A psychologist explains a woman's fear of snakes in terms of her unconscious fear of her father. This psychologist is using which approach to personality?
A personality psychologist who focuses on the stable patterns of aggressive behavior in schoolchildren that may be related to genetic predispositions follows the
A psychologist attributes a boy's poor social skills to his lack of contact with children who model appropriate behavior. The psychologist is using which approach to personality?
Greg believes that aggressive behavior in his coworkers is an expression of frustration that results from unsatisfied basic needs.He believes in the
Which approach to personality presents the most idealistic picture of human nature?
Which of the following is an explanation that personality researchers from the biological approach give for aggressive behavior
The inheritance of a proclivity to be aggressive.
An adaptive mechanism according to evolutionary theory.
Levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.
A psychologist develops a test to measure individual differences in social anxiety. She obtains social anxiety scores from a large group of participants, and then tries to predict how those scoring high on the test will act in a social situation as compared to those scoring low. This psychologist would probably be identified with which approach to personality?
Which of these is not a characteristic of an individual in a collectivist culture?
Success identified with personal achievement
Which of the four components necessary for the study of personality is characterized by inventories, direct observations, and tests?
The component necessary for the study of personality known as assessment is characterized by which of the following?
Inventories, tests, and direct observations.
A man has the opportunity to cheat his business partner, but he is so worried about getting caught that he does not.In Freudian theory, the man was probably prevented from cheating by his
A man has a strong unconscious urge to cheat his business associates, but he complains that he can’t trust them because they will cheat and steal from him if he gives them half a chance. The man is exhibiting
Freud said the actions of the ego were characterized as following which principle?
A man is angry with his wife, but instead of confronting her, he takes out his anger on his children. This is an example of
According to Freud, the ego uses defense mechanisms in order to
Nathan is 37 years old. He smokes and drinks excessively and is constantly putting his hand to his mouth. What might Freud have said about Nathan?
Nathan had some traumatic experiences during the oral stage of development.
According to Freud, fixation results in
adult personality characteristics related to the stage at which the fixation occurred.
According to Freud, to make sense of a patient’s dream, a therapist needs to understand the
dream’s latent content.
During free association, a patient is encouraged to
say whatever comes into his or her mind.
The use of _____ requires an individual to respond to ambiguous stimuli.
Which of the following is not a step in successful psychoanalysis?
Clients in therapy who claim they forgot a regular appointment with their therapist could be displaying a form of
Which of the following theorists would be most likely to argue that the roots of adult personality are largely formed in childhood?
Who was the first neo-Freudian theorist to break with Freud?
Wanda was the hardest working student in her school. Her constant efforts were rewarded at graduation when she received an award as the university’s best math student. She confessed at that time that in elementary school she had failed math and was told by her teacher that she should pick an occupation that did not require her to work with numbers. What might Alfred Adler have said about Wanda?
Her striving for achievement resulted from her earlier feelings of inferiority.
According to Jung, if a man is attracted to a woman, it is because
she matches his own unconscious feminine image.
Erikson talked about people encountering crises in personality development. Which of the following is correct about his description of a crisis?
How we resolve the crisis determines the direction our personality develops.
The last stage of personality development described by Erikson typically occurs when in the life cycle?
Which of the following neo-Freudian theorists called his approach “analytic psychology”?
The neo-Freudian theorist who stimulated the most discussion about religion was
According to Jung, modern psychotherapists often take on the role once provided by
Compared to Freud’s theory, the neo-Freudian theories generally are
more concerned with the social aspects of personality development.
Which of the following assumptions underlies the trait approach to personality?
Personality characteristics are relatively stable over time.
If we say Ted is high on the personality trait of assertiveness, we would expect that he will act assertively
more often than someone low in assertiveness.
Traits were introduced into the field of personality psychology by
A man is said to have one personality trait that dominates his personality. Allport would identify this personality trait as a
Allport called the five to 10 traits that best describe an individual’s personality
Which theorist had a strong influence on Henry Murray’s theorizing about personality?
Which theorist identified psychogenic needs as the basic elements of personality?
Sometimes a man with a high need for Affiliation will engage in social interactions, but sometimes he will not. According to Murray, what determines the man's affiliation behavior?
The strength of his need for Affiliation relative to other needs
Murray referred to each environmental force that activates a need as a(n)
In his quest to understand the basic structure of personality, Cattell relied heavily on
Personality psychologists use factor analysis to help them determine
which personality traits correlate together.
According to Cattell, which of the following traits ultimately constitute the human personality?
Recently, many researchers using factor analysis have uncovered what they believe to be the number of basic personality factors. How many of these factors did they find?
Karen always approaches tasks in an organized, faithful manner.She persists at a difficult job longer than most people and generally accomplishes more.Karen is probably high in
Andrew has strong opinions and enjoys a good argument in which he can stand up for his beliefs.He prefers to work where he can compete with others, rather than an organization that stresses cooperation.Andrew would probably score low on a measure of
Alicia has an active imagination and a strong intellectual curiosity.She likes new ideas and unconventional ways of looking at problems.Alicia is probably high in
Tonya often becomes upset over daily stressors.More than most people, she experiences such emotions as sadness, anger and anxiety.This description of Tonya is best accounted for by which of the factors in the five-factor model?
Each of the following is true about the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) except one. Which one?
It provides test givers with an overall mental health score for each test-taker.
Test-takers who “fake good”
are trying to present a better image than is accurate.
A psychologist knows the man he is testing wants to be admitted into the psychiatric ward of the hospital. With which problem should the psychologist be concerned?
Social desirability scales measure the extent to which a person
tries to present him- or herself in a desirable light.
A man tends to have strong reactions to emotional events. He becomes overly excited and panics when facing even mild stress, and takes a long time to recover from these experiences. Eysenck might say this man is high on which personality dimension?
A woman likes to spend her time with others, enjoys loud music, often acts impulsively, and does not like to be alone.According to Eysenck’s model of personality, this woman is
People who are easily upset or have a quick temper are high in
A five-year-old boy is controlled and gentle. He is reluctant to play with new children and hesitates when entering new situations. Temperament researchers would probably identify this child as
The form of anxiety shown by inhibited children that comes from their exposure to unfamiliar people, settings, or challenges is called
anxiety to novelty
A psychologist purchases an electroencephalograph (EEG) for use in his research. The psychologist is interested in measuring
A psychologist wants to conduct research on cerebral asymmetry. She wants to examine
differences in right- and left-hemisphere activity.
The humanistic approach to personality is most similar to
A woman tells a humanistic psychotherapist that she wants to leave an unhappy relationship, but that she can’t. The therapist will probably set as a goal that the woman comes to understand that
she should take responsibility for her choice to stay in or leave the relationship.
Each of the following is an element of humanistic psychology except one.Which one?
Which of the following is correct about subception, as described by Rogers?
It takes place at a level somewhere below consciousness.
According to Rogers, what is the most common defense process?
A boy hits his younger sister. What might a Rogerian therapist recommend the parents say to the child?
“I love you, but I do not like it when you hit your sister.”
According to Maslow, an adult is likely to take care of which of the following needs first?
A steady income
After a woman has more or less satisfied all of the needs on Maslow’s hierarchy except the last one, what need will now have a strong influence on her behavior?
The need to develop her full potential, to be her true self
According to Maslow, the motive that results from a lack of some object is called a _____ motive.
According to Maslow, a man who has satisfied his physiological and safety needs will probably become highly aware of his need for
friends and a romantic relationship
According to Rogers, the therapist’s job is to
provide an atmosphere within which clients are able to help themselves.
As a client becomes more fully functioning during the course of several psychotherapy sessions, we would expect the correlation between his or her real and ideal selves t
When Pavlov conditioned his dogs to salivate upon hearing a bell, the bell was the
Which of the following is the term in the scientific community that refers to the process Pavlov used in his famous demonstrations of learning?
From his observations of cats escaping from a “puzzle box” to obtain a piece of fish, Thorndike developed a theory that is known as
the law of effect.
Tony’s mother wants him to learn to play with other children. She begins by offering him a quarter whenever he plays with other children near by, even if he plays by himself. Later she gives him a quarter only when he plays on the same playground equipment other children are playing on. Finally, she gives him a quarter only if he actually plays with the other children. Tony's mother is demonstrating how to use
Positive and negative reinforcement are similar in that both procedures
are used to increase the frequency of a behavior.
John’s mother wants her son to stop crying every time something goes wrong. Following a psychologist’s advice, she stops running to comfort John whenever the boy starts crying over some minor incident. After a few weeks, she notices that John cries much less frequently than he used to. This is an example of
A person can learn a behavior without ever performing it. This concept is part of which approach to personality?
Bandura’s social-cognitive theory
Children in one study observed a model acting aggressively against a Bobo doll. The children were then given an opportunity to imitate the model on their own, followed by an opportunity to demonstrate the aggressive acts for rewards. The study was designed to demonstrate
the distinction between learning and performance.
Watson paired a loud noise with the appearance of a white rat to create a fear of the animal in a boy known as Little Albert. Watson performed this experiment to demonstrate that
phobias can develop through classical conditioning.
The conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in Watson and Rayner’s experiment with a baby known as Little Albert were, respectively,
a white rat and a loud noise.
Systematic desensitization is used by behavior therapists to help clients suffering from which problem?
Token economy treatment programs are based on what concept?
A behavior modification therapist wants to teach a client to relax. The therapist wants to teach the client to pay attention to when his muscles are tense. However, the client complains that he cannot tell when his muscles are tense. What type of treatment will the therapist probably try?
The self-monitoring method may have problems due to the fact that
the client may be dishonest about his or her behavior.
A behavior modification therapist wants his client to record for a week how often and under what circumstances the client bites his fingernails. The therapist is using which assessment procedure?
The cognitive approach to personality explains differences in personality as differences in the way people
Kelly presented a “man-as-scientist” conception of human personality, meaning that
people constantly try to predict and control the events in their lives
To obtain a sense of predictability, Kelly suggests that we engage in
Joshua classifies each person he meets as either sensitive or insensitive.A cognitive personality theorist would probably say that sensitive-insensitive is an example of a
Kelly suggested that the better we understand another person’s construct system, the better
we will get along.
According to Kelly, psychological problems are caused by
faulty construct systems.
According to Kelly, anxiety results when
people can’t predict future events.
Your self-schema consists of those aspects of your behavior that are
most important to you.
One function served by our “possible selves” is to
provide incentives for future behavior.
A researcher examines not only how people think of themselves today, but also the kind of person they want to become or are afraid of becoming.The researcher is probably investigating
According to Ellis, people have psychological problems due to faulty reasoning based on
When cognitive psychotherapists teach clients how to handle recurring problems, it is often an attempt to eliminate
Albert Ellis’s goal in rational emotive therapy is to
replace clients’ irrational beliefs with rational ones.
A strength of the cognitive approach is that it fits well with
current trends in the field of psychology
Karen Horney’s view of personality was that it does not even exist in the absence of interpersonal relations.
While research shows that personalities continue to develop, the changes are gradual, evolving over a period of years.
The projective test that Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
According to Carl Rogers, individuals progress toward an ultimate satisfying state of being self-actualized.
Maslow believed very few people reach self-actualization, which is the point at which their potential is fully developed.
Behaviorists believe that conditioning principles can be examined to understand the process that shape our personalities.
The cognitive approach to personality explains differences in personality as differences in the way people respond to stress.
According to Kelly, people want to understand the world so that they can predict and control what happens to them.
According to Ellis, people have psychological problems because of faulty reasoning due to unconscious impulses.
The biological approach argues that people's unconscious minds are largely responsible for personality differences.
The trait approach identifies where a person might lie along a continuum of personality characteristics.
Psychologists who take the cognitive approach to personality would suggest that aggressive behavior is learned because it has been rewarded
Cognitive personality psychologists suggest people become depressed because of the way they interpret their ability to control events.
To achieve a full understanding, a personality researchers must examine psychological topics from more than one approach.
The primary job of the ego is to satisfy id impulses in a manner that takes reality into consideration.
The techniques the ego uses to deal with unwanted thoughts and desires are collectively known as defense mechanisms.
One defense mechanism that is successful, productive, and adaptive is reaction formation.
In the interpretation of dreams, Freud called what the dreamer sees and remembers the latent content of dream.
When a patient declares to his therapist that the therapy isn't helping and he wants to stop treatment, the patient is developing a necessary part of therapy called transference.
Adler's assessment of middle children was positive
The neo-Freudian theorist who named his approach analytic psychology was Erik Erikson.
Erik Erikson observed that overly protective parents hinder the development of a sense of what he called autonomy.
To discover the structure of personality, Cattell used a sophisticated statistival technique called correlation analysis.
Research has shown that among the Big Five personality factors, the best predictor of performance is conscientiousness.
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