population is less than the carrying capacity there there will be less demand for natural resources, thus more natural resources are available.
[[If a population is above the carrying capacity there will be a decrease in the availability of natural resources.]]
the sun helps plants to make their own food.
The main purpose of dams is to store fresh water. The earth's man-made dams collect and stores much of the earth's renewable freshwater supply in reservoirs.
Use water supplies more efficiently.
Loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves, flooding, droughts, more frequent and stronger storms.
Explain what El Nino is and how it happens.
Of all the greenhouse gases which is the one that is usually associated with the greenhouse effect?
Ice Ages and Interglacials (time between ice ages)
These increases are thought to be largely due to human effects -- [[burning fossil fuels.]]
Over time many of the structures on earth, such as the pyramids and the sphinx in Egypt, and global mountain chains get worn down. What geological process is most likely to have caused such wearing down?
Weathering is usually responsible for the wearing down of natural and man made structures over time.
Pollution can affect biotic things directly by killing or making a creature sick. However, pollution can also affect the ph and the quality of soil, which will then affect what can grow in an ecosystem and its diversity.
the water has been contaminated with untreated human or animal waste.
Explain why a factory dumping heated water into an aquatic environment is so dangerous to the things that live in that water?
Advantage-Solar energy does not cause pollution and it is free.
Disadvantage-they are expensive.
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