fine solid and/or liquid droplets suspended in the air are known as
the stratospheric chemical that prevents much of the solar ultraviolet rediation from penetrating to earth's surface is called
two main human sources of primary air pollutants are
industry and transportation
automobiles and trucks do not release quantities of the following into the atmosphere
is formed from chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons/VOC's & caused thousands of deaths in London in 1952
in the final question on smog, the CA video highlighted the main component of smog that caused the burning eyes and coughing seen in the movie was mainly this pollutant
electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers in the smoke stacks are used primarily to remove which air pollutant?
the main source of SO2 in the US comes from
Which of the following is responsible for reducing carbon monoxide and VOC emissions auto exhaust by over 85%
Lead emissions in the atmostphere has decreased significantly since the 1970s primarily due to...
replacing leaded gasoline with unleaded gasoline
which US state has adopted the most stringent air quality standards including the low carbon fuel standard
Which of the following is the chemical formula for ozone
the agreememnt which called for a 50% reducation of CFC production by 1998 was the...
which of the following pH values indicates a strong base? 3, 7, or 11
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water to produce:
sulfuric acid and nitric acid
the general symptoms of forest decline due to acid deposition may include all of the following
increased greening of leaves
which city currently has the worst air pollution in the world
the difference between primary and secondary air pollutants is that primary air pollutants
enter the atmosphere directly, whereas secondary pollutants form from other substances released into the atmosphere
which or the following air pollutants is correctly paired with one of its major effects? sulfur oxides-acid precipitation; carbon oxides- corrosion of metal; hydrocarbons- blocks uv rays
sulfur oxides- acid precipitation
the highly reactive chemical species in the atmosphere that cause air pollution are called
PM contributes to many health ailments including which of the following? asthma, chronic bronchitis, copd, premature death, all the above?
all the above
-cause gases and pm to remain trapped near the ground
the effect of carbon monoxide on humans is
irreversibly binding with hemoglobin, eliminating its ability to transport oxygen in the blood
air pollution is a greater health threat to children than adults because
children need more oxygen, children breathe more air per lb of body weight, kids have a higher metabolic rate and childrens lungs are still developing
destruction of monuments and buildings, decreased hatching sucess in birds, forest decline and decline in aquatic animal populations are all effects of...
which of the following are green house gases ? co2, methane, cfcs, and sulfur oxide?
all but sulfur oxides
which of the following activities is responsible for the largest percentage of human-made co2 emissions?
burning fossil fuels
the main air pollutant of concern in Keene, NH- with levels approaching public health exposure limits is:
implementing a cap and trade system to reduce total levels of air pollution in a regional air shed would be a policy choice or a technological choice to control air pollution
a situation in which a change in some conditions triggers a response that counteracts, or reverses, the changed condition is called:
the international treaty which provides operational rules on reducing greenhouse gas emissions is called:
the greenhouse effect occurs because
CO2 and other trace gases trap infrared radiation in the Earth's atmosphere
which of the following is not a predicted outcome of global climate change?
oceans will contain more plastic
the majority of scientists support that manmade CO2 is contributing to global warming because
the rate of change of the average global surface change is dramatic compared to historic changes in temp
which of the following are two ways to attempt to manage global climate change
mitigation and adaptation
which of the following had the greatest overall effect on global climate change?
which of the following has the greatest global warming potential on a per molecule basis?
which of the following is not true about the intergovernmental panel on climate change?
in concludes that human- produced pollutants have caused minimal climate warming
evidence of climate change compared to past time periods is based on which of the following?
tree rings, ice cores, direct measurements of temp and CO2
which of the following has the greatest overall effect on global climate change? CFCs, HCFCs, CO2, O3, H2O2?
this is not a key part of the hydrolic cycle? Precip, trans, evap, conden, eutrophication?
this is the amount of water on the planet usable by humans:
water has a high heat capacity which means..
water takes a lot of heat energy to raise the temp by one degrees
this is the percentage of fresh water used in agriculture
this is the name of the largest US aquifer that is being depleted
this is the river running through the southwest that is dried up before reaching the ocean through mexico
one way that water use can be reduced in agriculture is
this is the approx # of people on the planet without aequate access to clean, safe water
this is the name of the agricultual crop that is depleting water from the aral sea
this is the percentage of wetlands that have been destroyed in the last 100 years: 30, 60, 80 %
the maximum number of individuals of a given species that a particular environment can support for a n indefinite period, assuming there are no changes in the environment is called its
which of the following is not one of the biogeochemical cycles considered of a particular importance for organisms
in the carbon cycle, carbon can be found in ..
limestone, animals, plants, oil, bicarbonate,sugar, co2, coal, the atmosphere
cold water stores carbon faster than warm water and co2 makes up .04% of the atmosphere?
mitrogen fixation is?
the conversion of gaseous nitrogen into an organism friendly form (ammonia (NH3) or ammonium ion)
a scientist in the 1800's who first sounded the alarm about the growth of the human population and the ability of the earth to handle a large population of humans was?
the movement of individuals out of a population is
which of the following organisms would be predicted to have the lowest intrinsic rate of population increase?
limits set by a surrounding environment or reproduction are called
which of the following feature is typical of K-selected species?
do not produce a large number of offspring
type 1 survivorship
the human population is increasing because of
medical advances, agg advances, sanitation practices , improves water quality
all of these
replacement level fertility is
the number of children a couple must produce to replace themselves
what is the formula for doubling time
the global growth rate of the human pop is represented by what kind of curve?
what is the doubling time for a country with a growth rate of 1.0 % ?
which of the following factors is density dependent
which of the following equations accurately represents population growth?
in class we discussed the rapid decline of the mosse pop on isle royale. this decline was attributed to to what factor?
ticks and associate health impacts
the island civilization located in the pacific that reached its limits of pop growth and decline was
the above graphic represents the age structure characteristic of
a highly developed country
the graph below best illustrates
which of the follwoing factors affects the total fertility rate for human populations today?
availability of family planning services
cultural and religious traditions
all of these
potentially world hunger could be eliminated by
improved food distribution
promotion of economic development
increased family planning education
elimination of poverty
all of these
the country with the current largest pop in the world today is
high fertility rates are generally encouraged in developing countries because
children can contribute to the family's livelihood
children must care for agin parents
male children are culturally more desirable so families continue to have kids until male children occur
high fertility rates compensate for high mortality rates
all of these
increasing education results in a decrease in total fertility primarily by:
delaying the age at which women have their first child
of the choices below the most common foods eaten in the world today are
corn rice and wheat
which of the following are currently used to increase livestock yields
administering antibiotics and hormones
industrialized agriculture uses fossil fuels at which step in the food production processes
to power equiptment, run irrigation, apply pesticides, manufacture fertilizers, all of these
domesticated plants and animals
tend to lose genetic diversity as the farmer selects for more desirable agricultural characteristics
land degradation of agricultural quality soil is a result of
soil erosion, soil salinizatoin, loss of soil fertility, pesticide use, all of these
sustainable agricultural practices are charecterized by all of the following except
globally total world grain production is
the human use of agriculture first happened aprox how many years ago?
Amartya Sen, Nobel prize winner, proposed that the leasing cause of famine is neither lack of food production or inefficient distribution, but instead
type of government
the top animal consumer of grain in the US is
the process by which bodies are depleted of oxygen due to fertilizer fed algae blooms is called
what does the term "peak oil" refer to
the point in time which the max amount of oil is being pumped from underground
combustion of which of these fossil fuels is linked to global warming?
oil, natural gas, coal, methane, all of these
which fossil fuel is most abundant in n america?
at the current rate of consumption the worlds coal reserves could last for possibly another ...
this type of coal contains the least amount of sulfur and has the highest average heat value
this is the approx. % of energy imported into the us each year
this is a hidden cost to coal extraction not reflected in the marked price of coal
overburden deposits near valleys, acid mine drainage, worker accidents, air pollution, all of these
carl safina talked about this being a major "unseen" issue of the recent Gulf oil spill
addition of dispersants to mix oil into the water column
according to the video from dr. safina thse were the origional iol fields humans exploited
which of the following alternative energy sources is the most expensive
wind power has all the following advantages except which one?
widespread public acceptance
of the list below, the most energy efficient technology is
energy is a "blank" issue
in petroleum refining theis is the product with the highest boiling point that comes out of the bottom of the distillation column
the ability to meet humanity's current needs without compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations is termed:
exs of non sustainable human activities or behaviors include
use of nonrenewable resources as if they were present in unlimited quantities
the IPAT model can be used to calculate which of the following
humant impact on the environment
the tragedy of the commons refers to
an analogy describing the conflict between individual interest and management of shared resources
the current global eco footprint of each person is about 2.3 hectares. the Earth presently has 11.4 billion hectares of productive land and water. if we divide this usable area by the global human population of aprox. 6 billion this means
we have an eco deficit we have exceeded our alloted footprint of 1.9 hectares per person
a clear ex of the app of the concept of eco footprint used by the author (wackernagel) of the homework reading was:
expanding "bubble" over city boundaires
all of the following inputs go into calculating one's eco footprint except which category?
which of the following stages comes last in addressing environmental problems?
an ecosysted can be charecterized as
all of the biological interactions of organisms plus interactions with the abiotic environment in a given area
the first law of thermodynamics states that
energy cannot be created or destroyed
which of the following statements about energy is true?
the energy present in the universe will always be the same amount
entroy is the measure of
the disorder or randomness in a system
this is the famous preservationist who founded the sierra club
rachel carson wrote the book Silent Spring which warned about the dangers of widespread use of pesticides and especially which pesticide in particular?
Pollution is a classic example of a "blank" which is defined as when a producer of a good or service does not have to pay the full cost of production.
sunlight is the energy source used during which process?
combustion of gasoline to power movement of a car is an example of what kind of energy conversion?
potential to kinetic energy
the correct chemically balanced equation for photosynthesis is
6CO2+12H2O+radient energy -> C6H12O6+ 6H2O+6O2
what is represented by the letter E in the graph below?
economically optimum amount of pollution
an example of mutualism reviewed in class was
clown fish and anemone
a secondary consumer would eat
when oak trees in NE have abumper crop of accorns this is called a "what " year?
becease of the intricate connections in a forest community the bumper crop of acorns can lead to what outcome two years later?
increased risk of lime disease
if habitat is the "address" for an organism, then ecological niche is the ?
each level or "link" in a food chain is called
a trophic level
an example of a biotic component of an ecosystem is :
community of squirrels and oak trees
a species is defined as:
a group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed with one another producing fertile offspring
an example of a keystone species would be
all of the following would be considered an ecosystem service provided by a forest, except... ( purify water, provide wildlife habitat, provide humans with wood, absorb carbon dioxide, provide costal buffers against storm surges)
provide costal buffers against storm surges
oysters provide ecosystem services of purifying up to how many gallons of water per day per oyster?
which of the following is one of the most productive ecosystems?
which of the following are producers?
the theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed in, the origin of species by means of natural selection (1859) written by:
are vital but usually not the most abundant species in the ecosystem
the interdependent evolution of two interacting species is known as
a generally accepted estimate of the economic value of natural ecosystem services is :
$30 trillion dollars per year
predation can be defines as
one organism consuming another organism, which may be a plant or animal
the relationship between a tick and a dog is an example of
the process of community development over time during which biological communities are gradually replaced by other biological communities is called:
primary and secondary succession
resource partioning can be accomplished through all of the follwoing except
increasing the habitat and ecological niche overlap
which of the following is a keystone species in US temperate forests ?
extinction as a natural process is believed to have occurred at a mass extinction level how many times (before the industrial revolution) over the geologic history of the Earth?
the most significant cause of biodiversity loss is due to what factor?
land use change
a species in imminent danger of extinction over all of a significant portion of its range would be classified as:
all of the following would be considered a characteristic of vulnerablility for threatened or endangered species EXCEPT which one?
high reproductive rates
an example of an endemic species is
biodiversity takes into account which of the following characteristics
a,B, and C
the single best way to protect biodiversity is by doing what??
the breeding of the two last rafetus turtles will likely not be ultimately successful due to deficient
climate change is a large factori in the fact that this percentage of global amphibiam species is threatened with extinction
what are all the categories or steps outlined in the story of stuff video that explain the lifecycle of products from beginning to end?
extraction production distribution consumption disposal
in class we talked about how factories in WWII were changed from manufacturing war related supplies to consumer goods like appliances. this era in our history was called:
the last passenger pigeon on earth was named ?
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