Time: 1462 written, 1496 (posthumourously) 15th C Place Königsberg, Germany What? Author is Johanna Regiomontanus (Johannas Müller of Königsberf, Germany) whowas searching for alternatives to and Earth centered ubniverse due to noted problems in both prediciton and physics. The book is a reliable guide to and critical treatment to Ptomely. Johannas notes in this book that both eccentric and epicycle models are possible for retrograde motion of inferior plants (plants whose deferent is tied to the mean sun).\\ Why I? Book plays a role in Copernicus' heliocentric theory (???)
Time: 1473-1543 (late 15th-mid 16th C) Place: He's Polish! (Canon at Frauenberg cathedral) What? HELIOCENTRIC THEORY (published year of his death, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres is a quantitative, systematic, mathematical and physical description of his heliocentric/heliostatic theory). Why I? not the first to suppose a heliocentrism, but his system explains retrograde motion, can explain Ptolmey a bit (w/ annual term), orders the plantes in a logical way. One can argue that because od C's heliocentric theory, Galileo was discover the his ground breaking data.
Time:1543 Place: Poland What? On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres is a quantitative, systematic, mathematical and physical description of his heliocentric/heliostatic theory).
ime: 1498-1552 Place: Germany What? German Luthern theologian. "Osiander oversaw the publication of the book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolution of celestial spheres) by Copernicus, and added an unsigned preface explaining that the model described in the book was not intended as a description of the way the Universe really is, but as a mathematical device to simplify calculations involving the movement of planets." -wikipedia Why I? Because he published the book about heliocentrism that made HC an issue?
Time: 1514-1564 (16th C.) Place: Brussels What? wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body. Part of Galen humanist revival (idea of the texts as bad, went back to roginal editions to see if the errors were also there). V corrects many of Galen's errors. On Fabric is the diffinitive collection on anatomy (the wonderful engravings of humans as they loose layers).\\ Why I? Emphasized the hands-on value of dissections "the only way to know the body is to do you own dissections" (paraphrased Shank). His book is used until Harvery's time.
On the Fabric of the Human Body
Amazing book. Reprinted. Collabaration between author and unnamed engraver. It broke from traditional Galen and Aristotle thought of the body
Tycho Brahe <3
16th c. Observatory on island of Hven. comet clearly above sphere of moon and moving "through" spheres of several planets=skepticism of existence of spheres as movers of planets. geoheliocentric theory.
Time Most influencial in Renaissance (14-17thC) Place: Europe. What? "a set of philosophical and religious beliefs based primarily upon the writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, who is put forth as a wise sage and Egyptian priest, and who is commonly seen as synonymous with the Egyptian god Thoth. These beliefs have influenced Western magic traditions and held great influence during the Renaissance." -wikipedia Translated by Marsilio Ficino between 1463 and 1464. MF attributed the texts to the Egyptian god Hermes Trismegistus who lived in the time of Moses and was the predecessor to the Pythagoreans, Plato, and everyone else.-rossi Why I? rekindled and interest in magic, -rossi in reality, the treaties were more contempary, but medieval society held the idea of such advanced astronomy and natural philosophy existing way before the the actual days.
16th-17th c. end of circles/spheres in astronomy. law of areas: the line from a given planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times law of ellipses: planets follow an elliptical path around the sun, with the sun at one focus and the moon about earth
Time: 1596 Place: Germany What? Kepler's book defending the Coperican system. Uses five platonic solids as spacer of Copernican planets (very geometrical!) Why I? He sends copies out, and maybe because Tycho liked what he read, Tycho gives Kepler his extrodinary data, which allows Kepler to create his ELLIPSES!!!!
Time: 17th C Place: London, England What!? wondered how the heart work, wrote the book On the motion of the heart and blood Why I? Created the circulation of the blood theory
On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
Time: 1628 Place: London, England What? book by Harvey in which his theory about the circulation of the blood is presented. After much comparative anatomy on many animals, believing that anatomical structures must have a purpose (teleology=1,000,000pt word for this ID :), and working with past discoveries (such as valves in Veins as discovered by Fabricius), and many other things, Harvery states a mechanical model of the heart (heart is like a pump, with pumping and bellows!). It has two key motions: systole as muscle contraction and diastole). He uses a comparative , experimental, and hypothetical method.
Time:1564-1642 Place: Italy, specifically Pisa; never obtained an official degree; finds support from the lineage of Ferdinand ! by tutoring Cosimo at Padua; "spyglass" in 1609; observations form telescope lead to The Sidereal Messenger; major themes therin: moon similar in topography to Earth, moons of Jupiter, "ears" of Saturn, countless new stars; later observes sunspots and phases of Venus; hits controversy with Church through his writings, leading to his condemnation, abjuration and house arrest What? Majot works: Sidereal Messenger, The Assayer, Dialogue of 2 Chief World Systems (Originally On the Tides)
"circular" inertia vs. law of inertia
"Circular" inertia refers to G's idea of supported inertia in The Dialogue: bodies are supported, and horizontal motion is neither up/down on earth's surface but in a large circle; L of I is Newton by way of Descartes, inertia of unsupported bodies; in motion, tend to stay in motion
primary and secondary qualities
The idea that extension and motion are all a substance has, that all other characteristics given a substance arise from the observer. For instance, the primary qualities of a feather are its dimension in space; being tickled by a feather would be a secondary quality, as the quality of "tickle" does not arise from the feather, but from the observer. A secondary quality may be discerned by asking whether the quality would be present independently from any observer, Galileo in The Assayer
Sidereus nuncius/Starry Message
contained G's observations with the telescope: moon similar to earth, moons of Jupiter, "ears" of saturn
Dialogue on the two chief world systems
4 day dialogue between Simplicio (Aristotle), Salviati (Galileo), and Sagredo (Smrt Laymen); Day 1: perfection/imperfection of heavens and earth; Day 2 rotation of earth; Day 3 revolution of earth around sun to account for new observations; Day 4 theory of tides (sloshing created by motion of the earth; strongly disliked the notion of attraction for its occult implications); inclined plane experiment to explain free fall (distance proportional to time squared), mathematically re-visits Merton mean speed theorem, though he seems to think it is new twith him; supported inertia; celestial motion still circular, as opposed to Keppler
Pope Urban VIII
former Cardinal Barberinin;shielded Galileo from the official condemnation of Copernicus; stated that Copernicanism is merely a hypothesis. The Divine mind is unkowable, hinting at the infinite posibilities of Divine creation; stated that the structure of the Heavens is unkowable by the human mind; at Galileo's inquisition, he realized he had been lied to and that G. had previously received direct prohibition to his writings, leading to G.'s condemnation, abjuration and house arrest
16th-17thc. Studied at Cambridge; rose through Parliament to become Lord Chancellor of the kingdom; was a slimey character eventually charged with corruption; prolific write (though he is NOT Shakespeare);emphasised empirical/inductive learning; Aristotlians forget senses, and concentrate too much on fitting new ideas into old paradigms; knowledge is a gradual rise from generalizations of facts to axioms; valued utility as a criterion of knowledge; House of Solomon (downplayed mathematics), comparable to Plato's Republic; his bees/spiders/ants analogy;experiment as torture of nature (nature should be tortured into giving up secrets
Organon vs. New Organon
The Organon : Greek for "tool" or "instrument"; contained Aristotle's logical works (Prior Analytics, The Categories); the New Organon was Bacon's response/criticism of Aristotelians in which he urges the need to start over in scientific endeavors; outlined the Idols; outlined his process of induction (start with particulars and move gradually to more generalized things, finding positive and negative correlations; categories with tables of onformation found through experimentation; emphasised the utility of knowledge to benefit society and control nature
Bacon's four "Idols"
are deceptive beliefs inherent in the mind of man, and therefore belonging to the whole of the human race. They are abstractions in error arising from common tendencies to exaggeration, distortion, and disproportion. Thus men gazing at the stars perceive the order of the world, but are not content merely to contemplate or record that which is seen. They extend their opinions, investing the starry heavens with innumerable imaginary qualities. In a short time these imaginings gain dignity and are mingled with the facts until the compounds become inseparable
are those which arise within the mind of the individual. This mind is symbolically a cavern. The thoughts of the individual roam about in this dark cave and are variously modified by temperament, education, habit, environment, and accident. Thus an individual who dedicates his mind to some particular branch of learning becomes possessed by his own peculiar interest, and interprets all other learning according to the colors of his own devotion. The chemist sees chemistry in all things, and the courtier ever present at the rituals of the court unduly emphasizes the significance of kings and princes.
are errors arising from the false significance bestowed upon words, and in this classification Bacon anticipated the modern science of semantics. According to him it is the popular belief that men form their thoughts into words in order to communicate their opinions to others, but often words arise as substitutes for thoughts and men think they have won an argument because they have out talked their opponents. The constant impact of words variously used without attention to their true meaning only in turn condition the understanding and breed fallacies. Words often betray their own purpose, obscuring the very thoughts they are designed to express.
Theater - are those which are due to sophistry and false learning. These idols are built up in the field of theology, philosophy, and science, and because they are defended by learned groups are accepted without question by the masses. When false philosophies have been cultivated and have attained a wide sphere of dominion in the world of the intellect they are no longer questioned. False superstructures are raised on false foundations, and in the end systems barren of merit parade their grandeur on the stage of the world.
Bacon states that it is important to get rid of all of these idols in order to start new.
The medical philosophy
Cartesian philosophy to explain motion; the universe composed of two things, matter and motion; matter defined as extension, and is infinitely divisible and extended; all motion created by God in the beginning; generalized idea of the conservation of motion (all there is is all there is)
16th-17th c. algebra applied to geometry. varied early life (Jesuit education, Dutch mercenary, mystical experience at age 23); Discourse on Method (1637), very influential book in which he wrote on refraction, rainbows and founded analytical geometry; DOUBT EVERYTHING until one reaches undeniable certainties, to most base level; Cogito, ergo sum; only 2 things in world: matter and motion; mechanics: inertia of unsopported bodies; astronomy: vortices to explain motion, heliocentric universe, vacuum; biology: animal-machine; IMportance of Cartesion philosophy is his creation of a unified system
Induction vs. deduction
is analogous of Bacon : Descartes; to induce is to come to a general conclusion from particlar facts; deduce means to conclude by reasoning or to infer
vortex theory of planetary motion
Cartesian explanation for celestial motion based on universal plenum and mechanical philosophy
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Title possible dig a Descartes Principia Philosophiae; possible synthesis of Galileo's terrestrial physics and Kepplers cosmic physics into universal laws; 3 books; Book i: Euclidean presentation (axioms and laws), laws of motion (inertia, F = ma, action and reaction), inertia obeys Kepplers law of area (equal area in equal time), inertia and centripetal force (consistent w/ laws of area and ellipses), planets behave as if influenced by force directed towards sun; Book II: hydrodynamics, dismisses Cartesian vortices and plenum; Book III: System of the World, law of universal gravitation, states clearly that laws that apply here apply everywhere
Written by Newton ate life publication dealing with optics, light, refraction, etc. Book III outlined his experiemnts, i.e. stick behind the eye and the prism experiment in which he showed that white light is composed of the spectrum of colors (refrangible rays) , showed that light/color was physical and not psychological, and that the problem could be dealt with mathematically
Inverse-square law of universal gravitation
in Book III of the Principia; F = G m(1)m(2)/r squared; F is force between 2 bodies of mass m(1) and m(2), r is the distance between the two bodies, and G is the constant of universal gravitation; general formula that applies to all bodies in the universe (terrestrial and cosmic)
Newton's discussion of space time and motion in the Principia; ideas of absolute time and absolute space
Royal Society of London
1660 on; under patronage of Chuck II, in name only; possible inspiration in Bacon's House of Solomon; promoted experimental natural philosophy; journal to diffuse knowledge (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society); led by Newton for a bit; Hooke hired as Official Experimenter; possible a gentlemen's club; lampooned by Swif in Gulliver's travels; had a counterpart in Paris
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