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Limited English Proficient (LEP)
All students in the U.S. who speak languagesother than standard English
1. Language majority students
a. Students who speak the dominant societallanguage, Standard English.
1. Heritage language
a. Label that is used to identify students fromhomes where a language other than English is spoken and who speak or at leastunderstand some of the language.
1. Language-as-resource orientation
a. Recognizing that students first language andhome culture of ELL students are not problems to be overcome but rich resourcesthat can be used to help the students learn English and academic content.
1. Subtractive Bilingualism
a. When a new language replaces a student’s homelanguage.
1. Additive bilingualism
a. When a student develops proficiency in a newlanguage without losing his or her home language.
a. Study of sound system of language
a. Study of the structure of words. The centralunit of the study is the morpheme; the smallest unit of meaning or grammaticalfunctions.
a. Study of rules governing the relationshipbetween words and the ways they are combined to form phrases and sentences.
a. Study of language in use. How individualsproduce and interpret language in social interaction in specific contexts.
1. Academiclanguage proficiency
a. The level of language proficiency students needto successfully comprehend and perform grade-level academic tasks.
a. Ability to use a language to communicateeffectively and appropriately with other speakers of the language
a. Variation in the use of language based oncontext in which the language is used.
a. Oral or written language that is slightly abovea second language learner’s current level of proficiency in the second languagethus provides linguistic input that leads to second language acquisition.
a. Refers to affective factors such as fear,anxiety, shyness, and lack of motivation that can block comprehensible inputand thus prevents second language acquisition.
a. Oral or written language produced by a secondlanguage speaker that is comprehensible to the individual or individuals withwhom he or she is communicating
1. Zoneof Proximal Development (ZPD)
a. Refers to a metaphorical space between what an individualcan do won his or her own, and what he or she can do with support from ateacher or other more knowledgeable person.
a. Support or assistance provided to student withinhis or her zone of proximal development by a more knowledable other to helpstudent learn a new concept or develop a new skill.
1. Content-basedInstruction (CBI)
a. An approach to second language instruction inwhich content-area subjects and topics are used as the basis of instruction.
1. Communicativelanguage teaching (CLT)
a. Language teaching approaches methods,strategies, and techniques that focus on helping student develop communicativecompetence.
1. Elementaryand Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
a. The main body of federal education policy andlaw and source for education funding to state and local education agencies.Passed in 1965 and binding all states and entities that accept federaleducation funding.
1. BilingualEducation Act
a. Added in 1968 as Title VII of the Elementary andSecondary Education Act. Before passage of No Child Left Behind, it providedfederal support for bilingual and other programs for ELL students and theirfamilies on a competitive grand basis.
a. A reauthorization of the Elementary andSecondary education Act. Places heavy emphasis on accountability thoughstandards and high-stakes testing.
1. Annualmeasurable achievement objective (AMAOs)
a. Baseline data that holds schools distinctaccountable for the progress of LEP students in attaining proficiency inEnglish.
a. Annual increases in the number or percentage ofchildren making progress in learning English. Annual increases in the number orpercentage of children attaining English proficiency by the end of each schoolyear.
a. Referendums put to voter in four states withlarge ELL student populations that would place severe restriction on bilingualeducation programs.
a. An amendment to the U.S. Constitution ratifiedin 1868. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge theprivileges or immunities of citizens of the U.S.; nor deny to any person withinits jurisdiction the equal protection of laws.
a. Regulations issued by U.S. Department of Education.Office of Civil Rights following the U.S.63 Supreme Court decision of Lau vs.Nichols (1974), outlining requirements for school districts and schools toaddress the needs of ELL students.
a. English language instruction for students whohave been identified as ELLs
1. Speciallydesigned academic instruction in English (SDAIE)
a. Another term for the word sheltered instructionpreferred in California and other states because it emphasized the fact thatinstruction is academically rigorous.
1. ShelteredInstruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
a. Model that offers guidance to teachers, who usesheltered instruction by helping them systematically plan, teach, observe andevaluate effective instruction for ELLs.
1. TransitionalBilingual Education (TBE)
a. Programs that target ELL students in whichnative language content-area instruction is provided for the first few years ofthe program, in addition to sheltered English content-area instruction andEnglish as a second language. The amount of native-language instructiondecreases as sheltered English immersion increases. Students are transitionedto mainstream classrooms after just a few years in the program.
1. DevelopmentalBilingual Education (DBE)
a. Programs that aim to help the student developboth English and their native language, so that they become fully bilingual andbiliterate achieving academically through both languages and developing apositive sense of their culture heritage and ethnolinguistic identities.
1. Duallanguage programs
a. A variety of bilingual program models for ELLand English-proficient students designed to help them become bilingual andbiliterate.
1. Bilingualimmersion programs
a. For language minority students who are Englishdominant and native English speakers who desire to become bilingual.
1. Heritagelanguage programs
a. Programs for language minority students todevelop or maintain their heritage language; includes bilingual programs forELLs, foreign language classes targeting native speakers in K-12 andpost-secondary education, and community-based after school or weekend programs.
a. A program model for ELLs in which students areplaced in mainstream or sheltered English immersion classrooms but areregularly pulled out of class for ESL lessons taught by an ESL teacher.
1. ShelteredEnglish Immersion
a. A program model for ELLs that combines ESL,sheltered content-area instruction, and primary language support. Sometimescall structured English immersion.
a. For beginning level ELL students who have beenin the United States for only 1 or 2 years. Programs typically provideintensive English instruction and may include some native language instructionand ample primary language support.
a. The process of placing ELL students in amainstream classroom where they do not receive any ESL, sheltered contentinstruction, or primary language support. Also called “sink-or-swim.”
a. The administration of tests, singularinstruments designed to systematically measure a sample of a student’s abilityat one particular time.
a. The process of collecting and analyzing a widevariety of data from students that provides evidence of their learning andgrowth over an extended period.
a. Theuse of assessment data to make judgments about the progress of students’ learning,the effectiveness of teacher instruction, or the quality of educationalprograms.
Assessment that provide a summary of whatstudents know and can do. Typically given at the end of a unit or at the end of a schoolyear.
The use of on-going assessments that help toidentify a student’s strengths and needs and thus inform subsequentinstruction, building on these strengths while addressing these needs.
a. A test designed to compare a student’s score tothose of other students. Test results are usually reported as percentilerankings (e.g. a student at the 71st percentile rank scored higherthan 71% of the students in the test’s norming population, that is, a group ofstudents who have already taken the test).
2. Criterion-referenced test
a. Test designed to measure the degree to whichstudents have mastered tested content.
a. The consistency with which a test or assessmentmeasure what it is measuring.
2. Standard error of measurement
a. A statistical measure that indicates a range oftrustworthiness of an individual student’s standardized test score. Forexample, the actual score of student who earned a score of 50 on a test with anSEM of 3 would be between 47 and 53 (e.g. 50 +/-3).
a. The accuracy of a test or assessment inmeasuring what it purports to measure.
a. In testing, refers to the unfair advantages ordisadvantages that may be given to certain students that can impact theirperformance. For example, a test given in English will be biased in favor ofproficient English speakers and biased against students who lack proficiency inEnglish.
a) In testing ELLs, refers to modifications in thetesting environment or testing procedures, or modifications to the testinstrument itself, that are intended to make up for a student’s lack ofproficiency in the language of the test (e.g., providing extra time, oral interpretationof test directions or items, native-language versions of the test).
2. Performance Assessment
a. A form of assessment in which students areevaluated on their ability to perform a specific academic task or set ofrelated tasks (e.g., use oral language to role play interactions at the market,write an essay, conduct a science experiment, measure and compare a set ofobjects using a scale.)
a. Students’ assessment of their own performance,typically guided by a checklist or rubric.
2. Peer Assessment
a. Students’ assessment of each other’s work orperformances.
A) Portfolio Assessment
a. Assessment of student work collected throughoutthe school year and organized in a portfolio. Enables the assessment ofstudents’ progress and growth based on authentic samples of student work.
a. Different forms of formal and informal formativeand summative assessments used together to provide accurate measure of what astudent knows and can do.
a. A period many new learners of a second languagego through before they feel comfortable speaking in the new language.
a. The period after a question has bees posedduring which students can think and formulateanswers in their head before being required to answer out loud.
1. TotalPhysical Response (TPR)
a. A language teaching approach in which studentsphysically respond to language input (e.g., commands) to internalize themeaning and to demonstrate their comprehension.
a. Words that differ by single phoneme (e.g.,sand/hand) typically used to help students distinguished specific sounds thatchange the meaning of words and help students improve their pronunciation.
a. A process in which small groups of studentscollaborate and interact to accomplish a specific learning task or activity.
1. StudentOral Language Observation Matrix
a. An assessment of student’s oral languageproficiency using an analytical scoring rubric that focuses on the aspects ofcomprehension, fluency, vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar.
a. A philosophy of reading instruction that takes atop-down approach to literacy development, that is, instruction begins with afocus on comprehension of the whole text and then helping students developreading and comprehension strategies and skills within the context of thesemeaningful texts.
a. A component of reading instruction in whichstudents learn the phonetic value of individual letters and combinations ofletters.
Emergent,early, early fluency, and fluency levels of literacy development
a. The stages or levels beginning readers gothrough during their literacy development.
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