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In humans, sex determination is due to the number of X’s; if you have 2 X’s you are a female and if you only have one you’re a male
All of our genes are encoded by the sequence of A, T, C and G nucleotides in our DNA.
The genes on the X chromosome are involved in many processes that do not involve the sex of the individual.
Which of the following is NOT true of the processes of sperm production?
produces haploid ovum
In males, which of the follow is not part of the normal ejaculate?
Which of the following hormones is NOT used in the production of eggs
Which of the following results in the start of the menstrual cycle and the beginning of the next cycle?
The stage in the Cell Cycle that immediately follows Mitosis is __________.
In mitosis, if a parent cell has 32 chromosomes (as sister chromatid pairs), each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes?
Which of the following is the proper sequence for mitosis? I. metaphase, II. telophase, III. prophase, IV. anaphase
c. III, I, IV, II
Meiosis typically results in the production of
4 haploid cells.
In Euglena that reproduce asexually, each offspring is (give the most complete answer)
identical to each other.
identical to the parent
Which of the following is NOT true regarding meiosis?
the number of chromosomes is maintained
Which of the following is TRUE regarding sexual reproduction?
results in new combinations of genetic traits
If a parent cell has 48 chromosomes (as sister chromatid pairs) and undergoes meiosis, the resulting cells will have how many chromosomes?
The theory of segregation
says the alleles of a gene are separated into different sex cells
Mendel's principle of independent assortment means that
the inheritance of alleles for one gene don't affect the inheritance of those of other genes
If the alleles A and B alleles for purple and tall, in Mendel’s peas, were both on the same chromasome and a and b were on the other homologous chromosome, what process would allow the production of Ab and aB gametes?
d. crossing over.
Different versions of the same gene are called
If two sisters have brown hair, but one is Bb and the other is BB they have different
In mice, black coat color is dominant to white and brown eyes is dominant to pink. If a pink eyed, white mouse mates with a brown eyed, black mouse (homozygous for both genes)--how many pink eyed white babies should you expect.
Which is NOT true of human chromosomes?
fertilized egg has 92 chromosomes
Which of the following designates a normal human male?
Which of the following designates a normal human female?
If you mother is a hemophiliac and your dad is not, if you are their son; what is the chance of you being a hemophiliac?
If a man has Muscular Dystrophy (MD) and he marries a woman whose father had MD but who does not have the disearse herself, what would be the expected number of children with the disease?
half of the boys
half of the girls
In DNA replication, the nucleotides are assembled by _____________.
Which of the following is a component of a “Gene”
DNA with protein coding sequences
The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is called
Which of the following is one the roles that RNA’s play in the human genetic mechanism
carry the code for a single protein sequence
What is it that allows the nucleotide sequence of a gene to be converted into the correct peptide sequence to make the protein?
each amino acid is connected to different tRNA's whose "anticodons" recognizes the
correct codon sequence on the messenger RNA
What is it that allows DNA to be duplicated and also allows regions to be copied as RNA?
“base-pairing” between the A & T and G & C nucletides results in the correct nucleotide
at each position
DNA is said to be produced in a ____________ direction
5’ to 3’
Each "word" or codon in the mRNA language consists of how many nucleotides?
Which of these techniques is used to determine the order of the nucleotides in a DNA? (give the best answer)
PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique which
ses short "primer" DNA's which act as starting points for the DNA polymerase. uses a special heat stable DNA polymerase
Enzymes which cut the DNA as specific sequences
Ribosomes are large enzymes that are composed of
rRNA plus proteins. a large and small subunit
nuclear envelope breaks down
chromosomes line up at middle of the cell
sister chromatids have separated and moved to opposite poles
final phase of mitosis; daughter nuclear membranes re-form
constriction of the cell membrane separates two new cells
As cells get bigger, the cell surface grows faster than the cell’s internal volume.
The innermost energy level of electrons can hold 8 electrons.
Classification (or Taxonomy) allow scientists to very precisely identify a plant or animal that they are working with.
Virus are the cause of many diseases. Because they ___________ they are not considered true lifeforms.
cannot reproduce themselves
Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of living things?
use protein to store genetic information
According to the Scientific Method, after making observations about how the world or living things work, we next come up with _____________ to try to explain it.
You gave 50 depressed people a 6 month course of FeelNgood at 25 mg, 4 times/day and then retested them at the end of the 6 month. What critical things did you forget to do in your study?
One of the chief problems in science is the experimenters preconceived ideas about how the experiment should come out. This is what we refer to as _________.
If you randomly picked 5 Liberty students for an experiment designed to estimate the numbers of white, black, latino and asian students on campus and all 5 were white, this would be an example of ___________.
Which of the following is NOT one of the “taxa” of classification?
In the scientific name for mouse, Mus musculus, the term “Mus” is the __________.
According to the ___________________ model, the cell’s outer membrane is fluid containing both proteins and lipids.
Which of the following would cause diffusion of a molecule to occure more quickly?
increase the temperature
greater concentration difference
Diffusion differs from osmosis in that __________________.
osmosis involves diffusion of water d. both a and b
through a membrane
If you have two solutions separated by a semipermiable membrane and one solution has twice as much dissolved in it, it is said to be a ________________ solution
If a cell like Paramecia is placed in spring water, there is more dissolved inside the cell than outside. Osmosis causes _______________________.
water to move into the cell
Cells move large amounts of material--i.e. enzymes used for digestion--out of the cell using vesicles that fuse with the inside of the plasma membrane, the process of __________.
All of the following are used in the production of secreted proteins in eukaryotes EXCEPT __________
Most molecules transported through the cell membrane without the input of energy use a mechanism called ______________.
Which of the following is located in the center of the atom?
_______________ are positioned in “energy levels” around the nucleus of the atom
The isotopes of an element differ only in the number of ________________
___________ bonds are the weak connections that form between individual water molecules and help give water many of its unique properties.
Ice is less dense than liquid water because in ice the ______________ are more stable.
If CocaCola has a pH of 3 and Tomatoes have a pH of 4, CocoCola has _____________.
10x more H+
Your sweat evaporating cools your skin because water has a _______________ which means a lot of energy is required to turn liquid water into vapor.
high heat of vaporization
If the pH of a salt solution is 9 and acid is added, you would expect the pH to _________ as the amount of free H+ ____________.
Jesus and Water both share the following characteristics:
____________ are molecules that would be considered “oily” because they don’t mix well with water
_________ are used to make components of our genetic system like DNA and RNA.
Glycogen and Starch are both examples of _____________ and are used by animals and plants, respectively, as a energy storage.
Polymers like proteins and complex carbohydrates are disassembled during digestion through ____________.
In proteins, the alpha helices and beta sheets are examples of _________________.
When a protein is heated to the point where it looses its normal shape, we call it _________.
“packages” proteins to be sent within or without the cell
double membrane organelle where ATP is produced from the break down of food
small membrane containers used to hold and transport cellular materials
present as a “smooth” and “rough” form
double membrane compartment containing the DNA
has genetic material within a nucleus
most are extremely small--barely detectible by light microscopes
biological functions are divided into individual compartments within the cell
have “pili” that can help attach the cell to a substrate
Connective tissue is used as a protective barrier on the outside of our body and in inside of the digestive tract.
The hypothallamus is the primary part of the brain which deals with keeping body temperature, oxygen levels, water levels etc. within the necessary ranges for life.
The increase in heart rate that we experience when we’re afraid is the result of signals from the sympathetic nervous system.
The movement of oxygen into the blood in the lungs is due to special protein oxygen pumps in the cell membranes of the alveoli.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics that energy level and disorder are always increasing in a closed system.
When the diaphragm contracts, it creates a vacuum inside the chest cavity that pushes the air out of the lungs.
Place the following steps involved in the propagation of an action potention in the correct order 1. release of a neurotransmitter 2. signals transmitted to the dendrites cause positive ions to enter the cell 3. voltage gated Na+ channels open in a wave moving from the cell body out along the axon
2, 3, 1
Which part of the brain in responsible for making hormones which regulate the endocrine system?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?
correcting changes in body temperatur
breaks down proteins
Which of the following organs filters the blood returning from the digestive tract?
Which of the following is a function of the pancreas?
a. regulation of blood sugar levels b. making enzymes for digestion
The salivary glands release the enzyme amylase which breaks down starch producing _________ in the
One of the key waste products that the kidneys remove is urea from the break down of ______.
Nitrogen containing molecules like amino acids
After the initial removal of all dissolved substances, the next step in kidney filtration is ____________.
reabsorption of food molecules and
Which of the following substances is NOT filtered from the bloodstream in this initial filtration step?
By burning gasoline in our cars, we turn ________ into _______ as the motor causes the car to move down the road
chemical energy, kinetic energy
When one of the products of a biochemical pathway shuts the pathway off by inhibiting one of the early enzymes in the pathway
In the large intestines, Na+ pumps move Na+ out of the inside of the colon to the outside making the outside a ___1_____ environment and ___2____ causes the water to move out of the colon.
1 Hypertonic; 2 Osmosis
Humans break-down all of the following for producing ATP energy EXCEPT
When yeast do anaerobic respiration, the end product(s) is ____________.
The White Blood Cells are involved with ______.
fighting viruses; producing antibodies
Blood is carried from the _______ ventricle to the _________ in route to the lungs.
right ; pulmonary trunk
Once loaded with oxygen, blood enters the ______ atrium and ventricle before leaving through the _____
If a person holds their breath too long or if the heart stops beating, a person will experience unconsciousness and ultimately death, if not corrected soon enough. Why? What is happening or not happening within the cells of the brain?
CO2 levels rise within the brain and inhibit the breakdown of glucose
b. O2 levels drop and the Electron transport system can't function
All of the following are structures of the respiratory system, but in which does gas exchange take place?
Jesus said He is the “Bread of Life”and we discovered our bodies ______________.
are designed to run on bread
b. have 3 pathways that break down the glucose we get from starch
uses acid and several enzymes to convert large polymers to monomers
system that absorbs oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
carries glucose, amino acids and vitamins to the varioius parts of the body
filters and removes toxins such as drugs
regulates all the other systems either directly or indirectly
controls musclular coordination
insulating barrier that prevents the loss of nerve signals
receives visual information
stores memories used for right and wrong judgements
contains villi and microvilli
where protein break down begins
makes several enzymes for breaking down proteins, DNA & RNA
pumps Na+ ions out in order to reabsorb water from digestion
where most nutrients are absorbed
one of the storage tissues for glycogen
releases the two carbons from acetyl-CoA as CO2 and stores high energy electrons for later steps
splits the 6 carbon glucose into two 3 carbon pyruvates
pathway used by certain bacteria in making cheese and our muscles when oxygen is not available
Electron Transport Phosphorylation
produces a H+ gradient in order to generate ATP
begins by using up some ATP energy
pathway used by yeast that causes dough to rise
With land based food webs, the first level of the food chain is usually the plants who provide food for the rest of the levels
Mutations destroy the original genetic information and does not produce better, faster, smarter species.
The Light Independent Reactions do not require light and occur even when sunlight is not available.
CO2 is not used for Photosynthesis (neither the Light Dependent nor Light Independent Rxns).
Exponential growth occurs when all resources are present in vast excess.
Atheism is one of the philosophical assumptions of Darwinian Evolution which determine how the scientific data is viewed.
Glucose is one of the products of the Light Dependent Reactions.
For most ecosystems, the energy which drives the production of food for the ecosystem comes from_________.
A network of interactions that involve the cycling of materials and the flow of energy between a community and its physical environment is which of the following?
Which of the following reflects a Biblical view point on our role as human beings in relation to the earth, animals and the environment?
God provided plants and animals as a means of taking care of man's physical needs b. God expects us to take care of the plants and animals and use natural resources wisely
Female peacocks choosing their mates based on the size and bright coloration of the males tail feathers would be an example of what kind of Natural Selection?
What is "Gene Flow"?
the loss of alleles as some individuals leave the group b. addition of alleles as new individuals join the group
In most cases, mutations contribute to the process of Microevolution by
creating new alleles by changing existing genes ;destroying old alleles
Natural selection which is "Directional"...
selects against one particular trait
According to Darwinian Evolutionary ideas, the many layers of stratified rock suggest the earth is millions of years old because
the rates of sedimentation are very slow and therefore it must have taken a long time
All of the of the following are used as evidence in SUPPORT of Darwinian Evolution EXCEPT which one?
the rate of increase in the saltiness of the oceans
Darwinian evolution asserts that, although beneficial mutations are extremely rare, they still occur and lead to more and more advanced organisms. Why is this not possible.
harmful mutations would cancel out any benefit from "good" mutations
According to current Evolutionary thought, the first genetic material to evolve was made of
One problem with the idea that the fossil record shows gradual evolution from simple to complex is_______.
there are no “intermediate” fossils to connect the different family trees
Which of the following is NOT a component of the current Evolutionary model (as stated in the the text book) for the origin of life on earth?
Which of the following describe problems with radiometric dating techniques
a. there are several assumptions which must be made to determine dates b. dating of samples of known ages give incorrect dates c. C14 dating of diamond and coal samples indicate the earth is young
The problem with Haeckel's assertion of "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" was that_____.
Haeckel falsified his data to make different species look the same
Which of the following suggests that fossilization is a rapid process and is actually evidence of the Biblical flood?
mass burials of horses, bison and
wolves being bred to produce a poodle
amoeba --> frog --> dog --> monkey --> college student
group(s) of naturally interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups
the progression from fossils of simple organisms in lower stata and more complex organisms in higher is said to be evidence of this
changes in a kind of animal/plant that lead to two new separate kinds
small changes within a species
Latin translation of the Biblical word “kind” from Genesis 2
sunlight causes plants to grow on the shady side, bending the plant towards the light
organelle where photosynthesis takes place
statoliths fall to the bottom of the cell to direct growth
hormone that causes cells to grow longer
process causing vines to wrap around a branch
a gas in the atmosphere is used to make ammonia which is then converted by other bacteria into a form that plants can use
goes 0 to 60 in less than 5 seconds
precipitation from the sky collects in rivers and lakes before running out to sea
bird dropping and fertilizers are absorbed into the ground or sea before this key nutrient is absorbed by plants
H20 evaporates and forms clouds
this is the final product of photosynthesis that the plant uses to store for food
also referred to as the Calvin-Benson Cycle
Light Independent Reactions
5 carbon sugar that reacts with CO2 to make a 6 carbon sugar
absorb light energy to make ATP and NADPH
Light Dependent Reactions
capture photons to be used in photosynthesis
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