-7th president -Nicknamed "Old Hickory" -destroyed the national bank and relocated most Indian tribes to the west (Indian Removal Act). -Owned slaves and a plantation -Part of the Democratic Party
-Led by Jon C. Calhoun -Controversy came when South Carolina refused to follow and threatened to nullify the Tariff of 1828. -Led to tariff of 1832 which reduced duties but was still rejected by S. Carolina and caused Jackson to enact Force Bill to obtain duties from S. Carolina. -Ended in compromise with the Tariff of 1833 which further reduced duties.
5 Civilized Tribes
-Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. -Total pop. of 60,000 living in NC, GA, FL, AL, and MS. -Attempted to assimilate into American culture by establishing schools, adopting written laws and a constitution, and becoming farmers and owning slaves. -Were still forced off land and West
Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
-Supreme Court case where John Marshall declared Indians to be "wards" of the gov't. -Spurred from GA's attempt to seize Cherokee lands and nullify laws. -Established that Indians were not citizens with rights and could not stop GA's actions.
John G. Burnett
-Private in the American Army who was a friend to Indians. -Wrote an account on his 80th birthday of the terrible treatment of Indians during their removal from lands.
-Yale grad working in GA as private tutor -Invented cotton gin in 1793 -Caused major expansion in cotton industry and slavery
Slave owner Paternalism
-Idea that slave owners were the "father" of all their slaves -Gave plantation owners complete control over slaves lives and well-being -Encouraged slaves to accept Christianity
-Southerners who defended slavery. -Cited reasons such as racism (the blacks inferiority to whites), Biblical justification (scriptures that justify the act of slavery), human progress (every great empire was built with slaves), and equality for whites (slaves liberated whites from menial work to pursue other more intellectual interests)
-Virginia lawyer and writer who justified the institution of slavery. -argued that "the negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. -Slavery, he contended, ensured that blacks would be economically secure and morally civilized.
Mary Boykin Chesnut
-South Carolina author noted for a book published as her Civil War diary, a "vivid picture of a society in the throes of its life-and-death struggle." - She described the war from within her upper-class circles of Southern planter society, but encompassed all classes in her book. She was married to a lawyer who served as a United States senator and Confederate officer.
-Secular communitarian (person who plans or lives in a cooperative community) -British factory owner that, appalled by the degradation of workers in the industrial revolution, created model factory village at New Lanark, Scotland. -Community combined strict work rules with comfortable housing and public education.
-French utopian Socialist -Developed socialist ideas that influenced American utopian communities
-Young NY farmer who founded the Mormons. -Exercised complete control over followers and refused to separate church and state. -Allowed practice of polygamy and mobs drove Mormons out of most communities until they settled in IL to await coming of Christ. -Smith was arrested and killed in jail in 1844.
-Joseph Smith's successor as Mormon leader. -Led over 10,000 followers to Great Salt Lake where they could practice faith undisturbed.
-Movement to eliminate drinking -Part of reform movement by voluntary organizations to reform drinkers -Met criticism as infringing on liberties from some
Gradualists vs. Immediatists
-Gradualists wanted gradual end to slavery using legal means -Immediatists saw slavery as immoral and wanted immediate emancipation of all slaves
American Colonization Society
-Organized in 1816 to encourage colonization of free blacks back to Africa -Established nation of Liberia in Africa as new settlement for returning slaves.
William Lloyd Garrison
-Publisher of The Liberator (a weekly journal published in Boston and was the preeminent abolitionist journal) -One of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.
-Born into slavery in NY and escaped with in 1826. -Leading abolitionist and woman's rights advocate -Gave "Ain't I a Woman?" speech that stated that the movement should devote attention to the poor and working-class women and reverse the ideology that women were too delicate to do work outside the home.
-A rule that limits or forbids the raising, consideration or discussion of a particular topic by members of a legislative or decision-making body. -Originated in the mid-1830s when the U.S. House of Representatives barred discussion or referral to committee of antislavery petitions.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
-Abolitionist and leading member of the suffrage movement -Planned Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 which marked beginning of the suffrage movement.
-Other key organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention with Stanton
-Mass. lawyer and Whig politician who was Mass. director of education. -Reports influenced education systems country-wide. -Believed schools trained free individuals and allowed children of all social classes to receive education and better themselves.
-Stagecoach and wagon trail in the American West during the 19th century. -Most heavily used in the 1860s as an alternative route to the Oregon, California and Mormon trails through central Wyoming.
West Women: Jones, Ames, Candalaria
-Mission compound in San Antonio that was raided on March 13, 1836 by General Santa Anna of Mexico who killed all defenders. -Served as rallying event ("Remember the Alamo!") for Texans that led to the eventual defeat of Santa Anna by Sam Houston and Texas independence.
Annexation of Texas
-Achieved after Texas victory at the Battle of Jacinto
-Reduce the tariff, reestablish the independent treasury system, settle the dispute of ownership over Oregon, and bring California into the Union.
John L. Sullivan
-American columnist and editor (National Review) who used the term "Manifest Destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States.
-Proposed resolution in 1846 by Cong. David Wilmot of PA that would prohibit slavery from all territories acquired from Mexico.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-Agreed upon in Feb. 1848 by US and Mexican gov'ts -Confirmed the Annexation of Texas and ceded present-day NM, AZ, NV, and UT to the US. -US paid Mexico 15 million for the lands
Slavery and the Constitution
-Deal proposed by Kentucky senator Henry Clay in 1820 to resolve the slave/free imbalance in Congress that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state. -Maine's admission as a free state offset Missouri and slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the LA Territory north of the southern border of Missouri.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
-Law sponsored by Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas to allow settlers in newly organized territories north of the Missouri border to decide the slavery issue for themselves. -Fury over the resulting repeal of the Missouri Compromise led to violence in Kansas and the forming of the Republican party.
Internal Slave Trade
-Defined by a massive shift of slaves from older slave states such as ones in the North to states in the South.
-Tradition in slave communities that symbolized the union of marriage for slaves by them jumping over a broom. -Used as a marriage ceremony because slaves were not allowed traditional weddings.
-American writer, who escaped from slavery and became an abolitionist speaker and reformer. -Her work Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, published in 1861 under the pseudonym "Linda Brent", was one of the first accounts of the struggle for freedom by female slaves and of the sexual harassment and abuse they endured.
-Escaped slave who taught himself to read/write and become a leading abolitionist. -Leading voice for racial equlity and publisher of of several anti-slavery publications and a widely read autobiography offering a condemnation of slavery and racism.
-Slave rebel, preacher, and mystic. -Led the last large-scale slave uprising in the South. -Turner and his group killed some 60 whites before the rebellion was put down. -Led Virginia to further tighten its grip on slavery
-Religious community meetings held in a camp-like (because of no established church or structure) setting in much of the unsettled US. -These meeting were led by traveling preachers and were often revivals.
-Presbyterian and Congregationalist figure in the Second Great Awakening. His influence during this period was enough that he has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism. -Converted Theodore Weld
-Founded the Shakers. -Established first community in NY in 1787. -Believed God was dual (man and woman) -Believed in virgin purity (all members abstain from sex)
John Humphrey Noyes
-Founded Oneida community in NY in 1848. -Preached that he and his followers had complete "purity of heart" -Believed in Complex marriage (any man can propose sexual relations to any woman who decides) -Committee decided who could have children (early eugenics)
-Allowed settlers in a disputed territory to decide the slavery issue for themselves. -Program most closely associated with Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.
Filibusters (William Walker)
-Pirating expeditions (several led by Walker) seeking to gain control of Central American lands to establish slave trade. -Walker first captured land in Baja, CA from Mexico but was removed. -Then captured Nicaragua but was eventually forced out and returned to US for trial and was acquitted.
John C. Calhoun
-leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina -Pro slavery, secession, nullification, and state's rights -Part of Democratic Party and developed theory of concurrent majority.
-Abolitionist who led assault on Harper's Ferry and promoted violence in abolition. -With 21 men, Brown seized Harper's Ferry but was soon captured by US forces. -During trial he gained sympathy from many Northerners and was seen as a martyr.
-Drafted by a pro-southern convention and never brought to vote -Attempted to allow Kansas to enter Union as a slave state -Violation of popular sovereignty
-Anti-slavery senator from Mass. who was beaten unconscious by Preston Brooks after delivering his speech denouncing the "Crime Against Kansas" (the previous attacking of Lawrence by a pro-slavery mob).
-Slave who sued for freedom after living with his master on free soil. -Led to Supreme Court ruling which decided that only white persons could be citizens of the US. Also decided that Congress had no power to restrict slavery from a territory.
Stephen A. Douglas
- American politician from Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. -Major proponent of popular sovereignty -Helped engineer the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act -Supported Dred Scott decision
-government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S. -The Union rejected secession as illegal, and, after its army was fired upon at the Battle of Fort Sumter, used military action to defeat it
-Name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty free states and five border slave states. -It was opposed by 11 Southern slave states that had declared a secession to join together to form the Confederacy.
-Act by which Confederate southern states removed themselves form the Union
- officially known as Camp Sumter, served as a Confederate Prisoner-of-war camp during the American Civil War. -Known for its terrible conditions and treatments of prisoners, -12,913 of the approximately 45,000 Union prisoners died there because of starvation, malnutrition, diarrhea, and disease.
NY Draft Riots
-In July 1863, the introduction of the draft caused 4 days of rioting in NYC. -The mob (mostly Irish immigrants) assaulted draft offices, mansions of wealthy Republicans, industrial establishments, and blacks. -100 ppl died and Union troops were needed to stop it.
Copperheads and Vallandigham
-Copperheads: vocal group of Democrats in the Union who opposed the Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. -Most famous was Clement L. Vallandigham (an Ohio Democrat known for his antiwar speeches) who was convicted of treason and banished by Lincoln to the Confederacy.
John Wilkes Booth
-famous American stage actor who assassinated President Lincoln at Ford Theater 4 days after the Confederate surrender. -Confederate and slavery supporter
Military (Lincoln) Reconstruction
-In an effort to forestall Reconstruction by the Radicals in Congress, President Lincoln installed military governors in certain rebellious states under Union military control.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, 1863
-Lincoln's proposal for reconstruction allowed Southern states to rejoin the Union if 10% of the 1860 electorate signed loyalty pledges, accepted emancipation, and had received presidential pardons.
-Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning.
Second Proclamation of Amnesty
-One of Johnson's last significant acts was granting unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day, December 25, 1868, after the election of Ulysses S. Grant to succeed him, but before Grant took office in March 1869. -Earlier amnesties, requiring signed oaths and excluding certain classes of people, had been issued by Lincoln and by Johnson.
Black Codes (1865-1866)
-Laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves. -To nullify the codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th amendment.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
-Along with the 14th amendment, guaranteed the rights of citizenship to former slaves.
-officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
-Citizenship Clause: provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford -Due Process Clause: prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. -Equal Protection Clause: requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction.
3-prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.
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