BSC 170 GENETICS AND SOCIETY Sample first exam for F08. Note: this older exam does not cover the material in the section covering Exceptions and Extensions of Mendelian Genetics. The exam on Tuesday will include questions over that material. Also the exam on Tuesday will have 50 questions and two bonus questions. Fill in the blanks with terms that best fit the following sequence cell, tissue, ______, ______. Quark, electron Organelle, cell. Organ, population Organ, organ system Macromolecule, organelle Which of the following is an example of an organ system: organelles digestive system proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates organisms liver and brain The six elements make up 98% of the mass of living organisms are H, O, N, P, S, and Mg K Ca Cl C H2O (Water) is an example of a(n) Macromolecule Element Molecule Carbohydrate Protein Which of the following is made up of long chains of amino acids? Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Cells Nucleic acids The four basic biological macromolecules are carbohydrates, proteins, ___?___, and ___?___. Sugars, amino acids DNA, RNA Ribosomes, mitochondria Amino acids, lipids Lipids, nucleic acids The two forms of proteins are Glycogen and glucose Structural and regulatory Storage and energy Long chains and branched chains Fats and Oils Collagen is a biological macromolecule composed of three chains of about 1,050 amino acids each. Collagen gives support to skin, tendons and other types of connective tissue. This molecule is most likely A type of nucleic acid Involved in metabolism A structural protein A type of blood protein Biological macromolecules contain some form of chains of carbon atoms. The energy that bound those carbon atoms to each other came from which of the following biological processes: Respiration Photosynthesis Reproduction Response to stimuli The molecules that control metabolism are Fats Sugars Starches E.R. Enzymes A condition caused by the inability to metabolize 3 of the 20 amino acids is called Inherited heart disease Brain damage Lesch-Nyhan syndrome Kidney failure Maple syrup urine disease Lactose intolerance is caused by a shortage of which of the following? Lactase Glucose Galactose Milk sugar Bacteria Which of the following is not a true statement? Cells contain water Cells contain at least 10,000 different types of molecules Cells come from preexisting cells Cells respond to stimuli Cells are about the same size Ribosomes are The site of protein synthesis The site of energy production The ?brain? of the cell Components of milk Which of the following occurs in the Rough ER? Energy production Protein folding Carbohydrate synthesis Glucose synthesis Vitamin synthesis In the making of milk, the protein/sugar molecule is assembled in the Nucleus Ribosomes E.R. Golgi Body Lysosomes What important feature of lysosomes is essential to their task? They store sugar They contain enzymes They make organelles They produce more cells They synthesize fatty acids Which of the following is NOT a true statement about enzymes: They control metabolism They coordinate all life processes They are long chains of amino acids They control how you develop into your physical appearance They are structural proteins Which of the following men is considered the ?father of genetics?? Aristotle Weismann Hippocrates Mendel Einstein Pangenesis is: A proposed theory of heredity that claimed one?s offspring were preformed in the sperm A proposed theory of heredity suggesting that little parts of each organ and body traveled to eggs and sperm A method of cross-breeding corn A theory of heredity proposed by Mendel A method of cross-breeding dogs Mendel?s success was due to which of the following: Suitable organism Accurate notes Remarkable insight Features studied one at a time All of the above The term to describer strains of plants that are uniform in every trait from generation to generation is Hybrid Dihybrid Pure-breeding Reciprocal Heterozygous The allele not expressed in a hybrid individual is said to be Dominant Recessive Pure breeding Expressive The phenotype Genotype is a term for one?s Combination of alleles Phenotype Dominant alleles Eggs and sperm Appearance Mendel?s Law of Segregation is illustrated by Homologues Random distribution of alleles in eggs an sperm Independent Assortment Dominant alleles Pure-breeding lines What does the term ?Heterozygote? refer to? An individual that is homozygous for a gene An individual that has two similar alleles for a gene An individual that has two dissimilar alleles for a gene A parent An offspring Which of the genotypes represents an individual that is a hybrid for that gene? DD dd CD CCDD Dd Eggs and sperm are which of the following? Gametes Dominant phenotypes Recessive phenotypes Zygotes Sex organs Mendel found that the offspring of a monohybrid cross in pea plants always exhibited what genotypic ratio? 3:1 1:2:1 9:3:3:1 1:1 1:1:1:1 A test cross is performed to determine if an individual is a male or female the genotype of an individual with the recessive phenotype which phenotype is dominant the genotype of an individual with the dominant phenotype if two individuals have the same environment Mendel found that offspring of a dihybrid cross in pea plants always exhibited what phenotypic ratio? 3:1 1:2:1 9:3:3:1 1:1 1:1:1:1 Chose the correct number of different types of gametes the following genotype can produce: AaBbCCDdeeFf 4 8 16 32 64 For the remaining questions assume the traits are completely dominant Choose the correct number of different phenotypes possible among the progeny of the following mating: AaBb x AABb 1 2 4 6 8 Choose the correct number of different genotypes possible among the progeny of the following mating: EEFF x EeFf 2 4 6 8 9 What phenotypic ratio is expected among the progeny of the following mating? aaBb x aaBb 1:2:1 9:3:3:1 2:2:1 3:1 3:1:3:1 Assume that Freckles in humans is due to a dominant allele (F) and absence of freckles is due to a recessive allele (f). What is the genotype of a man with freckles who has a mother with freckles and a father without freckles? FF Ff ff F_ Cannot be determined What is the genotype of his mother? FF Ff ff F_ A family being studied has a member which was adopted secretly. This could affect The phenotype of its offspring A pedigree analysis The Law of Dominance The phenotype of its siblings It?s ability to reproduce Questions 39 and 40 are based on the pedigree shown below in which the affected individuals suffer from a syndrome characterized by very curly hair, underdeveloped nails, and abnormally shaped eyelids. Assume the trait is not influenced by either variable expressivity or incomplete penetrance. I. 1 2 3 4 II. 1 2 3 4 5 III. 1 2 3 4 39. Which of the following is an affected female? I-1 I-4 III-1 III-3 40. The syndrome appears to be Due to a dominant allele Only occurs in males Only occurs in females Due to a recessive allele May not be inherited 41. Bonus question: What inherited disorder is characterized by uncontrollable biting of fingers, lips, and shoulders and is caused by the absence of an enzyme used in recycling DNA? Maple Syrup Urine Disease Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome ALD Inherited heart disease Lactose intolerance Key to Sample First Exam for F08 D B E C A E B C B E E A E A B D B E D B E C B A B C E A B D C C B B D B D B C D B BSC 170 GENETICS AND SOCIETY Sample exam for Fall 2008 In living organisms, dead skin cells are replaced by the process of Transformation Mutation Meiosis Mitosis Mitosis ?gone wild? is found in Normal growth Unchecked meiosis Oogenesis Cancer tissue The result of fertilization is a Zygote Polar body Daughter cell Gamete Differences between the production of eggs and sperm include which of the following: Males continually produce sperm while females produce all their ?eggs? (oocytes) before they are born At approximately age 16 males produce ?new? sperm while females ovulate ?old? eggs Only females produce polar bodies All of the above When one stem cell divides it ultimately produces Two specialized cells One stem cell and one differentiated cell Two totipotent cells Two gametes Independent assortment occurs in Mitosis Meiosis Transcription and translation All of the above During the development of a human embryo, some tissue such as webbing between the fingers is destroyed by the process of Meiosis Differentiation Mitosis Apoptosis Natural human clones are Always the same sex Not always the same sex Brothers or sisters twenty years apart Not possible A proto-oncogene Removes normal suppression of cell division Triggers normal cell division Limits the number of times cells can divide Actively promotes cancer Liver cells are examples of Germ cells Haploid cells Somatic cells None of the above A male organism has 2N = 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes will be seen in its sperm? 48 24 12 6 Telomeres are sometimes referred to as Biological clocks Embryonic stem cells Sex cells DNA repair genes DNA repair genes are important in the regulation of mitosis and cancer sometimes faulty, causing mutations to build up in proto-oncogenes sometimes faulty causing mutations to build up in tumor suppressor genes all of the above Watson and Crick Described DNA Cloned ?Dolly? Published x-ray picture of DNA Discovered % A = %T Which nitrogenous base in DNA pairs with Adenine Cytosine Guanine Uracil Thymine Amino acids are the building blocks of Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids RNA Pairs of chromosomes with the same size, shape, location of centromeres, and carrying alleles of the same genes in the same position are termed Condensed Unreplicated Homologous Acrocentric Before the structure of DNA was described scientists knew it consisted of Phosphoric groups, sugar molecules, and a nitrogenous bases All protein Thymine ,cytosine, guanine, or adenine A nucleus and a DNA backbone What does the following diagram of a HYPERLINK "http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://biologica.concord.org/webtest1/Shout3d_cell_6_1_00/images/condensed_chromosome_EM.jpg&imgrefurl=http://biologica.concord.org/webtest1/Shout3d_cell_6_1_00/v2_top_right_chromatin_DNA.htm&h=197&w=200&sz=4&tbnid=GPNhqlWsVssJ:&tbnh=97&tbnw=99&hl=en&start=369&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchromosome%26start%3D360%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN" INCLUDEPICTURE "http://images.google.com/images?q=tbn:GPNhqlWsVssJ:biologica.concord.org/webtest1/Shout3d_cell_6_1_00/images/condensed_chromosome_EM.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET chromosome represent? Condensed, replicated Condensed, unreplicated Uncondensed, replicated Uncondensed, unreplicated The process of meiosis takes place in somatic cells ovaries and testes growth zygotes An enzyme used to restore the tips of DNA is Telomerase Lactase Enzyme A None of the above An individual has the genotype Bb. What are the genotypes of each the four gametes produced from one primary meiocyte? B, B, B, and B B, B, b, and b BB, BB, bb, and bb BB, Bb, Bb, and Bb Which arrangement represents the correct order of steps in the cloning of sheep: Remove nucleus from a somatic cell of adult sheep, insert into an egg where nucleus was removed, start mitosis with small electric jolt, implant embryo into sheep uterus. Start mitosis with small electric jolt, implant embryo into sheep uterus, remove nucleus from a somatic cell of adult sheep, insert into an egg where nucleus was removed. Remove nucleus from a somatic cell of adult sheep, start mitosis with small electric jolt, insert into an egg where nucleus was removed, implant embryo into sheep uterus. Embryonic stem cell surgery may someday Produce humans without the need of sperm Speed the process of mitosis Clone healthy sheep Cure diabetes Which of the following is a result of chromosomes ?crossing over?? Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes Reduction of the tips of chromosomes One ovum and three polar bodies Production of more telomerase During meiosis II Replication takes place Replicated chromosomes divide at the centromeres Random assortment takes place Homologous chromosomes pair A centromere near one end of a chromosome is termed Metacentric Telocentric Acrocentric The frequency of abnormalities in the fetus is correlated to The age of the father The age of the mother Number of pregnancies Number of female children Which of the following is NOT a feature of sperm? Small ?head? containing chromosomes Mitochondria for energy Abundant cytoplasm to ensure growth of zygote Tail for locomotion Which of the following is the fastest dividing tissue? Bone Blood cells in bone marrow Brain Liver Embryonic cells in the 4-cell stage are considered Pluripotent Specialized Totipotent Differentiated Mandy (age 35) feels she is an exceptional person and has decided she would like to be cloned. Which of the following would be true of her clone? She would share the same mind She would be the same age She would have a similar environment She would have similar physical traits Fetal cells grown in culture have been shown to divide Twice as many times than that of adult cells Slightly more than adult cells Fewer times than adult cells About the same number of times as adult cells The term for development of eggs through meiosis is called Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Zoology Primary oocyte The symbol for a nitrogenous base is P in a circle S in a five sided figure The first letter of guanine, cytosine, adenine, or thymine all of the above together Healthy organs are in balance between Mitosis and meiosis Mitosis and apoptosis Monozygotes and dizygotes Mitosis and cancer Fill in the blanks: During DNA replication its original strands separate and then a new strand of ______________________nucleotides forms along each __________________ strand. Complementary, original Identical, original Complementary, duplicated Identical, duplicated ?Spiral staircase? is a term used to describe a(n) DNA Double helix RNA Double helix Condensed chromosome Fill in the blanks: Transcription takes place in the _________________and translation takes place in the________________________. Cytoplasm, nucleus Nucleus, cytoplasm Nucleus, nuclear membrane Nuclear membrane, cytoplasm Which of the following occurs during translation? tRNA molecules deliver amino acids to the ribosome mRNA is assembled Complementary DNA is formed DNA is replicated The genetic code is considered non-ambiguous because The codons are triplet It contains start and stop signals Each codon specifies a specific amino acid It is universal Which type of gene(s) code for RNA that is transcribed AND translated? Only mRNA rRNA and tRNA only tRNA tRNA and mRNA The portion of DNA that does not code for a gene is termed rRNA Sense strand tRNA Spacer DNA Any heritable change in the DNA is termed a Carcinogen Codon Mutation Cancer A silent mutation Shifts the reading frame Produces a protein product in which one of the amino acids is new Has no effect on the protein product Prematurely stops translation Example(s) of a mutagen is(are) Nuclear Radiation Sunlight X-radiation All of the above Metastasis is Initiation of cancer Spreading of cancer from one part of the body to another A result of chemotherapy The condition of being cured of cancer The first step in testing a suspected carcinogen is To test it in laboratory animals To test a milder form in humans To find out if it is a mutagen None of the above A chromosome mutation in a somatic cell does which of the following: May cause cancer Is inherited by offspring Affects all cells in the body None of the above Which of the following is not a characteristic of cancer cells? Not heritable Invasive Divide frequently Dedifferentiated Key to Sample 2nd Exam for Fall 2008 D D A D B B D A B C C A D A D B C A A B A B A D A B C B C B C D A B C B A A B A C A D C C D B C A A SAMPLE THIRD EXAM BSC 170 GENETICS AND SOCIETY An centuries-old example of biotechnology is RFLP Wine making Recombinant RNA technology Making insulin Recombinant DNA technology Uses restriction enzymes Cuts out DNA from one organism and inserts it into another Is used in genetic engineering All of the above None of the above Insulin is now made cheaper through recombinant DNA technology by inserting genes that encode human insulin into Cows Sheep Bacteria Corn Which of the following terms best describes an organism possessing a foreign gene in its cells? RFLP VNTR Mutagen GMO Which of the following terms is associated with DNA fingerprinting? RFLP analysis Bands on a gel Restriction enzymes All of the above Transgenic mice are useful in Drug testing RFLP Making insulin DNA fingerprinting Fill in the blank: Determining the sequences of the _____________ base pairs that make up human DNA is a goal The Human Genome project. Three hundred thousand Ten Million Twenty million Three billion One of the controversial issues concerning the use of GMO?s is the risk of Escape of GMO?s into the natural environment Undermining monopolies Creating of an obese population Requiring increased use of fertilizers A complete (diploid) set of human chromosomes consists of 22 autosomes and one sex chromosome 23 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes 22 sex chromosomes and 2 autosomes 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes In general human females are The heterogametic sex The homogametic sex The sex of a child (with normal sex chromosomes ) is determined by The father?s sperm The mother?s egg The development of the gonads into ovaries or testes is due to a cascade of events initiated by The SRY Barr bodies B-cells The entire Y-chromosome The indifferent gonads with develop into ovaries when No Y-chromosome is present No X-chromosome is present A Y-chromosome is present An X-chromosome is present A person who appeared to be female at birth but developed secondary male sex characteristics at puberty probably suffers from the condition termed Trisomy 21 Klinefelter Syndrome Non-disjunction Pseudohermaphroditism What is a Barr body? An inactivated autosome An inactivated X-chromosome An inactivated Y-chromosome An extra chromosome found in an aneuploid individual How many Barr bodies would be expected to occur in a somatic cell from an XXY individual? None One Two Three Calico coat color(patches of black and yellow-orange) in cats is due to Mosaicism in heterozygotes Mosaicism in homozygotes A sex influenced trait None of the above Fill in the blank: The frequency of ______________ is said to be 1/200 individuals Triple X syndrome Turner syndrome Extra Y syndrome All X and Y abnormalities The secondary sex ratio is The proportion of females to males at conception The proportion of males to females at conception The proportion of females to males at birth The proportion of males to females a birth Fill in the blanks: Proteins are long chains of ___________ whose sequence is determined by ______________ Amino acids, the genetic code Amino acids, rRNA Nucleic Acids, the genetic code Nucleic Acids, gene clusters A person with a monosomic condition has _____________ chromosomes 2n 2n-1 2n+1 2n+2 Nondisjunction occurs when The SRY does not function Protein synthesis fails during development Chromosomes fail to separate properly during either meiosis l or ll Chromosomes fail to separate properly during fertilization Another name for Down Syndrome is Monosomy-21 Trisomy-21 Patau disease Pseudohermaphroditism Which of the following is a chromosome abnormality that describes individuals who are 2n+1, male, having underdeveloped testes, can be treated with testosterone, and occur 1/500 male births: XXY XY XO XXXY An individual?s sexual identity depends on The presence or absence of a Y-chromosome The development of gonads and external sex organs The development of secondary sexual characteristics The way a person thinks of itself All of the above Which blood group is said to have natural antibodies? MN ABO Rh All of the above What is true about a man involved in a paternity case where he has blood type AB, the mother has blood type O, and the child has blood type A? The man is definitely the father The man is definitely not the father The man could be the father A second pregnancy may present a life-threatening situation to the baby of couples where The mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive The mother is Rh positive and the father is Rh negative Both are Rh positive Both are Rh negative A gene cluster on chromosome 6 in humans, that includes many genes that encode components of the immune system is termed Sex-determining region Sex-linkage Rh incompatibility Major Histocompatibilty Region People who have AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Did not inherit it Are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Are not resistant to the infecting virus All of the above Viruses Are infectious forms of bacteria Consist mainly of nucleic acid inside a protein coat Can reproduce very fast without the help of living cells Are not infectious Proteins which attach to foreign antigens and immobilize them are termed Red blood cells Antibodies Macrophages T-helper cells Proteins on the outside of cell membranes that identify your cells as being a part of you are termed White blood cells Antibodies Antigens Sex cells Individuals that are said to have blood type MN possess Both M and N antigens Both anti-M and anti-N antibodies Rh negative blood Type O antigen Which of the following blood types has multiple alleles (more than two)? Rh ABO MN None of the above Someone who has blood type AB can safely receive blood Only from someone who has blood type AB Only from someone who has blood type O From someone who has blood type A, B, AB, or O From no one What type of cell does the HIV infect and destroy? Red blood cells Stomach cells B-cells T helper cells Individuals who are homozygous recessive for the CCR5 gene Are resistant to some forms of HIV May become infected with HIV but the disease progresses slowly Will easily become infected with HIV Have extra binding sites to HIV Disorders in which the body produces antibodies against its own healthy tissue are termed Aneuploidy Syndromes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Blood diseases Autoimmune diseases The incidence of Down Syndrome is related to The presence of fetal cells in the mother The inactivation of an X chromosome The age of the mother The number of Barr bodies A certain gene has 4 alleles. How many genotypes are possible? 4 8 10 20 Plus 12 more questions possibly including, but not limited to, the following topics: Vectors Homosexuality Human autosomal Trisomy Down Syndrome and ultrasound PCR Blood cells Autoimmune diseases Prenatal diagnosis of ambiguous sex X-linked conditions/diseases X-linked genetic crosses Alteration of sex ratio Key to Sample Third Exam F 2008 B D C D D A D A D B A A A D B B A D D A B C B A E B C A D D B B C A B C D A D C C Sample Final Exam Fall 2008 The following questions are merely a sample. There will be about 20 questions over ppts. 11 and 12 and another 30 over topics covered in previous exams. Below are the numbers of each genotype found in a population of house wrens: BB Bb bb Total 245 210 45 500 What is the value of ?q?? 0.3 0.6 0.7 45 255 Which of the following is true about the above population? It is not reproducing randomly It changes genotypic frequencies with each generation It is rapidly evolving It is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Individuals who choose mates with similar genotypes are described as having what type of mating system? Panmixia Assortative Disassortative Outbreeding Which of the following are forces capable of changing p and q? Mutation Migration Genetic Drift Natural Selection All of the above The proportion of individuals with a certain genotype that survive to reproduce into the next generation is termed Inbreeding coefficient Relative fitness Environmental component Correlation coefficient The proportion of harmful alleles in a population will not change if Selection and mutation rates are in equilibrium Mutation rates are greater than selection rates The heterozygote has an advantage The dominant allele has an advantage Both a and c High rates of sickle cell disease in Africa are associated with high rates of PKU Trisomy 21 Inborn errors of metabolism AIDS Malaria Quantitative genetics deals with Discrete variables Only harmful alleles Traits with complex inheritance Only the environmental component of genetics A person with the genotype AaBb for skin color has how many pigment-producing alleles? 0 1 2 3 4 Heritability can be estimated using by measuring the proportion of genes that two related people share. This can be used to calculate Concordance Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Rare fetal cells A correlation coefficient Addititivity Sampling fetal cells from the fluid surrounding a fetus and testing them for genetic abnormalities is called Chorionic villus sampling A sonogram Amniocentesis Fetal cell sorting A large number of twins were examined for a particular trait, and it was reported that the percentage of concordance among pairs of identical twins was 56% while the percentage concordance observed for fraternal twins was 31%. These results suggest: That the trait is influenced by heredity, That some of the fraternal twins may have been adopted, That the trait is probably not influenced by heredity The trait is influenced by just one gene None of the above are correct Key to Sample Final for Fall 2008 A D B E B E E C C D C A PAGE 1 PAGE 5
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