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Generally speaking, which of the four sources of probable cause mentioned in the text is not strong enough to
After the defense closes case, the prosecutio brings new evidence forward that wasnot used during initial presentation to the jury. ____ stage of the trial.
Which patrol function focuses on maintaining a presence in the community which allows attempts at preventing crime from occurring?
What kind of search takes place when an individual gives law enforcement permission to search their persons, homes, or belongings?
9. The most common way for someone to become a detective is to ___________________.
A person who is involved in criminal activity and provides information about that activity and those who engage in it to the police is a(n):
Criminal investigations that are not cleared after a certain amount of time are referred to as
The "broken windows theory" is based on the theory that by cracking down on ____ crimes, police can
significantly reduce all crime in an area.
A ____ opinion is a separate opinion who support the decision of the majority of the court but who want to express their own particular reasoning.
A broad term used to describe the basic assumptions and values that permeate law enforcement agencies
The Fourth Amendment contains two critical legal concepts: a prohibition against unreasonablesearches and seizures, and
Requirement of probable cause to make an arrest
19. The U.S. Supreme Court orders a lower court to send it the record of a case for review. This is done with a
Writ of certiorari
The legal principle that illegally obtained evidence can be admitted if police using lawful means would have “inevitably” discovered it
The inevitable discovery exception
21. A(n) ____ is a brief detention of a person by law enforcement agents for questioning.
Time elapsed between the instant a call for service is received and the instant a police officer arrives on the scene, otherwise referred to as ____, has become a benchmark for police efficiency
23. To determine whether a stop is based on reasonable suspicion, the court uses a ________________ test.
Totality of the circumstances
24. In the courtroom work group, who is responsible for recording every word that is said during the course of
Which Amendment states that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness
26. The directed patrol of hot spots is associated with ______________________.
27. Which of the following is NOT one of the possible affirmative defenses used in a defendant's case?
. A(n) ____ is a situation that requires extralegal or exceptional actions by the police. In these circumstances,
police officers are justified in not following procedural rules, such as those pertaining to search and arrest
The percentage of crimes that result in arrest and prosecution
30. A reactive approach to policing that emphasizes a speedy response to calls for service is:
The recognized standard for a "reasonable expectation of privacy" was established by which of the following
Katz v. United States
After a crime has been committed and the patrol officer has gathered preliminary information from a crimescene, the responsibility of identifying the offender is delegated to the
Chimel v. California
In ____, the Court ruled that police may search any area within the suspect’s “immediate control” to
confiscate any weapons or evidence that the suspect could destroy.
34. What type of technology is utilized by police departments to locate and identify hot spots?
35. What is the legal basis for the Miranda warning?
36. The majority of a patrol officer’s time is spent on:
A(n) ____ is the taking into custody of a citizen for the purpose of detaining him or her on a criminal
38. The “good faith” exception to the exclusionary rule was established by case law in:
United States v. Leon
Reasonable grounds to believe the existence of facts warranting certain actions, such as the search or arrest of
a person, is:
40. What is the justification required to make an arrest?
1. In a civil case, the injured party is called the ____.
2. An act that violates criminal law and is punishable by criminal statutes is
3. As a general rule, private security officers are intended to:
Deter crime with their presence
Of the three levels of law enforcement, ____ have the broadest authority to apprehend
criminal suspects, maintain order, and provide services to the community.
Municipal police agencies
5. In a criminal case, the burden of proof is:
Beyond a reasonable doubt
6. The term mala prohibita refers to:
A “human-made” law
Those convicted of minor crimes with relatively short sentences, as well as those awaiting trial or
transfer, are held in ____.
Different segments of society separated by social class, income, age, and race that are engaged
in a constant struggle with each other for control of society is depicted by which of the following
A crime in which the defendant is guilty regardless of his or her state of mind at the time
of the act is known as:
10. Which of the following is true regarding deviance?
Deviance is behavior that is considered to go against the norms established by society
11. What is the most common form of criminal activity?
13. Public order crimes are sometimes referred to as ________________, but this can be misleading.
14. Robbery is considered a ________ crime.
15. The consensus model is a criminal justice model in which:
a majority of citizens in society agree on what activities should be outlawed and punished as crimes
16. Which of the following is an example of white-collar crime?
A new typology of crime that is directly related to the increased use of computers in everyday life
is referred to as ____.
18. What level of law enforcement divides duties between counties and municipalities?
Since its inception in 1930, the ____ has attempted to measure the overall rate of crime in the US by organizing "crimes known to the police."
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
________ investigate most crimes and attempt to deter crime through patrol activities.
Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), the Drug Enforcement
Administration (DEA), and the U. S. Secret Service are all ____ law enforcement.
Once the court system convicts and sentences an offender, she or he is delegated to the ____ system.
The most common correctional treatment, which allows the offender to return to the community and remain under the supervision of the agent of the court:
26. "Ordinary" felonies are found on which layer of the "Wedding Cake Model" of criminal justice?
27. All of the following are goals that fulfill the purpose of the criminal justice system EXCEPT:
To control crime
To prevent crime
To observe crime
To provide and maintain justice
answer: to observe crime
Which of the following models can be represented as an assembly line, ensuring a quick and rapid
conclusion of the process?
Crime control model
29. Which of the following criminal justice system models can be represented as an obstacle course?
Due process model
30. One critical flaw with deterrence theory is
a. the theory assumes people will be deterred by the threat of criminal sanctions
b. it assumes people make rational choices based on the information they receive
c. it fails to realize many people are not threatened by arrest or being labeled as criminal
31. One of the downfalls of the Uniform Crime Reports is
b. it only captures crime reported to the police
32. Illegal acts by illegal organizations are referred to as ____ crimes.
33. A third degree felony in the state of Texas is punishable by what term of incarceration?
b. 2-10 years in the penitentiary
Classical theory (choice theory)
35. Which of the following is true about the relationship between class and crime?
36. Court decisions that provide guidance in interpreting the law are called:
37. The study of crime is referred to as ____.
The _______________ is the supreme law of the land, and as such is the basis of all law in the
40. All of the following were initiatives promoted by police chiefs during the reform era, EXCEPT:
Focusing on proactive strategies aimed at stopping crimes before they were committed
41. The rules, orders, and decisions of regulatory agencies make up:
42. Criminologists have theorized, as well as examined through empirical research, that the downturn
. dramatic decline in the use of crack cocaine
b. aging of the baby boomers
c. improved policing practices
d. all of the above
43. The primary legal function of the law is to:
Maintain social order by protecting citizens from criminal harm
Which layer of the "Wedding Cake Model" of criminal justice comes closest to meeting our standards of “ideal justice,” but in fact is rarely how criminal cases are handled?
An illegal act or series of acts committed by an individual or business entity using some nonviolent
means to obtain a personal or business advantage is referred to as_______________.
. Crimes punishable by death or imprisonment in a federal or state penitentiary for 1 year or
longer are called:
47. Federalism refers to:
A sharing of government powers by federal and state authorities
48. The oldest federal law enforcement agency is the:
49. What degree of felony carries the maximum penalty of death?
A homicide that results from the offender's carelessness, but occurs when the offender
lacks intent is classified as:
51. All of the following are major categories of violent crime, EXCEPT:
Assault and battery
52. Murder, rape, and theft are examples of ____ crimes.
Mala in se
Part I offenses
Crimes that, due to their seriousness and frequency are recorded by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) to give a general idea of the "crime picture" in the United States in any given year,
are known as:
54. In which city was the first organized police department formed?
55. Which of the following is NOT a basic element of corpus delicti?
Mala in se
56. During the ____ of policing, corruption was rampant.
57. What is the burden of proof necessary to win a civil trial?
Preponderance of evidence
58. The guilty act in a criminal offense is referred to as:
59. As discussed in the textbook, Corpus delicti refers to:
The basic elements of a crime
60. What is the term that means that the guilty act and the guilty intent occur together?
A style of policing that emphasizes centralized police organizations, increased use of
technology, and a limitation of police discretion through regulations and guidelines was
known as the:
What is the defense for criminal ability that is used to assert a lack of criminal
responsibility because according to law, a person cannot have the requisite state of mind to
commit a crime?
A common law test of criminal responsibility that relies on the defendant's inability todistinguish right from wrong is the
A good defense if the intoxication was involuntary
A defense for criminal liability in which the defendant claims that the taking of
intoxicants rendered him or her unable to form the requisite intent to commit a criminal act is:
.Which agency is charged with investigating over two hundred federal crimes, including
kidnapping, bank robbery and gambling?
When the wrongful threat of one person induces another person to perform an act that he
or she would otherwise not perform, ____ exists.
67. A wrongful mental state, or intent, is known as:
A person who used force in order to protect him or herself from harm would apply the
criminal defense of:
69. The Fourth Amendment protects against:
70. This form of due process requires laws to be carried out in a fair and orderly manner.
Procedural due process
Substantive due process
a. community service restitution.
· Status offender
· The culpability question
· Roper vs. Simmons
· Juvenile crime rate is
· More ____ tried for status offenses
· The ______ a person is the less likely they will exhibit criminal behavior
· Age of onset is a consistent predictor of
· Juvenile justice resources should be concentrated on the _________ with the goal of preventing crime and reducing the long-term risks for society
· Why join a gang?
· Police can act in ________ or in the place of the parent to protect the juvenile
· Discretionary decisions, police usually consider
· In take officer has a number of options
· Low risk offenders can be removed from the formal juvenile justice system through ____________________
· Categories of pretrial diversion
· Methods of transfer to adult court
· Reasons to detain a juvenile
· Sentencing juveniles
· Juvenile corrections is based on the concept of graduated sanctions
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