An infant that begins to explore the environment by actively taking independent action is entering the:
Using mental combinations to anticipate and solve simple problems takes place in Piaget's sensorimotor:
Piaget was a "grand" theorist of:
Piaget's cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called:
Information-processing research has revealed that infant intellectual capacities for understanding concepts and categories seem to develop by approximately:
An opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment is called:
current development and past experience, sensory awareness, immediate motivation
Infants perceive and act on affordances depending on their:
infants start crawling
Regarding the visual cliff experiment, even 3-month-olds can notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff. However, one affordance of the cliff, falling, is realized only after:
The high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way in which adults speak to infants is sometimes called:
Most babies speak their first recognizable words at:
The process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it is referred tp as
the infant's use of one word to express a whole thought
The term "holophrase" is used to denote
The theorist who believed that children learn language when they are reinforced by parental attention was
the universal inborn ability to learn language
The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain
Eight researchers developed a hybrid theory by integrating the three major perspectives on language learning. Their model is known as an
The chemicals that produce instructions on each gene are:
The full set of genes that is the instructions to make a living organism is called:
a dominant-recessive pattern.
When a pair of alleles interacts, the resulting phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than that of the other allele. This pattern is called:
the X-linked allele is not paired with any allele on the Y chromosome.
Most recessive genes on a male's X chromosome are expressed because:
children and adults choose environments that are compatible with their genes and that genetic influences increase in adulthood.
Based on recent research on twins and siblings, scientists now conclude that:
the age of the mother.
The variable that most often correlates with chromosomal abnormalities is:
Who is more likely to be a carrier of an X-linked trait?
A genetic disorder that causes the inability to metabolize phenylalinine that may lead to brain damage and mental retardation is called:
Molecules of DNA are referred to as
The embryo has all the basic organs and body parts (except sex organs) at approximately how many weeks after conception?
the maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
The critical difference between a preterm baby and a full-term newborn is:
What is the worst and most prevalent cause of SGA (small for gestational age)?
the threshold effect.
Certain teratogens are relatively harmless in small doses but become harmful once exposure reaches a certain level. This is called:
fortify various foods with folic acid.
The occurrence of neural tube defects has decreased in all countries that:
How many hours of active labor occurs, on average, before first births?
LBW (low birthweight)
Assisted reproductive technology has increased the rate of:
the study of birth defects
Teratology refers to
lack of oxygen
Anoxia refers to
Infants born more than 3 weeks early are called
Cigarette smoking is implicated in ___ percent of all low birthweight births worldwide.
half their adult height
Typical 2-year-olds are already:
First-borns generally receive more attention and may be inadvertently rewarded for not sleeping through the night and other sleep problems.
likely explanation for why first-born infants are more likely to exhibit sleep problems than later borns?
Neurons in the brain connect at "intersections" called:
The transmission of nerve impulses is sped up by:
Unused neurons and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die
What occurs in the brain during the pruning process?
the inborn drive to remedy deficits.
"Self-righting" refers to:
when an infant's mother has some condition that makes her milk unhealthy.
According to research, bottle-feeding is recommended only:
The sense that is least developed at birth is
Who emphasized that infants are active learners, & that early learning is based on sensory & motor skills?
is the location of most feeling and sensing.
Which substance is secreted intot he mother's milk in the first day or two after childbirth?
a social smile
At about 6 weeks, happiness is expressed in response to a human face by displaying:
__________ would trace excessive eating, drinking, or talking to how that person's mother handled his or her urge to suck during infancy.
Autonomy versus shame and doubt are central to Erikson's _______ theory.
Fourteen-month Carlos watches his older brother giggle and roll on the floor at Sponge Bob on TV. Carlos then laughs and rolls on the floor whenever his brother does. This is an example of:
Temperament originates in genes but is affected by child-rearing practices reflects the __________ theory.
easy, difficult, slow to warm up, or hard to classify.
The New York Longitudinal Study identified groups of infant temperament as being:
difficult; slow to warm up
According to the NYLS, baby Monica is described as _______ because she cries at every noise and seems unhappy, while baby Jose is described as _________ because he is quiet and avoids contact with new people.
When an infant is comfortable and confident being with his or her caregivers, the infant is said to have:
goodness of fit
A match between a child's temperament and the demands of the enviroment is called
Margarita and Roberto are warm, nurturing parents who held their baby all of the time and cradled him. They are exhibiting
Another name for "self-rule" is
The emotion of anger usually appears at
According to cognitive theory, infants use their early relationships to develop a set of assumptions that become a frame of reference that may be used later in life. Such a set of assumptions is called a
Who defined attachment as a "tie that binds one person with another in space and endures over time"?
emotional and creative impulses
Which of the following is controlled by the right half of the brain?
more regular sleep.
The maturation of the prefrontal cortex that occurs between the ages of 2 to 6 is responsible for:
The maturation of the ___________ improves a child's performance when playing "Simon Says".
Perseveration is the opposite of:
The _______ is the brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety.
a central processor of memory, especially of memory of locations?
The part of the limbic system that produces hormones is the:
Flashing lights on stopped school buses are an example of ___________ prevention.
A call to poison control would be an example of ___________ prevention.
The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between
Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from one certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon of
post-traumatic stress disorder
Children who are fearful, easily startled, and confused between fantasy and reality are expressing symptoms of
The differentiation and specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called
figure out logical ideas.
According to Piaget, children cannot think "operationally" before age 6 or 7. That is, children cannot:
As water is poured from a tall and thin container into a short and fat one, the preoperational child is likely to say that the there is now less water. This tendency to focus only on one aspect of a situation is what Piaget referred to as:
Piaget's term for the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of all others is:
Piaget's principle that the amount of a substance remains the same despite changes in its appearance is called:
is embedded in a social context.
Vygotsky proposed that every aspect of a child's cognitive development:
The average child knows about ___________ words at age 2 and more than ___________ at age 6.
The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called:
Instead of saying "feet", 4-year-old Jasper says "foots". This error is best described as an example of:
individual pride and accomplishment.
Montessori schools emphasize:
quality matters most.
A key finding from research on early childhood education programs is:
Mrs. Sutton helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Sutton is providing
children can master some tasks with the help of others
One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that
Preschoolers have a tendency to try to make up a reason why things occur as they do around them. This tendency is known as
theory of mind
A person's understanding of the emotions, intentions, thoughts, & perceptions of other people is called
The most important psychosocial development for children ages 2 to 6 to master is:
Bullying aggression is:
physical or verbal attacks, with boys more likely to use physical attacks.
whether and how they explain, criticize, persuade, ignore, and punish their children.
According to Baumrind, one of the important dimensions in which parents differ in rearing children is:
Punishment and indifference could easily become abusive and neglectful.
What is the risk involved with using an authoritarian or permissive parenting style?
parental discipline methods are less important than parental warmth, support, and concern.
Multicultural research on parenting styles and their effects on children has found that:
feel a sense of guilt
Toby, a 4-year-old, accidentally dropped a glass vase while trying to bring it to his mother. According to Erikson, Toby will
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child, because she has developed
an externalizing problem
When 4-year-old Karen is angy, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of
Sara, 3, seeing a little boy fall and hurt himself, gets a look of concern on her face. She is probably experiencing
the Oedipus Complex
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called
To understand gender attitudes and roles, learning theorists stress
"Our traits and behaviors are the result of interaction between genes and early experience" is the textbook quote for the ____ theory of childhood development.
Freud put the typical 5-year-old at the
initiative vs. guilt
If a 6-year-old girl has high self-esteem, one could say she has successfully resolved Erikson's stage of
a lack of immune challenges results in impaired immune function.
According to the "hygiene hypothesis":
refers to the time it takes to respond either cognitively or physically to a stimulus.
requires ongoing myelination.
Intellectual aptitude refers to:
the ability to learn in school.
taking a standardized test.
For most children, psychological aptitude or achievement testing means:
employs our understanding of normal development to study and treat developmental disorders.
Chronic inflammation of the airways is diagnosed as
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called
A person's mental age and chronological age are factors used to determine
Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling, some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called the
Robert Sternberg suggested 3 types of intelligence, creative, practical and
the least restrictive environment
The most general education context in which children with special needs can be expected to learn is known as
musical ability is a type of intelligence
Howard Gardner believes that
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky
Whose dominant cognition theories have been used to structure education?
The logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change is called:
child's own discovery of concepts; importance of instruction by others
Piaget stressed the ______________, while Vygotsky stressed the _________________.
National Assessment of Educational Progress.
A federal project measuring achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects is the:
the school's physical condition.
An obvious manifestation of the hidden curriculum is:
The two distinct reading methods are the ________ approach and the _______ approach.
The information processing theory likens many aspects of human thinking to that of
Metacognition refers to
thinking about one's thinking processes
The memory system in which signals are held for less than a second, yet long enough for one to process them further, if so desired is
Jill is typical of some school-age children. She often learns up to _____ words a day.
there is weak research supporting their advantages
The problem with smaller school classes is that
Emma, who is in middle school, announces to her mother, "I am just as good in math as the smartest boy in my class." Emma is engaging in:
with a punishment and obedience orientation.
Kohlberg would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning:
repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person.
Characteristics of bullying are:
the whole school must change, not just the identified bullies.
A review of research on successful ways to halt bullying found that:
nurtures peer relationships.
School-age children thrive if the family:
a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18 living in one household.
A nuclear family consists of:
The crisis of industry versus inferiority is part of which theory?
A Florida man killed a doctor who performed abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he could be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of
If Max responds that Heinz shouldn't steal because stealing is against the law, he is exemplifying which stage of moral development?
Social cognition refers to
the ability to understand social interactions
Family structure refers to
legal & genetic relationships of family members
An organic chemical substance produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another body tissue is called a:
The major influence on the age of onset of menarche is:
The last part(s) of the body to be fully formed is (are) the:
The limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex does.
maturation sequence is especially problematic for adolescents?
What is the most frequently reported disease?
The term “menarche” refers to
a girl’s first menstrual period
Because Cassie is 15 years old, she most likely needs more
The changes of puberty are initiated by a part of the brain called the
Alex's mother was upset to learn that her 16-year-old son had consumed nearly a dozen beers at a party. Alex's father wasn't bothered by it: "It was just a few beers. Nothing happened." Alex's father is exhibiting
The gland(s) producing hormones that regulate growth and also directly activate the adrenal glands is (are) the
the uterus & testes begin to grow
Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include
are not directly related to reproduction
Secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics that
the ovaries and testes
The sex glands are also known as
At which of the following ages would you expect acute self-consciousness to be at its highest?
The invincibility fable and the imaginary audience are both related to:
________________ is sometimes called "top-down thinking".
What type of thought involves the rational analysis of many factors whose interactions must be calculated?
sunk cost fallacy
"Throwing good money after bad" is a phrase often used when we put more and more money into something that really was not worth it in the first place. Which of the following best explains why we often do not choose to "cut our losses"?
The dual-process model of adolescent thought suggests that 2 distinct pathways exist in the brain to process thought. One pathway processes analytical thought. The other pathway processes
6th to 8th
Middle school typically includes grades
ego, logic, and emotion
Adolescent thinking is a combination of
With age, thinking becomes more
Matt and Rachel are in their first year of middle school. Academically, we can expect their achievement to
a single test to determine success or failure
In high-stakes testing situations, students are typically given
after-school athletic teams or clubs
A strategy to increase student motivation in high schools is widespread participation in
200 to 400 students
According to extensive research, the ideal high school size is
A consistent definition of one's self as a unique person who has certain roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations is called:
identity achievement; identity diffusion
Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called ________, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called __________.
religion and sex. politics and ethnicity. vocation
In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:
Gender identity; sexual orientation
______ refers to a person's self-definition as male or female and _______ refers to a person's erotic desires.
Tom and his mother constantly argue about Tom's not wearing a clean shirt every day. They are:
Several suicides committed within the same group of people within a brief period of time are referred to as
stops committing crimes by age 21
An adolescence-limited offender is someone who
involves the desire to conform to one’s friends
around age 25 or later
Trey is the typical adolescent in search of vocational identity. Most likely, his vocational identity will be achieved
Patrick’s parents always wanted him to be part of the family business and Patrick never questioned this. At 21, Patrick decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Patrick is resisting
a deliberate act of self-destruction that doesn’t result in death
How widespread a particular behavior or circumstance is within a population is referred to as
thinking about suicide
Suicidal ideation refers to
How often a particular behavior or circumstance occurs is referred to as
16 years of age.
Illegal activity peaks when a person is about
The _______ approach studies how the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information and the ______ approach evaluates whether a new level of cognition is reached by adults.
more practical, flexible, and dialectical.
Thinking in adulthood is distinguished from earlier thinking in that it is:
adults demonstrate a qualitative+quantitative change in cognitive functioning thru the adult life span, there may nt be neurologically based stages.
Recent research on adult brain development and cognitive thinking indicates that:
John is a 20-year-old African American who believes that success in school is for females and whites. He may be experiencing:
The third stage of dialectical thinking is referred to as:
human needs and relationships; distinguishing right from wrong
Carol Gilligan believes that moral decisions for women are based on priorities of _____________ and that moral decisions for men are based on ____________.
a conformist acceptance of cultural values.
The third stage of the development of faith exhibits:
People who have a powerful vision of universal compassion, love, and justice are at what stage of faith?
The adult thinking process in which every idea implies an opposite idea, and both the idea and its opposite can be integrated into a synthesis is referred to as
A new idea that integrates an original idea and its opposite is referred to as
The Defining Issues Test was developed by
Four-year-old David believes that God gave his little brother to his mother because she stayed overnight at the hospital. David is at the ___ stage of religious faith.
A detailed six-stage description of the development of faith has been proposed by
The type of faith in which people can accept contradictions and incorporate both powerful unconscious ideas and rational, conscious values is
The stage in which faith becomes an active commitment, detached from the expectations of culture and parents, is referred to as the stage of
emotion and intellect
Postformal thought combines
Who proposed that intelligence is a single entity?
__________ intelligence refers to the idea that there is one basic trait that underlies all cognitive abilities.
Which research approach looks at various cohorts over time?
Cattell and Horn
Who proposed the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences?
What are often used to measure fluid intelligence?
one of Sternberg's three fundamental forms of intelligence?
Multiple-choice and traditional essay tests would be a way of testing _________ intelligence.
forms of intelligence is commonly referred to as "street smarts"?
What type of intelligence would be most valued and most useful in times when food is scarce and basic survival a challenge?
Selective optimization with compensation:
is a theory that proposes that we seek to compensate for losses by getting better at that which we already do well.
rise in average IQ over the generations
The Flynn effect refers to the
Who described 8 distinct intelligences, each with its own neurological network in the brain?
of all ages.
Prejudice about late adulthood is common among people:
Unlike the ageism experienced by teenagers, the ageism experienced by the elderly _________ as they grow older.
__________ is the multidisciplinary study of old age.
Fewer births and increased survival rates are changing the shape of the population from a pyramid to a(n):
What percentage of those individuals over age 65 need extensive daily care?
The largest group of older adults is the:
What term is used to refer to the universal changes that happen with senescence?
secondary; may not be age-related
Cardiovascular disease is ___________ aging because it __________.
_________ is a buildup of fluid within the eye.
"Compression of morbidity" refers to:
a shortening of the time spent in illness before death.
For humans, the maximum life span is approximately __________ years.
wear out our bodies by living our lives
The wear-and-tear theory of aging suggests that we
The term "free radicals" refers to
electrons that are unattached to their nuclei
In the body's immune system, the attack cells, called B cells, are manufactured in the
number of times cells can divide
The Hayflick limit is a natural limit to the
The very ends of chromosomes in cells that may be correlated with longevity are known as
A thickening of the lens of the eye, causing vision to become cloudy, opaque, & distorted is called
People who live to see their 100th birthday are referred to as
death and dying.
Thanatology is the study of:
All consider death an affirmation of nature and community.
What do all Native American traditions have in common?
The religion in which the family is expected to mourn the dead at home for a week and reduce social activities for a year is:
According to Kubler-Ross, the first stage of dying is:
According to Maslow, the fifth and final stage of dying involves:
__________ care is care designed to relieve pain and suffering, not to treat an illness.
When through the cessation of medical interventions someone is permitted to die, this is referred to as:
refers to a state in which a person is definitively dead?
health care proxy?
a person chosen to make medical decisions for you if you are not able to
___________ is a powerful and personal emotion, a sadness that overtakes daily life.
one of the inevitable sufferings of life that may bring enlightenment
Among Buddhists, death is believed to be
a near-death experience
Bob barely survived a horrendous car crash. As he lay on the road close to death, he said he was surrounded by a white light and felt joy & peace. He described
not an end but a beginning of eternity in heaven or hell
In Christianity, death is thought to be
specify how much medical intervention is to be given if the individual is unable to express his or her preferences
A "living will" is written to
Ted's ex-wife died suddenly. While their 2 children were included in the memorial services, Ted was intentionally excluded. Because he still cared about his ex-wife, he experienced
Estelle's husband was flying a small plane when it crashed in a heavily wooded mountainside. His body was never recovered. Most likely, Estelle experienced
Mrs. Cannon has been diagnosed as terminally ill, but she insists she will recover because her lab results were mixed up with someone else's. Kubler-Ross would say that Mrs. Cannon is in the stage of
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