The first step in measuring student achievement is to determine the
intended learning outcome
Assessment refers to
a broad area of monitoring the performance of students
An evaluation is
the determination of the worth or value of a phenomenon in terms of a specified criteron
The more samples of a student's behavior, the
more accurate the conclusions about the student's skill
When student scores are compared with those of a large sample of students in the same grade; this is called
norm referenced assessment
For measurement purposes, instructional goals and objectives should be stated in terms of the
types of learning outcomes expected
The weight assigned to each learning outcome in developing a plan for classroom tests and assessments should be determined by
the instructional time devoted to it
Example of a instructional objective
Demonstrates how to use laboratory equipment
Example of a learning outcome
States valid conclusions
Unanticipated learning outcomes should be
noted for future use, but not assessed
The most desirable way to increase the difficulty of a classroom test is to
include more higher-level learning outcomes
If you ask a student a question that involves problem solving, discuss the answer, and then ask the same question later, what is the level of the question the second time?
The two major classes of essay questions are
To measure integration and application of critical concepts it would be best to use
extended response essay items
Which item type would provide the highest score based on guessing alone?
Which item type would be most effective for measuring the ability to distinguish between factual statements and opinion statements?
Schools typically use
both formal and informal assessments
Sample sizes of an assessment
should be large enough to be a reliable representation
The distribution of items and tasks in a table of specifications should reflect the relative
importance of objective
The weight assigned to each instructional objective in a table of specifications should be determined by the
instructional time devoted to it
A table of specifications is used to
provide a general layout for developing a valid test
What is a test blueprint?
It is an effective strategy to use when settling goals for your students
You are creating a test blueprint and you want to make sure it is valid. What statement will make the list valid?
There are more questions on the test that are important for future learning.
What is NOT true of the objectives used to design a test blueprint?
Each objective should be used to assess only one level of cognitive skills in Bloom's Taxonomy.
What is an inappropriate objective to be included in a test blueprint?
Students will learn to appreciate the lessons that hardships suffered during the American Revolution can teach.
Mr. Smith wants to create a test blueprint for his Math unit assessment. He has 3 objectives for the lesson and a total of 25 questions on the test. For objective #1, he has 3 knowledge questions, 4 comprehension questions, and 1 question in each of the application, analysis, and synthesis cognitive levels. If the test is based on 100 points, what percentage of questions on the test would be related to objective #1?
Matching items are most useful for measuring learning outcomes at the level of
A difficulty in constructing matching items is that of finding material that requires
Excessive use of matching items will most likely result in overremphasis on
A distracter in a multiple-choice item refers to
any incorrect alternative
One advantage of multiple-choice items over true-false items is that they reduce the
influence on guessing on the score
A 50-item multiple-choice test would provide more reliable test scores that a 50-item true-false test because
a bigger spread of scores is obtained
Inexperienced item writer will produce more effective multiple-choice items if they start with
the stem in question form
In order to measure application with multiple-choice items, the problem situations should be
new to the students
Ambiguity can be best reduced in multiple-choice items by
having another teacher review the items
A multiple-choice item in which a particular word occurs in the stem and in only one of the choices defines which problem?
What is the problem with including an obviously wrong choice among the distracters of a multiple-choice items?
It does not help the item to discriminate among respondents
The short-answer test items are clearly superior to matching or true-false items in measuring
ability to interpret data
What is a well stated short-answer item?
A test that is reliable is not necessarily __________ or useful
Using non-selected response exercises will typically result in more effective
measurement of complex learning outcomes
One advantage of the non-selected response over performance-based assessment tasks is that it
provides a more structured task
The use of some essay questions in a classroom test will probably improve
Many things are useful for improving essay testing EXCEPT
permitting students to choose among optional questions
A major problem in using essay questions to evaluate learning is the difficulty of
Essay questions are more appropriate than multiple-choice items when the learning outcome calls for
development of an argument
One serious limitation of the essay test is the
For which learning outcome would objective items be better than essay questions?
Identifies the meaning of concepts
In scoring essay answers, deducting points for neatness will have the greatest influence on
What is a desirable practice for grading essay answers?
Grade content and spelling separately
If assessment data are such that a second measure of the same characteristic under similar circumstances will yield the same result, we have established what?
College entrance exams are valued for what quality?
To obtain evidence of validity based on content considerations, you would examine the
table of specifications
Criterion-related validity considerations typically include
The term reliability is closest in meaning to
Which type of reliability would provide a measure of internal
The Spearman-Brown connection formula is used with the
What is the best procedure for improving the reliability of a classroom test?
Increasing the number of items of tasks
An assessment of achievement is most useful if it is
In criterion related validation, the first measure (test) is assumed to
predict performance on a second of specified content
If item analysis data showed that an item was answered correctly by 8 out of 10 students in the upper group and 6 out of 10 students in the lower group, the difficulty of the test item would be
Lower discriminating power is acceptable, if the item
measures a unique learning outcome
If 8 our of 10 students in the upper group and 2 out of 10 students in the lower group answer an item correctly, what is the difficulty and discrimination power of the item?
An index of
discriminating power of .50 for a test item means that it
has satisfactory discriminating power
A distracter in a multiple-choice item is judged good if it attracts more students who have
obtained low scores
Which factor is likely to differ in constructing norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests?
What is likely to be used in a criterion-referenced interpretation?
Percentage correct score of 20
For a norm-referenced test, the item difficult level for each item is around
For criterion-referenced test, the item difficulty level for each item is around
The standard error of measurement refers to the error involved in
When reporting standardized test results to parents the explanation should be
presented in simple terms
A standardized achievement test differs most from a teacher-made objective test in which area?
Breadth of content coverage
One advantage of a teacher-made test over a standardized achievement test is its greater
In evaluating a standardized achievement test battery one should first attempt to determine
what the tests measure
A standardized achievement test is best used for
comparing achievement in several schools
deals with identifying the quality of performance in terms of the problem solution
Assessment of a performance includes
the target skill and a criteria of success
that the performance represents the student's response to problems that involve or replicate real-life events for the student
Stable, reliable conclusions about performance depend on
having several observations of a performance
Performance criteria is also known as
standards of adequacy
A holistic summary of observations is
an assessment of the overall quality of the performance
Checklists used to record observations of performance
note the presence or absence of a list of essential behaviors
Rating scales used to record observations of performance
present a range of quality for each characteristic to be rated
For which type of learning outcome are performance-based assessment tasks most useful?
Performance-based assessments are more effective than multiple-choice items in measuring
ability to formulate problems
An advantage of performance-based assessments over objective tests is that they
can better communicate instructional goals requiring complex problem solving
What is NOT a limitation of performance-based assessments?
Lack of validity
A major advantage of developing criteria for judging performance prior to task administration is that they can
help students understand what is expected
The best justification of the relatively large amount of time required to respond to many performance-based assessment tasks is that
the tasks can provide students with valuable learning opportunities
The dependence of task performance on skills that are irrelevant to the intended purpose of the assessment tasks (e.g., reading skill for some mathematics tasks) will have the biggest negative influence on
The most reliable grading of task performances is likely to result when a teacher
grades all performances on one task before going to the next one
The most objective information would be obtained when rating
When rating the products of student performances it is best to
rate performances on one task for all students before rating performance on another task
Analytic scoring is better than holistic scoring for
providing diagnostic feedback for students
can be made most useful by observing a student
in various situations
The most serious limitation in the use of anecdotal records in the classroom is
possible bias in the observations
When writing anecdotal records an attempt should be made to include an objective record of
Anecdotal records would be best for obtaining information on
Good anecdotal records will include interpretations
that are separate from the behavior
The value of anecdotal records can be improved by recording behavior
occurring in a variety of situations
A collection of student work assembled to provide a representation of student achievement. This type of assessment helps to communicate exactly what the student knows, and it usually contains various pieces of the student's work so that others can see what the student knows, what he needs help on, and how he has improved
Provides an opportunity for showcasing student accomplishment. This type of portfolio is appropriate for the early grades.
Status report portfolio
A portfolio that has the purpose of evaluating the student's overall competence of a specific skill. It is the determination of whether the student has met previously determined quality levels of performance.
Personal communication-based assessment
An informal assessment method that gives immediate information about students' achievement. It encompasses question/answer, conferences, oral exams, class discussions, and journals/logs, and is useful in assessing higher level cognitive levels, dispositions, and reasoning targets.
Gives students one-on-one attention. It provides an excellent context in which the teacher offers specific feedback.
A type of personal communication that is often done so the teacher can discuss with the parent(s) a child's progress or issues, or gain knowledge about the student.
A type of portfolio that documents a student's progress.
A portfolio made up of the documentation of the steps a student takes in completing something. This type is ideal when a teacher wants to know how a student completed a specific project.
One-on-one time in which two parties can talk about student performance in the past and what can be down to improve performance in the future.
Student-led parent conference
Places the student at the heart of the process. The student discusses his achievement and progress and possible areas that he needs to work on.
Tests that are given and answered orally. The teacher listens to and interprets student responses, evaluating quality and inferring levels of achievement, and has the opportunity to ask follow-up questions.
Conversations between members of the class about certain parts of the material being learned. Often used to engage student learning.
A written form of personal communication between teachers and students. There are four types of journals/logs: response journals, learning logs, dialog journals, and personal writing journals.
A log in which students keep ongoing written records of reflection, analysis, description, and evaluation of their learning experiences, successes, and challenges.
Letter grades are assigned by comparing a student's performance to a prespecified standard.
Grades that are assigned by comparing a student's performance to other students' performances.
A method of grading commonly used when the purpose of the assessment is to determine whether a student has met the minimum skills. This type of grading does not tell the degree of achievement.
The type of grading based on assigning numbers to all assessments, which is used widely in schools when reporting students' achievement.
A grade (A to F) that is intended to sum up an entire term's work.
The term that includes attitudes, interests, motivation, values, and preferences.
How well students know their academic ability.
A strategy used to minimize the bias of the assessment result, which is affected by disability.
A strategy used to minimize the bias of the assessment result by modifying the tasks or criteria.
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