encampents where homeless lives. signified the depression in America, Hoover was blamed
The Dust Bowl
southwest great plains, farmers overworked the soil and there was a drought. dust storms in 1922-1933 blackened the sky. lead to 1,000,000 leaving, called "Oakies," west to CA (central valley)
Roosevelt. talks on the radio, were homely, intimate relationship, personal, living room to living room.
Argicultural Adjustment Act
farmers are desperate. control over production by paying farmers to not produce. it works, over 4 years farm income triples, but its favored bu big farmers
Civilian Conservation Corps
provided 2 million jobs for unemployed and unmarried men to build bridges, hiking trails, camp sites and plant trees as part of the New Deal.
Tennessee Valley Authority
provided billions for flood control and irrigation in the South, sent electricity to the South, overall modernizes the South and is very successful.
Work Progress Administration
1935. largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency
1935. gives workers the right to unionize and bargain collectively, doubles union membership but excludes cooks, janitors and share croppers (African American jobs)
New Deal Coalition
farmers from SW, Afr. Americans, middle class women, immigrants, industrial workers become back bone of democratic party
Farm Security Administration
Ruxford Tugwell. helped small farmerse (going to CA) by setting up camps and med. centers, creating farms for them to w/ them and help more needy families.
black singer. important symbol of grace and beauty during the civil rights movement. after denied to sing at Constitutional Hall b/c of her race, w/ help of the Roosevelts she sang open-air concert on Easter Sunday
Congress of Industrial Organizations
a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions, supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, and was open to African Americans,
secretary of labor, 1st woman to hold a cabinet position
America First Committee
non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II, one of the largest anti-war organization in American history, became defunct after the attack upon Pearl Harbor in December 1941
"Race and Space"
racial, Germany. ideology quest for empire and racial identity link to
D(esignated) Day, Allies get Normandy border, decisive battle, victory, but lots of death
US & Allies choose island targets to cut Japan supply lines. conquer islands to use as stepping stones to defeat Japan. tiny, unforgiving terrain, hot & humid, food? maybe.
War Production Board
convert automobile factories to war production, convince businessman to support by offering huge tax incentives and "cost plus previsions" to businesses in war production. SUCCESS. increase production by 800% key to Ally victory. cons: little guys have not say/help, bug coorporations grow and have power
Office of Price Administration
tries to control inflation by freezing prices and rents in April 1940. allocating and managing resources for civilians ration oil, gas, sugar, cars, tires, meat, coffee. encourages volunteer efforts, Americans respond well, victory gardens, reuse & recycle, donate scraps, limiting consumption, don't drive car. enemies: businessmen, grocers, farmers (esp. small ones)
Rosie the Riveter
convince men & women that women's place is no longer in home. women increase a lot in work place, they do "men's" work and in so gain independence/authority
the war dept. can defines military stations in western states and evacuate anyone who seems a threat to the war. hundred in internment camps, could prove loyalty by fighting, eventually government reimburses them. hypocritical
Feb. 1945 join newly created UN to demand reparation from Germany. Stalin agrees to invade Japan once Germany surrendered. Poland- vague promise for voting at unspecified time in the future
George Kennedy, "Long Telegram." Soviets don't respond to reason, but force. contain communism. US concerned w/ Russia controlling economy in Asia, Europe and Middle East.
request generous aid package. US must "support free peoples who are resisting by armed minorities." elevates containment, stop communism everywhere. hightens polarizations between US and Soviet.
communist spy. late 1940s Whitaker Chambers claimed being part of Soviet spy ring in 30s, now Christian and accused Hiss as a fellow communist spy. Hiss denies and files liable case against Chambers. Chambers shows stolen documents ("pumpkin papers"). still unknown whether he was guilty but confirmed communist worries for Americans
House Un-American Activities Committee. an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. Whitaker Chambers was its first testimony (Alger Hiss)
The Hollywood Ten
10 directors and writers blacklisted and accused of being communists, refused to answer committees questions and went to jail. Hollywood b/c publicity; celebs in the publics eyes
The G.I. Bill
1944. provided college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans and one yr unemployment. allows GI's to go to college, buys homes, start business. most successful stimulus package
The Baby Boom
after WWI, 76 million babies born, increase demands for new houses, schools, toys, appliances. stimulates economy. 1957: half of Americans are teens.
Interstate Highway Act
1956. intended to help people move from the urban areas to the suburbs, 5 billion dollars for the construction of 41,000 miles, argest public works project in American history through that time.traveling from suburban to urban areas quick and easy,
50s. petty crime, confounded adult observers. problem: self-destructive and misguided. cultural intergration.
National Defense Education Act
1958. provided funding to United States education institutions at all levels. Soviet launched sputnik
"Best & Brightest"
collection of elites leading nation forward who believe that with enough money and intellectual power the US can conquer all. does not understand limits, lead to entering Vietnam war.
1961. 7,000 volunteers to go to developing countries in Asia and Africa. admirable, locals appreciative but reluctant to give up their culture.
ultimate legacy: experience of volunteers, wand social reforms and civil rights.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets put missiles in Cuba. Kennedy took stand against it and put a blockade on Cuba. missiles get removed from Cuba, US promises not to invade Cuba and take missiles out of Turkey. stand for safety or against Communism?
Great Society Program
Lyndon Johnson. eliminate poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. initiatives from JFK's New Frontier. decreases poverty by 40%
created by Great Society Program. Medicaid - pay welfare recipients. Medicare - helped old people.
Voting Rights Act
1965. federal protection for African American voters to register to vote and to vote. stops literacy tests, grandfather clause and intimidation.
came from Chicago to Mississippi to visit family, 14. (northerner) said "bye, baby." to a white woman to impress his friends and was brutally murdered by her husband and brother-in-law. so badly beat he was barely recognizable. open-casket funeral, photos in Jet magazine makes activists more militant and impatient.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954. NAACP had 5 leading cases in 1952. Linda Brown. Earl Warren appointed by Eisenhower was expected to conservative but actually active. separate = unequal. Fed gov't became civil rights ally. problem: vague timeline.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955. Rosa Parks refused to move on bus, she was chosen by Civil Rights leaders as candidate to test segregation. Public transportation b/c "hit them in the wallet" MLK emerged as a leading voice. nonviolent protest, faced white violence. 1956 law overturned.
Mississippi Freedom Summer
1964. Mississippi: most segregated/racist state. blacks: 80% poverty; 70% illiterate. 1,000 volunteers came to register voters, organized freedom schools and provided job training. threat of violence for volunteers. important for young activist, become part of mvmnt, feel involved. did not win election/black seats
"Bloody Sunday" in Selma
March 7, 1965. marched to Alabama. beaten & gassed. national news story. 2 days later MLK joined march and thousand marched to Montgomery. 1 week later LBJ pressed for Voting Rights Act.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
1964. 2 US ships patrolling N. Vietnam coast, report attacked but shaky evidence. LBJ responded with bombs. Tonkin Resolution gave President permission to do whatever he could to prevent "further aggression" by communism. extends commitment to Vietnam.
if Vietnam went Communist, the rest of Asia would fall to Communism.
Operation Rolling Thunder
1965. targets chosen personally by President. railroads, bridges, ammunition factories, etc. bombed in N. Vietnam. fails. not much industry and thick forrest. escalates instead pulling out.
The Tet Offensive
1968. Tet (the New year) launched massive surprise attack on on S. Vietnam attacked US embassy and major cities. perception of US might and American approval brutally damaged. Walter Cronkite declared stalemate and questioned winablilty.
Port Huron Statement
1962. he manifesto of the American student activist movement Students for a Democratic Society, written primarily by Tom Hayden
Free Speech Movement
1964. banned tables at UC Berkley, students saw ban as going against rights. student (Jack Weinberg) arrested for refusing to cease campaigning and others sat on hood and blocked police car for 30 hours and gave speeches. full right restored for tables. young activists saw the link between Vietnam campaign and what was going on on their campus. Berkley = Mississippi = Vietnam, begin to reject establishment
Stop the Draft Week
1967. march the Pentagon and effectively shut it down. Oakland Induction Center, riot between police and protesters trying to shut it down. "Protest to Resistance"
1969. $50,000 for 3 day festival. 400,000 pilgrims, biggest traffic jam ever, lousy weather, lack of food & water, sex & drugs.
The Imperial Presidency
Committee to Re-Elect the President
watergate. trying to bug Democratic offices. effects: 1. contributes to mistrust in gov't. 2. creates obsession with gov't corruption 3. along with defeat in Vietnam, entering steady decline, lost purpose and global power.
by curring taxes, business and economic stimulus, would make so much and more to make up for tax cuts. prosperity will trickle down. dangers: Reagan increases military spending, refuses to cut social security and Medicare. federal deficiet sky rockets
hostages in Lebanon. Reagan asks Iran to com in US behalf. we sell arms to Iran and give the money to Contras. illegal, super secret. next Watergate? nope.
The New World Order
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