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1. Ground: evaporation from soil, ground water, runoff
2. Plants: tranpiration Animals: Respiration + Perspiration
3. Atmosphere: evaporation, precipitation, clouds
1. Oceans ... 97.6%
2. Icecaps/glaciers 1.9% (3/4 of fresh water supply)
3. Ground and soil water 0.5%
4. Rivers and lakes 0.02%
5. Atmosphere 0.0001%
A. Storage: soil and/or ground water.
Aquifer: An underground rock layer that holds water (NOT AN UNDERGROUND LAKE!)
Runoff = Precipitation - Evapotranspiration +/- Change in Storage so runoff is the movement of water over the surface of the land
Runoff goes into rivers/streams
Amount of runoff in rivers/streams
Discharge = Cross-sectional area of stream x mean velocity of stream. 1 mph is about 1.5 foot / sec
Example: River flows at 30 mph. Depth of river is 5 feet & Width is 10 feet. What is the Discharge?
Cross-Section = 5 feet X 10 feet = 50 square feet. Velocity is 30 x 1.5 = 45 feet / sec
Discharge would be 50 square feet x 45 feet / sec = 225 cubic feet /sec or 225 cfs
When they opened Glen Canyon Dam= 45,000 cfs!
1st order: No atributes
2nd order: merging or joining of two 1st order
3rd order: merging of two 2nd order streams
When 2 streams of same order merger, the merged stream will be one order higher: 1st + 1st = 2nd
When 2 streams of different order merge, the merged streams will be the same order as the higher order stream: 1st + 2nd = 2nd
Overland flow (the extra water running off land from a storm)
a. Size of basin
b. Type of surface
c. Shape of watershed
e. Intensity & duration of rain
Pavement and concrete are impermeable to water so water must flow across surface
Climb to Higher Elevations
1. Big Thompson River in Rocky Mtn National Park North of Denver
2. Oak Creek Canyon here in AZ
Fluvial: Created by running water
Coastal: Created by Oceans and Tides
Plate Tectonics & Continental Drift
Mass Wasting: Created by Gravity
Aeolian: Created by Wind
Glacial: Created by Glaciers
Fluvial processes have done more to shape our earth than any other process
Erosion: the wearing away of land and soil though the process of running water
EX: Gully & Arroyos
Deposition: the placement of the material carried by running water
Splash Erosion: direct force of falling drops on base soil causing a geyserlike splashing in which soil particles are lifted and then dropped into new positions
Accelerated Erosion: the removal of soil much faster than it can be formed (overgrazing, forest fires remove vegetation and erosion starts) EX: Badlands in S. Dakota and Colorado
Which is the bigger river? 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th order?
a. Suspension: Material is held up by the water in the stream
b. Dissolved: Material is mixed with the water (salts, etc.)
c. Bed Load: sand, gravel and cobbles move by rolling or sliding from water flow
Knickpoints are WATERFALLS and they form by Erosion of Hard Dolomite over Soft Limestone
EX: Niagra Falls
1. stream established on land recently uplifted
2. gradiation in progress (lake draining and deepening gorge
3. graded profile attained. Beginning of floodplain. Valley widening4. flood plain widened to hold meanders
Meandering stream. The river has only one main channel that wanders (or meanders ) from side to side of the floodplain. Example: Rivers in the eastern U.S. as, for example, the Mississippi.
Braided stream. the flow is divided into multiple threads and these rejoin and subdivide as new sandbars within the river form and TEND TO BE VERY SHALLOW. Most in the Western US. EX: Salt River & Gila River.
1. Mineral: chemical compound, inorganic substance with consistent chemical composition (has the same things throughout it)2. Rock: minerals grouped together or an aggregate of minerals. Most of earth's crust is made up of silcate minerals (silicon and oxygen)
When melted it turns to MAGNMA
Sedimentary rocks: Soft and Flaky. SANDSTONE, SHALE
Metamorphic: Have been Physically or Chemically changed.
EX: Marble=Limestone + heat/pressure
Diamond= carbon + heat/pressure
a. sima or basaltic layer: heavy; only exposed in ocean basins
b. sial or granitic layer: on top of sima. forms continents
they throw up a huge range of land (mountain building)
EX: subcontinent of India crashed into Asia. The collision throw up the Himalayas
The denser plate (the oceanic plate) is forced down and into the softer asthenosphere. Subduction:The process of downplunging of one plate beneath another
EX: Western California
A crack between the two forms and new material is formed.
Example: North Atlantic Mid-Oceanic Ridge: a set of undersea mountains created by magma oozing up in crack or the Rift Valley in eastern Africa where Africa and Asia are pulling away from each other.
1. The continents "fit" together much like a jigsaw puzzle
2. Similar fossil records on different continents (South America and Africa. North America and Europe)
3. Similar rock structures on different continents
4. Areas of earthquake activity and volcanic activity correspond to areas where tectonic theory says they should
The west coast of the United States is an example of:
A. two land plates pulling apart
B. two ocean plates crashing into each other
C. a land plate going on top of an ocean plate
D. an ocean plate going on top of a land plate
E. hot spot mountain building
a. Very explosive, with rocks gases and ash
b. creates high cone, deep steep sides and layered appearance
EX: San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona
a. groups of fissures or tunnels that are active over a long period of time creating broad mountains
b. Mostly located in oceanic areas
c. created by Hot Spots: as a lithospheric plate drifts slowly over a Hot Spot, a succession of shield volcanos is formed. As the plate drifts over the plate, a chain of volcanic islands is formed
EX: Hawaiian Islands
when a volcano explodes in a violent explosion such that the central portion of the volcano is destroyed, the great central depression that remains is called a caldera.
EX: Crater Lake, Oregon or the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona
•Inside, stand in doorway, or crouch under a desk or table, well away from windows or glass dividers.
•Outside, stand away from buildings, trees, telephones and electrical lines.
•On the road, drive away from underpasses and overpasses; stop in safe area; stay in vehicle.
a. very slow movement of soil down a slope
b. tilted items such as fence posts or cracked foundations
More water than Earth Flow
mudstream travels down hills and into canyons
The area over which winds build waves: The bigger the fetch, the bigger the waves. That's why there are such huge waves on the north shore of Hawaii (the Pipeline)
Collapsing Breaker: the base of the wave collapses and the wave crashes into a mass of foam. Unrideable.
Spilling breaker: the crest (top) of the wave slides down the front of the wave. Rideable but not much action.
Plunging breaker: the crest shoots forward of the base (bottom) of the wave in a smooth curve. The classic surfers' wave!
Spit: beachdrifting and longshore current create an arm of sand across a bay
Continued development of a spit eventually cuts the bay off from the ocean and produces a lagoon.
Tombolo: a spit that ties an island to the mainland
Barrier Island: a narrow strip of sand dunes, beaches, and marshes located a few miles off-shore
Coral Reefs: Corals are softbodied tube-like marine animals (very long undersea worms)
Which does not involve tides?
A. spring tide
B. neap tide
C. tidal wave
a narrow strip of sand dunes, beaches, and marshes located a few miles off-shore
Examples: All along the Atlantic coast (Cape Hatteras, North Carolina is one) and along the Texas coast (South Padre Island is one)
A reef which has an interior lagoon and needs no land.
Example: Bikini Atoll
Deflation: loose particles lying on the ground are lifted up into the air or rolled along the ground. Example: Dust Storm
Wind Abrasion: When wind drives sand and dust particles against exposed rock or soil surface causing it to be worn away by impact of the sand (in essence, sandblasting)
A Shallow Depression produced by Deflation
It maybe a mile or more in diameter but generally only a few feet deep
Examples: Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska during severe droughts.
After deflation has gone on for some time and has blown away the smaller particles, the remains are a solid surface called a desert pavement. Example: Much of southern Arizona and Sonora Mexico is desert pavement.
Cresent(Barchan)Dunes: Examples: Sahara, Mohave west of Yuma
Traverse Dunes: "sand seas" are called ERGS. Example: The central Sahara
Parabolic Dunes: Examples: Eastern Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska and some coastal areas
Seif or Longitudinal Dune: Example: Sandhills of Nebraska
These are huge dune mountains that are found in large erg ("sandsea") deserts.
They are sand mountains that can be as much as 600-700 foot high.
Star Dunes are fixed in position (don't move) and seem to require wind blowing from many different directions to form
A glacier is any body of flowing ice that has been formed on land by compaction and re-crystallization of ice
A River of Ice
2. Alpine or mountain
Cirque Glacier: HIGHEST
Lateral Moraine: deposited on sides
Medial Moraine: 2 lateral moraines merge; debris located in the middle of 2 lateral moraines
Terminal Moraine: debris pushed in front of Glacier
Feautures the HORN
Yes, Laurentine in N America
Scandinavian in N Europe
No they carry lots of Sediments
St. Laurence Seaway
Rivers in Central US
A. The storm surge will MOST LIKELY wreck the complex
B. "we need to have water collect around a dirty condensation nucleus."
A. the angle of tilt of the earth on its axis."
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