Last Modified: 2012-12-06
B) tsunamis do not form high waves while in the open ocean
C) tsunamis do not have energy to overturn a ship of that size
D) All of the above are true
A) 10 % B) 90 %
C) 50 % D) 70 %
A) between 11 cm and 88 cm (4.3 in to 34,6 in)
B) more than 30 m (100ft.)
C) in an amount unrelated to the temperature of the ocean
D) in a way that will not threaten coastal inhabitants
------------> Current -----------> A ##### B ------------->
A) Breakwater; A
B) breakwater ; B
C) groin; A
D) groin; B
C) tectonic up warping
D) both A and B
E) Both A and C
A) a place of embayments
B) being dominated by estuaries
C) tectonically active and emerging
D) being dominated by barrier islands
A) secondary dune
B) back dune
D) primary dune
B) Barrier island
A) high evapotranspiration rates
B) stagnation of water in a floodplain
C) the influx of river water into the ocean
D) heavy rainfall and low temperatures
A) right angle; largest
B) line; smallest
C) line; largest
D) right angle; smallest
A) barrier reefs
C) bay barriers and barrier spits
D) right angle; smallest
A) they experience refraction by the deep seafloor
B) they are called breakers as they travel in the open sea
C) They are produced by storm centers and generating regions far distant from the shore where they may break
D) They usually form relatively close to the affected coastline
A) compression, folding and faulting
B) tectonic activity
C) depositional processes and inundation
D) coastlines of rugged, high relief
A) sediment accumulation on nearby reefs, and their consequent death
B) the erosion of the coast C) the loss of aquatic species
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
A) in a deltaic swamp
B) in a tropical lagoon
C) in the subtropics
D) in the Mediterranean region
B) rocky headland
D) volcanic neck
A) 35,000 parts per million
B) 35 grams per kilogram
C) 3.5 percent, or 35 parts per thousand
D) All of the above are correct
E) None of the above are correct as stated
A) taller; widely
B) smaller; closely
C) smaller; widely
D) taller; closely
C) Littoral zone
A) a lower tidal range occurs
B) neap tides occur
C) maximum tidal ranges occur
D) none of the above horizontal this type of alignment does not happen in nature
A) photosynthesis; can live at virtually any depth in the sea B) chemosynthesis; can live at virtually any depth in the sea C) photosynthesis; must live in water that is penetrated by light D) chemosynthesis; must live in water that is penetrated by light
A) usually to depths of 60 m (200 ft.), where storm waves can no longer move sediments
B) only to the contact point between the sea and the land, i.e., the shoreline
C) into the breakers
D) out to as far as you can see the bottom
A) from the high tide level to the first major landform change
B) to the backshore dune
C) to the trough between the primary and secondary dune
D) to the foreshore dune E) to the highest water line that occurs during a storm
A) beach, surf zone, coast
B) Nearshore, backshore, coast
C) coast, backshore, forshore, nearshore
D) ocean, beach, cliffs
A) barrier island
B) barrier spit
B) barrier islands
D) Sea stacks
A) hydrogen and sodium
B) sodium and magnesium
C) potassium and chlorine
D) Chlorine and sodium
A) greater; refraction concentrates energy into the headland
B) less; reflection concentrates energy into the beach
C) greater; reflection concentrates energy into the headland
D) less; refraction concentrates energy into the beach
A) They are complex daily oscillations in sea level
B) They are produced solely by the gravitational pull of the Sun
C) They are influenced by shoreline configuration and latitude
D) They are influenced by the size, depth, and topography of ocean basins.
A) the replacement of normal, colored algae by white algae
B) the killing of coral formations by chlorine bleach pollution
C) the loss of algae from the coral
D) All of the above are included within the definition of coral bleaching
A) elliptical; swells
B) circular; breakers
C) circular; swells
D) elliptical; breakers
A) longshore current
B) translation effects
C) beach drift
A) formation of silicate compounds
B) sediment deposition
C) sinking of skeletal remains
Which of the following is not an example of a depositional coastallandform?
A) wave-built terrace
B) bay barrier
C) wave-cut platform
D) barrier spit
An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an underseavolcano is capable of producing a
A) tidal wave.
B) wave in the open ocean of great height.
D) slow-moving giant swell.
As a wave approaches the shoreline and enters shallower water,energy and water move forward causing the water to rise and cascade downfrom the wave crest as a breaker. These waves are called
A) waves of translation.
B) tidal waves.
C) waves of transition.
A coral is a type of __________ that secretes __________ to form anorganic rock home.
A) algae; calcium carbonate
B) polyp; calcium carbonate
C) polyp; silica
D) algae; silica
Which of the following would not lead to an increase in sealevelhorizontaleither locally or globally?
A) coastal subsidence
B) increase in temperature of ocean water
C) increase in size of the midocean ridge
D) the melting of sea ice (pack ice)
E) the melting of ice in Antarctica and Greenland
An atoll is approximately __________ in shape because it forms__________.
A) linear; along continental shorelines
B) circular; around seastacks
C) circular; around submerged volcanic islands
D) linear; along barrier islands
44) Beaches are
A) permanent coastal features.
B) places along the coast where sediment is in motion.C) places where sediment is stable and unchanging.
D) always composed of sand.
Barrier islands make __________ sites for real estate developmentbecause __________.
A) good; they are made of rock and are quite stable
B) good; they provide excellent scenery
C) poor; they are unstable and often mobile
D) poor; they can be overrun by storm surges
E) both C and D
C) salt marshes - low productivity due to the salinity
D) mangrove swamps - poleward of the 30th parallel in either hemisphere
Wave action works to straighten a coast as wave energy focusesaround headlands and tends to disperse energy in coves and bays in aprocess called
A) tidal bore.
C) longshore current.
D) wave refraction.
Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
A) spring tides - maximum tidal range
B) rising tides - flood tides
C) ebb tides - falling tides
D) spring tides - high tides only
The fact that the mixing zone in the ocean constitutes a __________percentage of the total ocean volume means that wastes dumped into theocean will be __________ diluted.
A) small; slowly
B) small; quickly
C) large; slowly
D) large; quickly
In order to preserve their beaches, cities located along a coastwill often build groins that protrude into the sea. What is the result ofthis process? A) Sediment is deposited on the side of the groin facing into thecurrent, and this results in deposition in the desired location. C) Less sediment is available to areas downshore, so their beaches begin to erode. D) both A and B
E) Both A and C
In order for a tombolo to form, which of the following processeswould have to dominate the local beach environment?
A) swell action
In order to protect the City of Galveston, Texas (located on abarrier island) from storm surges, a sea wall was built along the coastof the island. As a result, wave energy that used to dissipate by runningup the sandy beach, now runs into a concrete wall and reflects back ontothe small beach in front of the sea wall. What do you suppose thisprocess has done to the beach in front of the wall?
A) It has built it up by supplying more energy for sand deposition
C) Nothing has happened because beaches are stable, resilientenvironments.
The sinuous, branching channels that characterize a salt marshresult from
A) storm tracks.
B) manmade drainage canals.
C) animal paths through the marsh.
D) the ebb and flow of tides.
So-called "sleeper waves" result from
A) submarine landslides.
B) constructive, in-phase interference.
C) volcanic eruptions.
Sand on a beach moves in a zigzag pattern when waves strike thebeach __________, and this movement of material is known as __________.
A) at an angle; beach drift
B) head on; longshore drift
C) head on; beach drift
D) at an angle; longshore drift
A longshore current involves all of the following except
A) effective wind direction.
B) transportation of large amounts of sand and coastal materials.
C) waves of transition.
D) effective wave direction.
The geographic boundary between salt marshes and mangrove swamps isdetermined by
A) tectonic activity.
C) precipitation levels.
D) the occurrence of freezing conditions.
The littoral zone extends inland to
A) the highest water line that occurs during a storm.B) the backshore dune.
C) the trough between the primary and secondary dune.
D) the foreshore dune.
Which of the following is true of the ocean deep zone?
A) Temperatures remain approximately 4degreeC (39degreeF) within most ofthis layer.
B) The water in this zone does not freeze because of the intense pressureexerted by the weight of overlying water.
C) The water in this zone does not freeze because of its salinity. D) All of the above are true.
E) Only B and C are true.
About 2 percent of the oceanic mass comprises the
A) bottom-most layers of each ocean basin that are surprisingly warmerthan surface layers.
B) thermocline transition zone.
C) mixing zone of blended solutes and temperatures.
D) deep cold zone that is near freezing.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the trailing edge ofa drifting lithospheric plate?
A) relatively passive coastlines
B) little tectonic activity
C) barrier islands
D) landslides and multiple marine terraces
Which of the following is true regarding mean sea level?
A) It is at the same level along the entire North American coast. B) It is calculated based on average tidal levels recorded hourly at agiven site over a period of many years. C) A consistent value has yet to be determined due to all the variablesinvolved in producing the tides. D) The sea level along the Gulf Coast is the lowest for the coasts of thelower 48 states.
When people go swimming along a coast, they often find themselves,after a while, down the coast from where they first entered the water.They moved downshore because of
B) tidal currents.
C) longshore currents
D) beach drift.
A terrace is
A) an uplifted wave-cut platform.
B) an uplifted foreshore dune.
C) an uplifted sea stack.
D) an erosional surface created by a massive tsunami.
Generally speaking, "beaches" span the zone
A) between high and low neap tides.
B) from several feet above high tide to several feet below low tide.
C) from the high tide line during a spring tide to the low tide lineduring a neap tide.
D) between high and low spring tides.
68) Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are called
A) wave trains.
B) wave ripples.
Coral bleaching may result from
C) global warming.
Cape Hatteras is an example of
A) a stable landform that is a good site for construction.
B) a type of breakwater.
C) the Inner Banks.
D) a barrier island.
Approximately what percentage of the world's population lives nearthe ocean?
The most extensive chain of barrier islands in the world is along
A) the coasts that surround the periphery of the Indian Ocean.
B) the western coast of Australia.
C) the coast of California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.
D) the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America.
The height of a tsunami grows as it approaches a coastline primarilybecause
A) the height of the surf is added to the height of the tsunami.
B) its energy level increases.
C) its wavelength shortens.
D) None of the above are truehorizontalthe height of a tsunami remainsconstant from the time of its origin.
In deep water, a wave is not really migrating but is transferring energy through the water in simple cyclic undulations. These are called
Marco Island, Florida, is used in the text as an example of
A) a natural, protected mangrove environment that was saved by planningusing a GIS approach.
B) a coral atoll.
C) a mangrove ecosystem completely urbanized.
D) a nature preserve.
A) survive in a broad ecological range because they are tolerant oftemperature, salinity, and depth variation.
B) are made of animals living symbiotically with simple algae.
C) require water that is high in sediment concentration.
D) tend to occur poleward of 30degree latitude.
Which of the following conditions is not conducive to the formationof barrier islands?
A) tectonically active coasts
B) presence of continental shelf
C) low tidal range
D) sediment supply from rivers
Which of the following is true of worldwide sea level?
A) It was about 130 m (430 ft.) lower 18,000 B.P., and about 10 cm lower100 years or so ago.
B) Over the long term, levels have been very constant.
C) Changes in sea level are usually unrelated to tectonic processes.
D) Changes seem to occur without any relation to global averagetemperatures.
Human intervention along a coastline intended to interrupt beachdrift can include all of the following except
A) tombolo placement.
B) protected harbor entrance.
Which of the following is not true regarding Earth's oceans?
A) 50% of the oceans' coastlines are at risk of loss or disruption.
B) Coral bleaching is affecting reefs worldwide.
C) 50% of Earth's population lives in coastal areas.
D) Development on Marco Island was prevented due to sensitive mangrovehabitat.
T or F: Water can be considered a "universal" solvent.
T or F: Coral atolls form around sinking volcanic islands.
T or F: A wave in the open ocean consists of water molecules traveling inthe direction of wave propagation.
T or F: In 1989, Hurricane Hugo wreaked havoc in Puerto Rico, yet missed theSouth Carolina coastline.
T or F: Coral bleaching results in the death of corals.
T or F: A beach acts to stabilize a shoreline by absorbing wave energy, eventhough materials are in almost constant motion.
T or F: As the potential evapotranspiration increases, salinity decreases.
Barrier islands can migrate.
A tombolo cuts off a portion of the ocean along a coast, forming alagoon.
T or F: A single groin can produce both sand erosion and deposition.
Although many elements are dissolved in seawater, no gases aredissolved in it.
One of the shortest barrier chains on Earth is off the coast ofNorth America's Atlantic coast.
Barrier islands are stable islands that are suitable fordevelopment.
A mere one foot rise in sea level along the shores of North Americacould cost hundreds of billions of dollars in damages.
Determining mean sea level requires measurement of tidal levelshourly for at least a period of several years.
Plunging breakers develop where the bottom profile of the coast issteep.
The coastal environment is also known as the littoral zone.
Headlands are the location of diverging wave action, whereas baysreceive converging wave action.
Waves of translation form breakers along a shoreline.
The composition of the ocean in terms of the ratio of individualmineral salts is remarkably homogenous.
T or F: Approximately two thirds (66 percent) of the world's populationlives in or near a coastal region.
Worldwide, corals are healthy and appear not to be affected bypollution, changes in surface ultraviolet radiation, or increases inocean temperatureshorizontalat this time.
T or F: The barrier islands off the Louisiana shore have been growing atfast rates in recent decades.
T or F: The salinity of seawater averages 3.5 percent, or 35 parts perthousand.
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