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In codominance, both allele phenotypes are exhibited by heterozygotes (ex: MN blood group)…both alleles are dominant; dominant alleles are seen in the phenotype and produce enough of product so one allele is enough; with two recessive alleles, not enough of whatever protein product dominant allele makes
What is the inheritance pattern of a single gene with a dominant and recessive allele?
Know the differences between dominant and recessive
What is the inheritance pattern of two genes on separate chromosomes assuming independent assortment?
Unlinked can segregate independently, and possibly see 9:3:3:1 (difference between linked vs. unlinked)
What is the inheritance pattern of two genes on the same chromosome?
How does incomplete dominance relate to codominance?
What are examples of incomplete dominance and codominance?
What are antigens?
What antigens are part of the ABO blood group?
A, B, AB, are the antigens
What are the alleles associated with the ABO blood group?
What is the relationship between X-inactivation and Barr bodies?
in mammalian females, one of two X chromosomes in each cell is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, then the inactive X condenses into a Barr body
What is responsible for differences in IQ in a population?
How can heritability (h2) be computed from comparisons between parents and offspring?
If the heritability of IQ is 0.7 then what would be the expected IQ of parents with IQ of 90?
What do T and B cells of the immune system do?
What are memory cells?
What is the difference in immune responses between the first and subsequent antigen challenges?
What are three main types of immune cells?
What do they do on antigen challenge?
What organs are involved in the generation of B and T cells?
What are cytokines for and what immune cells make them?
If IQ has a heritability of 0.7, then the expected IQ of children with parents with average IQ of 60 is:
26. The standard deviation of IQ is ____ IQ points?
What does heritability quantify?
Know the relationships between parents, offspring and heritability?
What is regression to the mean?
Children will be more average than the parents; higher IQ parents will have lower IQ children on average, lower IQ parents will have higher IQ children on average
Know the types of traits that lead to low, medium and high heritabilities and why:
traits that are essential for survival of the population have LOW heritability b/c selection has made all individuals as perfect as possible, so when everyone’s perfect, any variation after that would have to be due to environment; traits not essential for survival can tolerate wide variation in heritability..unimportant traits have HIGHER heritability (i.e. height, weight, IQ h2>.5); traits of intermediate importance to survival have intermediate heritabilities (i.e. h2 is 0.2-0.4 for growth traits like rate at which skills are developed)
What are the dominance relationships in the ABO blood group?
If a child has blood type IA/IO, what blood types can the parents have?
IA/IA, IA/i, ii, IA/IB, IB/i (everything except IB/IB)
Allele IA leads to the red cell to have which antigen on the cell surface?
What cells undergo apoptosis in the development of sex organs in the male?
vas deferen cells
What are the morula and the blastocyst? What are their shapes?
What gene is critical to making a person male or female? What molecules are critical for making a person male or female?
Why does oligospermia (sperm at low concentrations) lead to infertility?
Where is meiosis arrested in human egg production?
What are polar bodies?
What is the blastocoels? Where is it?
How are monozygotic twins formed? Conjoined twins?
They are formed by a small embryo>blastula (ball) if that ball comes completely apart you will have twins.
If the ball only comes partly aparat the result is conjoined twins.
What is a consequence of the absence of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone receptors on cells responsible for the male phenotype?
Will not develop male phenotype (testosterone leads to internal male structures i.e. epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts, and DHT leads to external male structures i.e. urethra, prostate, penis, scrotum) Become phenotypically female.
What does anti-Muellerian hormone do?
What is the role of macrophages in the activation of T and/or B lymphocytes?
Where do blood cells, both red and white, originate?
In the bone marrow
What is the theory behind vaccination?
How can antibodies cause red blood cells to clump together (hemagglutionation)?
How do antibodies and complement work together to kill red cells?
Antibody binding (i.e. of A antigen) causes shape change in Fc tail of IgG and IgM antibodies, thereby causing a series of chain rxns in which a complement protein senses a shape change and cuts another soluble complement protein which can cut another to make a protein pore in a membrane to cause liquid to rush in and explode the cell (IgG & IgM are the blood antibody classes)
What is the explanation of all the symptoms of sickle cell disease starting from the mutation of the βA allele to the βS allele for the β polypeptide of hemoglobin?
Aneuploidy - abnormal number of chromosomes, typically one more or less
Polyploidy - More than 2 haploid sets (ex: cancer cell, triploidy, tetraploidy)
Haploidy - 1 full set of haploid cells - same as in a germ cell
-Aneuploidy of sex chromosomes: i.e Klinefeltersyndrome – XXY (male with some female characteristics), Turner’s syndrome - XO (sterile woman with no sex organs)
What are examples of polyploidy in plants? What are the differences in the structures of gametes from tetraploid and triploid plants?
Polyploidy in seedless fruit-triploids: oysters, grapes, banana, orange, watermelon, etc
Gametes from tetraploid plants would have 2 paired copies of each chromosome type, while gametes from triploid plants would have randomly unpaired chromosomes resulting in extreme aneuploidy and leading to the death of the gametes or zygote
~(So gametes/seeds of triploid fruits have extreme aneuploidy and die)
What is a reproductive consequence of triploidy?
What is a source of new genes in evolution?
Why do more older women than older men have decreased fertility and increased chromosomally abnormal fertilizations?
What can generate gene duplications? What is often generated at the same time?
--i.e. w/ red green color blindness two X’s can misalign the opsin genes when crossing over so that one X ends up with duplicated opsin genes and other X is missing opsin gene
-- new genes/ genes w/ new functions?
Why are gene duplications important for evolution?
It can lead to new gene functions (i.e. pseudogenes that aren’t useful anymore can keep getting more mutations to turn into a useful type of gene again and/or create gene families)
How is a test cross used in assessing genetic (linkage) map distances?
Not going to ask about this specifically..just know if two genes are far apart then recombination will occur, if two genes close together, recombination won’t occur and so offspring in testcross would have only parent phenotype
What is a process involved in both HIV entry into host cells, the function of acrosomes and cortical granules?
What does the host range refer to for a virus?
What is common between DNA genetic engineering and HIV infection?
In HIV infection the virus hits the cells through its glycoproteins and receptor proteins and w/ membrane fusion dumps in its contents (which is viral RNA and reverse transcriptase—makes DNA from RNA which goes into host genome and is replicated and mRNA made from); in genetic engineering take a cell that has its own mRNA and then you put in reverse transcriptase and it will make DNA from the mRNA and then make complementary DNA and then you insert the double-stranded DNA into a vector to replicate it b/c you want a lot to make a library of all the mRNAs that that kind of cell makes; Reverse transcriptase used in both
What types of chromosomal rearrangements are there?
What is the source of red green colorblindness in humans?
What are the chances that a red/green colorblind son has a colorblind father?
What are the chances that a red/green colorblind daughter has a colorblind father? 100% Colorblind mother?
What are common virus shapes?
What are the structures of different types of viruses?
What is one modes of entry of an enveloped animal virus?
What is reverse transcriptase; why and where does HIV have reverse transcriptase?
What is a reason that HIV can persist in an infected person
HIV antibodies that are created kill the helper T cells when the antigen is present- which means the body can no longer kill infections and makes someone more susceptible to infection with no way to treat, and when reverse transcriptase created DNA continuously
How does an ELISA test for HIV infection work?
How does an ELISA test for pregnancy work?
Why is this test insufficient for the determination of whether a person can transmit the HIV virus?
An HIV-infected person is most infectious when they haven’t even made antibodies for HIV yet
How do prions work?
How does recombinant DNA research benefit from bacterial mechanisms to protect against viruses?
What are plasmids?
How can they be used to make many copies of a DNA of interest?
Why is an antibiotic resistant gene like ampR used for gene cloning?
Why is a gene for an active enzyme like lacZ used for gene cloning?
Why is a restriction enzyme with a staggered cut used for gene cloning?
What is a cDNA clone?
DNA clones that are cloned from DNA made in vitro by reverse transcription of all the mRNA produced by a particular cell, so that you only have the parts of the genome that are genes transcribed into mRNA in the original cells
How can reverse transcriptase be used to obtain cDNA clones?
How can the events in recombination be part of the explanation for the related families of the globin gene?
Why is sickle cell disease so prevalent in areas of the world with high incidence of malaria?
What are the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
What can explain the persistence of a deleterious allele in the population?
Assuming equilibrium conditions, what would be the expected change in the prevalence of red-green colorblindness
How are different numbers of sex chromosomes tolerated in a cell?
What sex would an XXYY person would be?
How many Barr bodies would a male with XXYY have?
Could this person be sex mosaic? What is sex mosaicism?
Why are fewer females red-green colorblind than males?
Because females have two X chromosomes, and since red-green color blindness is an x-linked recessive disorder, they only need one “good” X to be normal (need two color blind genes/two X’s w/ color-blind genes to be color blind; males only need one “bad” X to have disorder
If 0.01 (1%) of all males are red/green colorblind, then what would be the chances that a female would be red/greed colorblind?
What is the genetic structure of a red-green colorblind males?
What is a potential relationship between cortical granules and triploids?
Cortical granules prevent triploids from happening (slow block to polyspermy)
How is sex determined in chickens?
proviruses: genetic material permanently remains in the nucleus (lysogenic)
prophages: cell is destroyed when material enters the nucleus (lytic)
What are three methods for bacterial sex? How do they work?
How do gp41, gp120, CD4 and CCR5 relate to each other in HIV infection?
What are pili (singular pilus) used for in bacterial conjugation?
As a bridge between the cells for DNA to transfer..pulls recipient cell closer to donor cell too How is bacterial conjugation similar to plant genetic engineering? T DNA ( section of DNA in Ti plasmid where restriction enzyme makes cut) with gene of interest inserted is cut out of the Ti plasmid and transferred to the plant cell through a T-pilus similar to one used in bacterial conjugation
How might retroviruses be used in human gene therapy?
What are sticky ends generated by restriction endonucleases?
Jagged ends of DNA that have exposed single strand regions Why are the useful for recombinant DNA technology? Bases on the exposed single strands of sticky ends will base pair (hydrogen bond) with bases of other sticky ends and create recombinant DNA
What is a bacterial artificial chromosome?
What are pseudogenes? How might they be useful in evolution?
Pseudogenes are former genes that have accumulated mutations over a long time and no longer produce functional proteins; answered in question about gene duplications (question 59)
How does a molecular clock work in evolution?
What is a bottleneck in evolution and how does that relate to genetic drift?
What is a genetic map of a chromosome? How does it relate to a physical map of a chromosome?
Genetic map maps the location of several thousand genetic markers (i.e. a gene) on each chromosome using recombination frequencies to determine the order and relative distances between markers
Physical maps express the distance between genetic markers, usually in # of base pairs
How does segregation differ from independent assortment?
How does independent assortment relate to recombination?
What is the expected frequency of males with an X-linked recessive disease if the frequency in females is 0.0001?
q2=0.0001 so q=.01=frequency of males w/ it Under these conditions what is the expected proportion of female carriers of the disease? 2pq=2(.99)(.01)= .0198 or 2% What would be the equivalent proportions for an autosomal gene? q=.0001 p=.9999 in both males and females????
How can genetic drift lead to the fixing of an allele?
How is isolation important for speciation?
How do proviruses for HIV relate to prophages for bacteria?
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