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Your body’s physiological reaction to a situation, your interpretation of it, communication with another person, and your own actions are all part of what we call
A boy in the United States who is hurt on the playing field may come off the field feeling very angry because
The ways we learn to think about emotions are our
You can help an infant learn to regulate his own emotions by
Having predictable routines for an infant is one way to
When children’s ability to delay gratification was tested, the researchers found that ___________ children were better able to regulate their behavior, that __________ were able to wait longer before “peeking”, and there ___________ a gender difference in the likelihood that a child would peek at some point.
One of the important differences between fear and anxiety is that
Depression in childhood is ________________, the childhood incidence is ____________ for boys than girls, and in adolescence the gender difference ________________.
A pattern of behavior that includes being negative, defiant, disobedient, and hostile toward authority figures, and which lasts more than 6 months, is the definition of a(n)
The difference between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorders is that
The four types of attachment described by Ainsworth are based on two dimensions. They are
When a baby feels safe and secure in the presence of the caregiver to whom she is attached, she can
Stranger anxiety develops in infants during the stage of
Separation anxiety appears in infants during the stage of
The Strange Situation is a way to
When an infant has a secure attachment to a parent, the infant can
The pattern of attachment called anxious avoidant attachment has been associated with a caregiver who is
Adolescents with a secure internal working model of attachment
The effect of insensitive parenting on an infant's security of attachment is magnified when
Of all of the indicators of a high-quality child care program, the two most important ones are:
When child care workers do not receive adequate compensation for the work they do, the consequence is that
Children who have been adopted from institutional settings in which they received inadequate care are best able to recover from this early deprivation if
Phonology is the study of the
If you were interested in the meaning of words you would study
Sam is not very good at following conversational rules. It is difficult to have a conversation with him because he talks out of turn and keeps changing the topic of the conversation. Sam has a problem with
A _____________ is the smallest unit that has meaning in a language.
A phoneme is
Social cognitive theory emphasizes the role of __________ in language learning.
According to Skinner, language is shaped through
The idea that a grammatical structure for language is hardwired in our brain comes from
Children will say things that they have never heard before, such as “I goed outside to play”. This production of unique sentences is best explained by
Once a child understands a rule of grammar (such as adding an “s” to form the plural of a word), they may use this rule incorrectly for words that don’t follow this rule. The error is called
As a theory of language development, interactionism incorporates aspects of
The idea that adults will modify that way they talk with young children until the child can understand and respond is associated with the theory of
Cognitive processing theory proposes that while learning language children
The area that is the primary center for speech production is
Throughout our life, our receptive language
Recent brain research have found that second language learning later in life
Infants have a preference at birth for
Parents can differentiate the __________ of their infant's cries.
severity and intensity
Which of the following statements about early language development is true?
Hart and Risley (1995) examined the similarities and differences in the everyday language that children hear as toddlers. They found that overall
Babies who are taught to use sign language
When a child points to an object and an adult names the object for the child
The assumptions and principles that children use to facilitate their vocabulary learning are called
When his mother points out a window at a cat and says “Look, Sam! There goes a feline!” Sam assumes ‘feline” to mean the
When children can learn a new word, sometimes with only one exposure, it is called
Syntactic bootstrapping allows children to
When Ted says “Mama go car,” it is an example of
Piaget describes children's inability to take the role of the person they are speaking to as
When Dan is putting together a puzzle, his father can hear him talking through the process to himself. This is an example of
One explanation for the success of dialogic reading is that it is based on the concept of
In dialogic reading, a completion prompt involves
the adult asking the child to complete a sentence about the book.
In dialogic reading, asking the child to describe what is happening in a picture in the book is an example of a ________ prompt.
When a child and adult look at a book together and actively talk about it, switching the role of asking and answering questions about it, it is the process of
Metalinguistic knowledge allows children to
The whole language approach to reading focuses on
Children learn that words are composed of separate sounds called phonemes and that phonemes can be combined into words when they are learning the read using the
Balanced reading is an approach to teaching reading that
Joy wrote a short paper on whales. The first sentence of the paper is “Whales are big and eat in the ocean.” This is an example of
When adolescents and adults write, their goal usually is to
Young children who learn two languages simultaneously will
Learning a second language at a young age is makes it more likely that a child will
Children who are bilingual may have some cognitive advantages in the area of.
The ultimate goal of bilingual classrooms is to
Children with a limited vocabulary and difficulty producing sentences of appropriate length and complexity are identified as having a(n)
Children who frequently substitute one sound for another (for example, using ph for th) might be diagnosed with a(n)
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders have difficulty with
When a child frequently repeats what others say, they are showing a condition called
One of the interventions that has had some success helping children with dyslexia improve their reading skills is
A description of the self that included terms such as “beautiful, smart, helpful, fast runner” would be more typical of children in a(n)
In comparison to Chinese children, Euro-American children use
Psychoanalyst Margaret Mahler has proposed that an infant's first understanding of the self is based upon
When a red mark is placed on the nose of a two-year-old and the child sees herself in a mirror, the child will react by touching her own nose when she
A child’s ability to correctly use the pronouns “I” and “you” has been linked to an greater ability to
A toddler's sense of possessiveness and declarations that something is “Mine!!” is an indication that the child
One way to help children remember more details of their life and to even understand their lives in more complex ways is to
According to Erikson, as children enter middle childhood they are dealing with the stage of
According to Erikson, the developmental crisis of adolescence is the crisis of
When an adolescent develops an identity that is opposite to the identity that parents or other adults would want the adolescent to have, the adolescent has developed a(n)
According to James Marcia, before an adolescent can achieve an identity they must
In Marcia's description of adolescent identity statuses, an adolescent who has not spent time thinking about her future and doesn't seem overly concerned about this would be in the identity status of
An adolescent who would be in James Marcia’s stage of identity development called moratorium would be one who
In many cultures, the movement of a young person from childhood to adulthood is marked by a(n)
_______________ is the way you describe yourself, and ______________ is the way you feel about those characteristics.
One reason why preschoolers have such positive views of themselves is that
The constant feedback that children receive in elementary school from their teachers
Research that has evaluated the effectiveness of school-based programs that are designed to build self-esteem has found that
One reason why school-based programs to build students' self-esteem have not lived up to their expectations is that
It would be most accurate to say that high self-esteem is the ______________ of good academic performance.
As adolescents develop the ability to think hypothetically, they can
In determining an adolescent’s self-esteem, we need to consider
Which of the following is the best description of the typical pattern of change in self-esteem from childhood through late adolescence?
Which of the following statements about gender differences in self-esteem is the most accurate?
According to Freud, children do not develop a gender identity until
Nancy Chodorow has proposed a theory of gender development in the psychoanalytic tradition that proposes that
According to behaviorism, as children are growing up
The Baby X experiments have found that adults
Research on gender intensification theory, which says that when children enter puberty, it becomes more important to them to conform to gender expectations, has found that
Androgyny is conceived of as
The ______________ proposes that the situation that would be best for an individual's psychological well being would be for there to be a match between your gender and your gender role orientation.
Research has found that as children move into adolescence, it is
Sexual orientation is
When someone is ready to disclose that he is gay or she is lesbian, this disclosure
The psychoanalytic explanation for homosexuality is based upon
The explanation for how gender identity is acquired that is offered by social learning theory
Some evidence of a biological basis for sexual orientation comes from research that has found that
In Phinney's theory of ethnic identity development, adolescents move from a stage of unexamined ethnic identity to
Violating moral principles will have a negative effect on self-esteem if
According to social cognitive learning theory, children learn right from wrong
Moral judgment is
Kohlberg calls the stage of moral reasoning at which children are governed by self interests and are motivated by rewards and punishment the
In Kohlberg's stage of conventional moral development, children base their moral judgments on
The highest stage of moral development in Kohlberg's theory is the
Carol Gilligan has argued that women
An explanation for why cross-cultural research on moral development has not found that everyone reaches the highest stage of moral reasoning is that
If we look at how moral reasoning relates to moral behavior, we find that
morality is more state-like than trait-like because many situational factors influence how likely it will be that we behave morally.
When we look at the relationship between moral identity (that is, how moral an individual sees himself to be) and moral behavior there is
only a moderately strong link between the two.
According to Kochanska and her colleagues, the development of self-control and an internal conscience depends upon
TRUE OR FALSE: Children all over the world take great pride in their individual achievement and success.
TRUE OR FALSE: Children largely learn the correct use of pronouns such as “you” and “me” through imitation.
TRUE OR FALSE: Adolescents frequently move from one of Marcia’s identity statuses to another status and back again.
TRUE OR FALSE: As children move into middle childhood, they appraisal of their own abilities become more accurate because they receive constant feedback from their teachers.
T OR F: Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents say that school is one of the most accepting parts of their community.
A nuclear family consists of
Marriages in the 1850s could be called “fluid marriages” because
The incidence of stepfamilies in the United States since the early 1900s
Children who are growing up in a single-parent family because _______________________ tend to do better in terms of education and emotional adjustment.
One study found that following the birth of a baby to a couple who is living together
One of the consequences of children experiencing a parental divorce is emotional parentification which is a situation in which
Parents who are highly stressed following a divorce may
Externalizing behavior problems are directed at ____________, and internalizing behavior problems are directed at ____________.
Young adults whose parents divorced when they were younger are
Children whose parents divorce while they are preschoolers
When a father does not reside with his children, the best way to measure his impact on his children's development is to measure
A special challenge for non-custodial mothers is that
Research that has compared children raised by gay or lesbian parents and children raised by heterosexual parents has found
In families with adopted children, parent should
When a child is placed in foster care
When the structure of a family changes, either with the addition of a new family member through remarriage or the loss of a family member through death or divorce, the family
Recent research on the effect of maternal employment on infants' cognitive development found that
Maternal employment during adolescence
The ways that Sigmund Freud, Dr. Benjamin Spock, Mary Ainsworth, and Diana Baumrind recommend that parents treat their children are all examples of the
Many developmentalists today believe that the influence in a parent-child relationship moves in both directions. This is the
When a parent is going through a divorce, the parent may become harsher in disciplining her children. The children may react to this harsh discipline by acting out even more, which makes the parent, in turn, increase the harshness of her discipline. This is an example of
Inductive discipline involves
“It is time for you to get off your computer and come downstairs to eat dinner with the family” is an example of the type of discipline called a(n)
Social cognitive theory says that learning is based upon observing models and imitating their behavior. Parents who want to be sure that they are a positive model that their children will want to imitate would be most likely to use the discipline strategy of
A difference in how African-American and White parents use power assertion to discipline their children is that
One of the reasons why parents rely on spanking is that
As children move into adolescence, most parents will adjust their discipline so that they
The frequency of conflict is highest in ___________________ and the intensity of the conflict, when it does occur, _________________________.
When there is conflict between adolescents and their parents, the topic of that conflict most often is
The challenge for parents of adolescents is
When adolescents and parents have conflict, they often define the issues differently. Parents tend to see the issue as one that involves ____________ while adolescents see the issue as one of _____________.
Diana Baumrind's description of parenting styles is based upon two dimensions. These dimensions are
Parents who have age-appropriate expectations upon their children, provide a rationale for their rules and expectations, are willing to listen to their children's point of view, and treat them with respect are classified by Baumrind as
Parents who have a great deal of warmth and affection toward their children, but have few, if any, rules and restrictions, and give their children an equal say in family decision making are classified by Baumrind as
Parents who are classified as uninvolved or neglectful parents are ones who have
Children who are raised by authoritarian parents often are described as
Children who are described as the least self-reliant, explorative and self-controlled are typically children raised by
The amount of agreement or congruence between the parenting style of mothers and fathers within the same family is
The congruence or agreement between parenting styles of mothers and fathers within the same family have found fairly high agreement among parents who use a(n) _______________ style and no agreement in families where one parent uses a(n) _______________ style.
An authoritative parenting style has been found to be effective in raising children who do well in school, are more self-reliant, and less anxious and depressed
The exception to the findings that authoritarian parenting is associated with poorer school performance is
In Latino families
One of the aspects of sibling relationships that make them fairly unique is that
Large-scale studies on the effect of birth order on personality characteristics
One explanation for why siblings growing up in the same family have such different experiences in their nonshared environment is that
Which of the following statements is the best description of the conclusion drawn from research on only children?
A wraparound program is one that
Differential treatment of siblings within the same family can cause conflict unless the child who receives less attention or who is treated more harshly
The definition of stress is
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