Research method that studies groups of individuals and therefore concentrates on average performance, rather than on the performance of a single indivual.
research method that studies a single case in great detail and depth.
Phenomenon that sometimes occurs during therapy in which a patient begins to responds to the therapist as if he or she were an important person in the patients life, such as the patients mother or father.
Phenomenon that sometimes occurs during therapy in which the therapist becomes emotionally involved with a patient
The guilt experienced when one either does or ponder doing something that violates the the values of one's superego.
Caused by the fear that the impulse of the id will overwhelm the ego thereby causing the person to do something for which he or she will be punished.
caused by the real objective sources of danger in the environment. It is the easiest type of anxiety ro reduce or prevent
Latent content of a dream
a dream's true meaning that is disguised or distorted by dreams work.
Manifest content of a dream
what a dream appears to be about the dreamer
Freud and Jung disagreement
consists of material from one's lifetime that was once conscious and then repressed or material or material that was not vivid enough to make an initial conscious impression
collective of inherited predisposition that humans have to respond to certain events. These predisposition come from the universal experiences humans have throughout their evolutionary past.
set of interrelated ideas that are highly valued and that exist in the personal unconscious
inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain aspects of the world. All the archetype taken together make up the collective unconscious
tendency to be internally oriented, quite, subjective, and nonsocial
tendency to be externally oriented confident, outgoing, and gregarious
condition that exist when some organ of the body does not develop normally. such a condition can stimulate the compensation or overcompensation. which is healthy, or can result in an inferiority complex, which is unhealthy
Making up for a weakness such as organ inferiority by emphasizing functions that substitute for the weakness
Process by which through considerable effort a previous weakness is converted into a strength. ex. a frail child works hard to become athlete
psychological condition that exists when a person is overwhelmed by feeling or inferiority to the point at which nothing can be accomplished.
fictional future goals to which a person aspires. this goal to which a person is aspiring, and his or her lifestyles is the means to the end.
adler later thought fictional finalism to be guiding self ideal/ guiding fiction.
attempting to become more powerful bu being more masculine and thereby less feminine.
anything parents do that undermines a child's security
psychological state that exists when basic hostility is repressed it is the general feeling that everything and everyone is helpless relative to those dangers
feeling generated in a child needs for safety and satisfaction are not consistently and lovingly attended to by the parents
10 strategies for minimizing basic anxiety
the neurotic focuses on one the need to the exclusion of all the others. they make it their main focus.
self that is healthy and conducting to positive growth. although each person is born with a healthy real self, the view of this real self can be distorted by basic evil.
When did Frued think that a person developed their personality?
by the age of five.
is causing inferior between man and women
Adler's view of motivation
future goals importance to source of motivation
all the facts about a person that makes him or her unique
sense of bodily "me" first year
attributes that emerges during the first stage in the development of the proprium. At this stage, infants learn that their bodies exist because of their sensory experience
sense of self identity (second year)
attribute that emerges during the second stage in the development of the proprium. At this stage, the child develops a self identity; e.g. realizing that he or she is the same person although conditions change.
sense of self esteem ( third year)
at this stage, the child develops a feeling of pride by doing things on his or her own.
sense of self extension ( fourth year)
at this stage, the child self- identity generalizes to external objects
Emergence of self image (fourth to sixth year)
at this stage the child develops, a consciece and begins to formulate future goals
emergence of self as a rational coper (sixth to twelfth year)
at this stage the child beng to use complex mental operations ( thinking) to solve problems
emergence of propriate striving ( twelfth year through adolescence)
at this stage the adolescent may be a person's preference for flamboyant clothing or for sweet food
emergence of self as knower ( adulthood)
at this stage the proprium is aware of unifies and transcends the preceding seven aspects of the proprium
Adlers visit with freud
"ruling passions" that influences almost everything a person does. only a few individuals possess a cardinal disposition
those qualities about a person that you would mention in a letter of recommendation. the 5- 10 characteristics that summerizes a particular person's personality
more specific than cardinal or central dispositions but still more genaral than habits and attitudes a secondary disposition may be a person preference for flamboyant clothing or for sweet food
moral guide used by children whereby their moral judgement are determined by the internal values of authority figures such as the parents the must conscious is similar to the superego postulated by freud
moral guide used by normal healthy adults whereby their moral judgements are governed by their own personal values and propriate strivings
motive that existed once for more practical reason later exists for its own sake.In other words a motive that was once a means to an end becomes an end in itself. Allport's most famous and controversial concept.
who is the father of operant/ classical conditioning
any stimulus that is positive or negatively related to an organism's survival
object or events that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforcers
to roger, an experience designed to help an incongruent person become congruent.
personality (george kelly)
for kelly, the term personality refers to a person construct system.
idea or thought that a person uses when construing personal experiences personal experience sometimes simple called a construct.
the version of behaviorism proposed by J.B watson by which only directly observable events such as stimuli and responses should constitute the subject matter of psychology reference to all interal events can be and should be avoided skinner accepted this version of behaviorism
behavior that cannot be linked to any known stimulus and therefore appears to be emitted rather than elicited
operant conditioning ( also called type R conditioning)
modification of response strength manipulation of the consequences of the response responses that are followed by a reinforcer gain in strength responses not followed by a reinforcer become weaker
gradual development of a responses that an organism does not normally make shaping requires differential reinforcement and successive approximations.
situation in which some responses are reinforced and others are not
situation in which inly those responses that are increasing similar to the one ultimately desired are reinforced
primary negative reinforcer
negative reinforcer that threatens an organism survival for example pain or oxygen deprivation
primary positive reinforcer
positive reinforcer that enhance an organism survival e.g. food or water
secondary negative reinforcer
negative reinforcer that derives its reinforcing properties through its association with a primary negative reingorcer
secondary positive reinforcer
positive reinforcer that derives its reinforcing properties through its association with a primary positive reinforcer
fixed role therapy (Kelly)
clinical technique that asks client to act as if they were other people. Thus clients become actors, and the therapist becomes a supporting actor. The idea is to have the clients try different ways of construing their experiences in a nonthreatening situation as the therapist provides validating information about their new construct systems.
role construct repertory test (rep test)
test developed by kelly to identify the constructs clients use to construe the relevant people in their lives
every one is a scientist. to test a theory ability to anticipate events.
collection of constructs used by a person at any given time to construe the events in his or her life
innate tendency in all humans to maintain and and enhance themselves
Organismic valuing process
frame of reference that allows an individual to know id hos or her experiences are on accordance with his or her actualizing tendency. those experiences that maintain or enhance the person are in accordance with this process other experiences are not
person private subjective perception or interpretation of objective reality
that portion of experience of which an individual is aware it is this subjective reality rather than physical reality that directs a persons behavior
unconditional positive regard
experience of positive regard with out conditions of worth. In other words, positive regard is not contingent on certain acts or thoughts
Want to see the other 72 Flashcards in Final ?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!