Chapter 6: Language and Intercultural Communication Language as a Barrier in ICC - Translation Problems Components of Language: 1. Semantics:The study of words and meaning. 2. Syntactics: The study of the structure, or grammar, of a language. 3. Pragmatics:The study of how meaning is constructed in relation to receivers and how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities. 4. Phonetics: The study of the sound system of a language. Lack of Vocabulary Equivalence: Language and Perception Nominalist Position: The view that perception is not shaped by the particular language one speaks. Relativist Position: The view that the particular language individuals speak, especially the structure of the language, shapes their perception of reality and cultural patterns. ? Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language defines our experience. ? 3 areas of research: 1. Language Acquisition in Children: 2. Cross-Cultural Differences in Language: 3. Cognition of Children who are Deaf: Qualified Relativist Position: A moderate view of the relationship between language and perception. Language as a too, rather than a prison. ? George Lakoff ? color concepts are maintained by 3 factors: 1. Neurophysiological apparatus: refers to the biological process of seeing certain pure hues such as red, blue, white, and black 2. Universal cognitive apparatus:the way we compute other colors, such as orange or purple. 3. Culturally determined choices that we apply to the input of the universal cognitive apparatus: th way we organize these colors because different languages have different ways of categorizing all these colors. Language and Globalization: English as the international language Globalization Variation in Communication Style Low-Context Communication Style: High-Context Communication Style: Chapter 7: Nonverbal Codes and Cultural Space Role of Nonverbal Communication in ICC Immigrant Photographs Nonverbal Codes 1. Kinesics: 2. Haptics: 3. Proxemics: 4. Olfactics: 5. Semiotics: The analysis of the nature of and relationships between signs in language. 1. excersizes 6. Paralanguage: 7. Chronemics: 8. Eye Contact: 9. Silence: Chapter 8: Understanding Intercultural Transitions Dialectical understanding of intercultural transitions Privilege Dialectic: ? ex. Business people who live abroad ? economically privileged; they receive additional pay, housing and relocation money, etc. ? meet many people through work + can afford to travel to new host location Disadvantage Dialectic: ? ex. Refugees often lack resources in their new host location, may have been chosen out of necessity ? few opportunities to: ? meet new people ? travel in their new homeland ? or purchase basic necessities ? Personal-contextual Dialectic: ? in adapting to new cultural contexts, ppl may be challenged to be culturally competent by behaving in ways that may be contradictory to their personal identity ? ex. Muslim woman may feel she can't wear her chador in certain U.S. contexts & thus can't express her religious identity ? Dialectic calls for a balance between the individual and contextual demands. Types of Migrant Groups Migrant: an individual who leaves the primary cultural context in which he/she was raised and moves to a new cultural context for an extended time. May relocate because of an unstable sociopolitical reason. ? 4 types of migrant groups: ? Voluntary Travelers: ? Sojourners: People who move into new cultural context's for a limited period of time and for a specific purporse, such as for study or business ? ppl who have freedom + means to travel ? Immigrant: families who voluntarily leave one country to settle in another ? may be for: ? in search of freedom, or to join other family members ? escape war, famine, or poverty ? Involuntary Migrants: ? long-term refugees: people who are forced to relocate permanently because of famine, war, and oppression ? short-term refugees: People who are forced for a short time to move from their region or country. ? reasons: natural disasters etc. Migrant-Host Relationships Assimilation:A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual gives up his/her own cultural heritage and adopts the mainstream cultural identity Separation: A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual retains his original culture while interacting minimally with other groups. ? This may be initiated and enforced by the dominant society, in which case it becomes segregation. ? Segregation: The policy or practice of compelling groups to live apart from each other. Integration: A type of cultural adaptation in which individuals maintain both their original culture and their daily interactions with other groups. ? insist on speaking their own language Marginalization:A type of cultural adaptation in which an individual expresses little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant or the migrant culture. Culture Shock & Cultural Adaptation Cultural Adaptation: A process by which individuals learn the rules and customs of new cultural contexts. ? 3 types of communication approaches to studying cultural adaptation ? Dialectical Perspective: incorporates both the individual and contextual. 1. Social Science Approach: emphasizes the role of personal characteristics of the immigrant 2. Interpretive Approach: focuses on the experience of the migrant in the adaptation context. 3. Critical Approach: explores the role of larger contexts that influence cultural adaptation ? social institutions and history, politics, economic structure Models of Cultural Adaptation Social Science Approach: Includes 3 models: 1. Anxiety and Uncertainty Model: 1. 2. Transition Model: 3. Integrative Model ? Uncertainty reduction: ? Predictive Uncertainty: ? Explanatory uncertainty: ? Flight Approach: ? Fight Approach: ? Flight Approach: ? Fight Approach: Individual Influences on Adaptation Individual Influences on Adaptation: ? Age: ? Younger people may: ? have an easier time adapting ? less fixed in ideas, beliefs, and identities ? Find it harder returning home ? Older People: ? have more trouble adapting ? they are less flexible Preparation: ? People may experience more culture shock in England than in other European countries because they expect little difference between cultures vs. visiting the middle east for instance ? but may not change as much making it easier to return home Chapter 9: Folk Culture, Popular Culture, and Intercultural Communication Popular Culture Characteristics of Popular Culture: Popular Culture Popular Culture: A new name for low culture, referring to those systems or artifacts that most people share and know about, including television, videos, and popular magazines. Social/Cultural Identity: Hall's encoding & Decoding Model: Consuming & Resisting Popular Culture Media Portrayal of Social Groups & Implications Popular Culture and Power, Cultural Imperialism Chapter 10: Culture, Communication, and Intercultural Relationships Benefits and Challenges of Intercultural Relationships Dialectics of Relationships Personal-Contextual Dialectic Differences-Similarities Dialectic: Cultural Differences in Relational Development Managing Intercultural Relationship Chapter 11: Culture, Communication, and Conflict Intercultural Conflict Defined Characteristics of Intercultural Conflict Orientations to Conflict Conflicts as Opportunity (constructive) Conflicts as Destructive Cultural Differences in Conflict Views Types of Conflict Conflict Management Styles The Influence of Individualism & Collectivism (Hofstede's Value Dimension) Chapter 12: The Outlook for Intercultural Communication The components of competence: Motivation: Knowledge Skills Applying Knowledge about Intercultural Communication In Addition... Communication Accommodation Theory (Bb) Hofstede's Value Dimensions Hall's Low- & High-Context Communication Styles
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