The total number of wolves inhabiting Isle Royale is defined as
this describes all interacting species -moose, ticks, wolves, and their surrounding environment, tress and vegetation, and climate
A report that documents all the species (plants and animals) in an area but does not include the environment describes
individual ---> population ----> community ----> ecosystem
put the following in order (ecosystem, population, community, and individual) from simplest to most complex
resources, behavior, predator avoidance, AND environment
the geographic distribution pattern of population is influenced by...
ocean fish demonstrate which distribution patterns
understory plants in a tropical rainforest
which population would most likely resemble a random distribution pattern
slow and remain near zero
when a population reaches it carrying capacity, the growth rate will...
the growth of a population limited by environmental factors is described as
the difference between births and deaths in that population
the growth rate of a population is calculated from: (Hint: remember the Italians, get busy!)
birth rate ~ death rate
the rate of natural increase approximates zero when carrying capacity is reached and:
the prey referred to on Isle Royale is the...
the predator referred to on Isle Royale
decrease in prey
an increase in predator numbers is usually followed by a subsequent
increase in lions
from studies of predator prey relationships, it could be predicted that an increase of zebra on a Savannah would be followed by a subsequent
an increase in the prey population is followed by an increase in predators
How do the population curves of predator and prey relate to each other?
interdependent cycles of boom and bust or hills and valleys
What BEST describes the growth curves of predator and prey?
Moose populations rise and fall, but wolf populations peak a few years after the moose population peaks
What accurately describes the population cycles of moose and wolves on Isle Royale?
It is a prey food source
Why do trees fluctuate with moose-wolf, predator-prey population cycles?
Impact prey populations, alter vegetation of an ecosystem, impact the ecosystem balance AND have unintended negative results
Removal of a predator from an ecosystem may....
Which is NOT an abiotic factor that could affect a population? (breeding places, precipitation. temperature, vegetation, habitat)
Which is NOT a biotic factor that could affect a population? (predator density, prey density, water availability, vegetation, and community interactions)
Which is NOT a density independent factor? (predation, flooding, extremes of temperature, fire, drought)
Although many factors influence moose population density, predation is likely to be a density - ______ factor, and a harsh winter is likely to be a density- ______ factor
biotic; dependent; abiotic; independent
food abundance is an example of a(n) _____ factor that is also a density- _____ factor, and a hurricane is an example of a(n) ______ factor that is density- ______.
communities, populations, biomes, AND ecosystems (all of the above)
climate change can afftect.... (communities, populations, biomes, ecosystems, or all of the above)
first flowering date
scientists monitor seasonal changes in angiosperms by examining
early blooming in flowers correlates with
the plant, animal, and bacterial life plus the physical and chemical environment in an area
What BEST describes an ecosystem?
the range of the sugar maple tree can be predicted to migrate _____ due to "global climate change"
as temperature increase in the northern hemisphere, plant and animal distributions are most likely to migrate....
temperate deciduous forest
the maple tree would most likely be found in which biome (hint: Where are we now?)
carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
the greenhouse gases include
trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere
increases in greenhouse gases
greenhouse gases are relatively new in Earth's atmosphere
What is NOT true of greenhouse gases?
the last 100 years
carbon dioxide has rapidly increased in...
they can expand their range faster
animals have this advantage over plants to combat a change in temperature
sugar maple tree
In the face or rising temperatures, which organism below has the greatest disadvantage?
Which land mass is showing the most dramatic increase in surface temperatures in recent years?
What process uses up carbon dioxide in the environment?
Driving gas-powered cars, burning of coal, burning of oil, AND burning of forests
What human activities or activity contribute(s) to elevated carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere?
Photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition
Which processes regulate the natural carbon dioxide cycle on our planet?
Which period in time brought a very large change to the natural carbon cycle?
all of the above
Fossil fuels: are the remains of once-living organisms, included coal, oil, and natural gas, increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere when burned, are a significant contributor to global warming, or all of the above?
Scientists examine these to assess levels of CO2 through history
air bubbles in the ice contain gases that can be measured
Why are ice cores useful in tracking CO2 levels?
400,000 years ago
the Vostok Ice Core allegedly provides data from approximately...
Although ____ is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, _______ is 30 times more potent as a greenhouse gas and therefore just as worrisome
What cycles primarily through soil (rocks), water, and organisms?
What cycles between different chemical and biochemical compounds as they move from organisms to soil, to water, and air, and back to organisms through decomposers and fixating bacteria?
identical in all cells
An individual's DNA is...
STR profiles will be identical since all cells belonging to an individual have the same DNA and the same genes
You collect cells from a patient's kidney and liver and isolate DNA from each sample separately. You use that DNA to obtain a genetic fingerprint for live versus kidney. What do you expect to see?
Where are chromosomes located in eukaryotic cells?
all of the above
DNA can generally be extracted from: hair, blood, saliva, skin cells, or all of the above?
the complete set of genetic material encoded within the DNA of an organism
What is a genome?
A single, large, tightly bound piece of DNA found in the nucleus of cells
What is a chromosome?
Body fluids contain a few cells, and thus some DNA
You are a juror at a trial and you have been told that the suspect's DNA was found at the crime scene.... How do you explain this to them during deliberations in the jury chamber?
nucleic acid; nucleotides
DNA is a type of molecule called a _________. Its smaller parts are called _________.
a 5-carbon deoxyribose
The sugar in DNA is....
2 DNA strands twist together
DNA is called a double helix because
subunits that combine to make DNA
What are nucleotides?
What is the correct pattern of nucleotide base-pairing?
Adenine will always pair with thymine, and cytosine will always pair with guanine
What is complementary base-pairing?
Which of the following is not a nucleotide?(Adenine, Guanine, Phosphate, Cytosine, or Thymine)
all of the above
The process of DNA replication requires: breaking of hydrogen bonds, unwinding of the DNA, enzymes, nucleotides, or all of the above?
in the nucleus
DNA replication occurs (where?)
polymerase chain reaction
PCR stands for
are exactly the same
The nucleotides used DNA duplication during PCR ___________________, compared to the nucleotides used during DNA duplication within a cell
short tandem repeats
STRs stands for:
Blocks of repeated DNA sequences (AGCT) that vary in length from person to person
What are STRs?
When performing gel electrophoresis, the STRs are separated by ______, with the ________ ones moving the most
proteins; amino acids
Most of a cell's work is carried out by ______, which are made from many ______.
In your body, what kind of molecule acts as an enzyme or machine, helps to transport other moleules, and gives structural support in many cells?
determines what they can do and how they can function (or all of the above)
The shape of proteins
a segment of DNA that encodes at least one protein
What is a gene?
If a gene is activated, what is being produced?
DNA; physical traits
Genotypes describe our ______ while phenotypes describe our _______
It's a protein that helos to prevent blood clots
What is the function of antithrombin
One of the first drugs to be produced using genetically modified goats was
The genetic make-up of an organism
What is a genotype?
The physical attributes of an organism
What is a phenotype?
The gene's regulatory region
You create a hybrid transgene containing DNA from a human and a mouse. What factor would most strongly affect when, where, and how much protein is expressed from that gene?
cytoplasm; mRNA; proteins
Translation is a process that occurs in the ____ and uses _____ to produce ________.
Transcription builds ______, while translation builds ________.
What is the correct base pairing of RNA nucleotides?
A piece of mRNA that is 300 bases long can make a protein that has _____ amino acids
Studies involving the benefits or risks of drinking coffee may be obscured by: side effects of caffeine, how the coffee was roasted or processed, other chemicals in coffee, the age of the people studied, or all of the above?
I notice that all the students semm drowsy 45 min into my class.I consider factors such as the fact that my class is at 5 and the sun is usually setting around that time of day which I think can make people drowsy.What type of evidence did I collect
Scientific journals send out potential articles to other scientists working in the same research area as the potential article, and those scientists make comments regarding the research. This is known as...
A hypothesis must be ______ and ______
the experimental group
A study is conducted to see if walking reduces joint stiffness in people suffering from arthritis of the knee. Half the participants are instructed to walk more than usual while the others walk their normal amount. The group that walked more is
a hypothesis that has been upheld by many experiments
A scientific theory is
data/observations, hypothesis, experiment, results, and conclusions
The steps of the scientific method, in order, are
the experiment with the sample size of 100,000
You are reviewing the results of 5 similar experiments, but each had a different sample size. Which of the following experiments had the most reliable results? (sample size of 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, or 100,000?)
responding to the environment
a plant that is inclined toward sunlight is an example of which characteristic of life
the ability of living organisms to maintain a relatively stable environment is termed
Which do NOT share any functional characteristics of a living organism? (bascteria, mushrooms, plants, mules, or viruses?)
Which of these is NOT a characteristic of life? (ability to grow, homeopathy, ability to reproduce, ability to respond to stimuli, or ability to use energy?)
ability to move from place to place
Which of these is NOT a characteristic of life? (ability to grow, homeostasis, ability to move from place to place, ability to respond to stimuli, or ability to use energy?)
the sharing of an electron between atoms
A covalent bond describes
Which of the following is a polar molecule?
Oxygen --> carbon ---> hydrogen ---> nitrogen
List the most abundant elements in the human bdy from most abundant to least abundant
2 atoms sharing electrons
a covalent bond can best be described as
0ne carbon to hydrogen bond
Organic molecules contain at least
cell membranes are made up of
Which part of a cell membrane phospholipid is exposed to an aqueaous exterior?
Which part of a cell membrane phospholipid is exposed to an aqueasous interior?
It is a 2 layered semi-permeable structure with heads on the outside, tails in the middle, and heads on the inside
Why is a cell membrane like a lipid sandwich?
something that will not dissolve in water
In cell biolgy, hydrophobic means
a substance that is dissolvable in water is called
because of the polar nature of water, it is a universal
the surface tension of water is an example of
these macromolecules are insoluble in water
the monomers of proteins are
an example of a nucleic acid is
carbohydrates and lipids
Which of the following are energy-storing polymers? (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and lipids, or carbohydrates and lipids?)
a mold inhibited the growth of bacterial colonies
What were Fleming's observations about organisms on a Petri dish?
Penicillin is isolated from
a chemical that kills bacteria
according to cell theory, all living organisms are composed of
according to cell theory, all cells come from
Which is NOT found in all cells? (cytoplasm, cell membrane, DNA, nucleus, or ribosomes?)
all of the above
Which of the following is TRUE of all living organisms? (composed of cells, maintain homeostasis, reproduce, use energy, or all of the above?)
a double layer of phopholipids with proteins embedded in it
A cell membrane is composed of
which structure is only found in eukaryotes
Which structure is found in prokaryotes and not animal cells
Prokaryotes do NOT have this structure (cytoplasm, Mitochondria, DNA, cell wall, ribosomes)
Under a microscope, a cell appears to have a nucleus. This eliminates which type of cell? (cheek cell, single-cell protist, animal cell, plant cell, or bacterial cell?)
ribosomes are found in
animal and plants cells
mitochondria are found in
DNA is found in
animal and plant cells
endoplasmic reticulum is found in
peptidogylcan is found in
animal and plant cells
Golgi are found in
human cells do not have cell walls
Penicillin kills bacterial cells but not human cells because
osmosis refers t the diffusion of
Where are proteins produced in prokaryotic cells?
the process of molecules moving from high concentration to a lower concentration in a solution without an engery imput is termed
the process of molecules going against a concentration gradient in addition to the requirement for energy and a membrane is termed
The process of molecules going from a high to a low concentration using a specific membrane protein and no energy requirement is termed
moving something from a low concentration to a high concentration
What requires cellular energy?
Both animal and plant cells contain these energy-creating organelles
Chloroplasts are found in
What theory states that mitochondira and chloroplasts are derived from free-living prokaryotic cells?
The ______ provides support and a pathway for movement of structures within a cell
processing and packaging proteins
The Golgi Apparatus is responsible for
the instructions for making all the proteins a cell needs are found in
nucleus --> rough ER ---> Golgi Apparatus ---> Cell Membrane
Place the stages of protein manufacture in the correct order, from beginning to end
the regulatory elements from a goat-milk protein to the regulatory elements from a human protein
to produce a human gene in goat milk you would fuse:
an organism that contains genes from different species
What is a genetically modified organism (GMO)
human coding sequences and goat regulatory sequences
to get optimal production of a human protein in a goat, scientists fuse together
DNA never leaves the nucleus
How does DNA differ from RNA
it binds to the regulatory sequence of DNA and produces mRNA
What does RNA polymerase do
2 mRNA nucleotides that encode a specific amino acid
What is a codon
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