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1. Your friend yells at you for being five minutes late for lunch. Rather than believe your friend is a rude jerk, you decide that she may be having difficulties with her partner. Therefore, you make a _____ about her behavior.
1. Before Carly left for college, she told her friend Maggie that she thought sororities were filled with snobs and that she would never consider joining one. However, during Carly's first week on campus, she was approached by a sorority member who invited her to a social function and encouraged her to pledge. After Carly attended the party, she told Maggie, "Sororities do a lot of good things for the community. They're really service organizations." Carly's change in attitude to match her behavior is an example of _____.
1. You stop for a cup of coffee and the waitress yells at you when you sit at a table that has not been cleared. You are convinced that she should find another line of work--one in which her angry personality traits will not interfere with her job. However, you disregard the possibility that the restaurant is short of help that day. You have just fallen prey to the _____.
1. Cognitive dissonance theory is MOST helpful in understanding the impact of role-playing on _____ change.
1. Your new roommate leaves dirty laundry all over her room and you assume she must be a slob. You ignore the fact that she is currently taking finals and working 40 hours per week. You are demonstrating the ____.
1. Hugh bought a new calculator for $125. One week later, he saw an ad from another store showing the same calculator on sale for $65. Hugh said, "I'm still glad I got my calculator; the cheaper ones are probably defective. I don't mind having paid more for mine." Hugh's statement reflects:
1. Juan was shopping for a new watch and the salesperson was pressuring him to spend money way above his financial limit. Juan attributed the behavior to the salesperson's pushy personality. Juan was attributing her behavior to _____ factors
1. As you are driving to campus one day another car cuts you off and speeds ahead. Immediately you yell out "Crazy driver!" not realizing that the person may be rushing to get to the hospital. Your judgment best illustrates
1. Early one Halloween evening, Bart's friends asked him to join them in smashing their neighbors' decorative pumpkins. He complied. Later, he was surprised by his own failure to resist them when they asked him to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the
1. You decide to make a positive change in your life. Instead of going to work with a frown on your face, you will force yourself to smile when you walk out the door. According to _____, by altering your behavior you stand a good chance of changing your attitude
When people perform better on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Some people lose self-awareness and self-restraint during a large sporting event or mob action. This is known as _____
_____ result(s) from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval, whereas _____ result(s) from a person's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as:
Lars is an excellent violinist. In front of an audience, he tends to play his violin even more beautifully than when he is alone. This is most likely caused by _____.
John is not a great golfer; he has only been playing golf for two years. One day John was playing alone and a foursome in front of him told him he could play through. All four of the others watched him tee off. According to research on _____, we can expect that John will not perform well.
Robert has the potential to be an honor student but frustrates his teachers because of his actions. Rather than work to succeed, he tends to "dummy down" to act more like his friends. He has at times answered questions incorrectly in class, on purpose, to be more like peer group. Robert's behavior is an example of _____.
At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This best illustrates the concept of _____
In one study, participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his face or shook his foot were observed to produce the same behaviors. This mimicry illustrates:
While you disagree with your boss, you laugh at her joke anyway to gain her approval. Your behavior illustrates:
Megan was invited to a black-tie dinner at the Ritz-Carlton. She's never been served a 10-course meal before so she's unfamiliar with the social etiquette regarding silverware selection. Because Megan is in a foreign environment, she gets through the night by watching others who appear to know what they are doing. For each course, she follows their selection of silverware. Megan is displaying _____.
When a person adjusts his or her own behavior or thinking so that it coincides with a group standard, that person is exhibiting _____
We feel happier in the presence of happy people than in the presence of depressed people. This is known as:
A group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues. During the conversation, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates _____
Discussing an issue with those who also agree with your position on this issue is likely to strengthen your views and move you further away from those with whom you disagree. This phenomenon is called _____.
University students charged the field after the game in response to their team's loss. They vandalized the opposing team's field and the police had to be called. This behavior is best understood in terms of _____
In one study on _____, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students pulled hardest when they thought no one else was pulling with them
Frieda is typically very shy. However, while watching a rock concert with a huge crowd, she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of _____.
At a meeting in your office, three of your colleagues agree that the plan for a new advertising campaign is correct as it is. As a result, you feel the pressure to get the plan out today and agree. Your behavior illustrates:
You are the expert on psychometrics and assessment; however, three of the clinicians disagree on your choice of scales. You decide to change your opinion for the good of the group. This best illustrates _____.
Initiating one or more small conciliatory acts which opens the door to a reciprocal response is a central feature of:
Kelly is a Republican and Carlos is a Democrat. Both believe that the members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of any other party. This belief best illustrates _____.
Marty enjoys watching violent action movies and television shows on most evenings, as well as listening to music with violent lyrics. When faced with real-life conflict, he tends to respond with aggressive behavior because he believes that he needs to "act like a man." According to social psychologists, his beliefs may be caused by _____, which are mental files for how to act.
When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of the _____
While walking 30 yards from the ocean shoreline, Mr. Hughes heard a swimmer cry for help. However, he continued walking because he thought that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the _____.
Max does not recycle glass, metal, or plastic garbage because he thinks it is inconvenient and has minimal impact on the city's already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of a _____.
Chuck has just moved into a new neighborhood. This new neighborhood is full of drug addicts living in rundown houses in horrible condition. He often sees them struggling to find food on the street and shivering through the cold winter. When his friend asks him if he feels badly seeing these people suffer, Chuck replies, "Good people don't end up that way, so I don't feel bad for them." His attitude best illustrates the _____.
Mr. Rogers thinks that all teenagers are reckless, promiscuous, irresponsible delinquents. Mr. Rogers appears to be associating qualities to all members of the group that are unrelated to the objective evidence that define this particular age group. Mr. Rogers is demonstrating a _____.
___ is an unjustifiable, usually negative, attitude toward a group and its members
Studies imply that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated. This offers support for the _____ theory.
Shortly after learning he did not make it onto his high school football team, Alex vandalized the team's locker room and broke several of the school's windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of the _____ principle.
After the attacks on the United States in 2001, some Americans boycotted Arab-American stores and lashed out at any Middle-Eastern person they saw. This behavior is best explained in terms of the _____ theory.
The jury deliberated on the rape case for more than eight hours. Some of the jurors commented that the rape victim had a history of going out to various bars and had been dressed too provocatively. These jurors said that by looking like that, she had been asking to be assaulted. Their opinion is best explained in terms of the:
Thomas enjoys watching violent pornography. When he goes out with a woman, he expects her to be submissive to his sexual demands; when he is turned down he becomes violent. Research done by social psychologists suggests that his beliefs are caused by _____, which are mental files for how to act.
When the temperatures go up in the summer, the rates of violent crimes increase. This is best explained in terms of the _____ principle
Recently Tanya has been caught in heavy traffic when traveling to and from work This situation has caused her to arrive to work late and arrive home at a much later time than normal. When she comes home, she slams the front door and tends to yell more at her children and husband over things that are rather insignificant. This behavior can best be explained by the:
The excitement that lingers after a frightening event can often facilitate passionate love. This is best explained by the _____.
Passionate love has been described as "adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder" because of the arousal caused by another person. This is best explained by the _____ theory
Social psychologists believe that passionate love is particularly strong during the early stages of a relationship, and that _____ increases in the later stages.
The mere exposure effect provides one possible explanation for why _____ increases attraction.
1. In _____, a person exhibits persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and cations.
1. A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is found in the:
1. ___ disorder is characterized by one or more of the three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
1. Psychosocial or environmental stressors belong on which DSM-IV-TR Axis?
1. Axis I includes clinical disorders
2. Axis II includes personality disorders and mental retardation
3. Axis III includes general medical conditions.
4. Axis IV includes psychosocial problems
1. Elsa is a 50-year-old teacher who is openly gay. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), Elsa's homosexuality:
a. Diagnosed as mentally ill and the cause for their disorders were “discovered.”
1. David Rosenhan and colleagues conducted a study examining the biasing power of diagnostic labels. They went to mental hospital admissions offices and complained of "hearing voices" saying "empty," "hollow," and "thud." This was the only complaint they reported, and they displayed no other symptoms. They were all:
1. Deviant and stressful behaviors are more likely to be considered disordered when also judged to be a harmful _____.
1. Naima washes her hands about 50 times a day because she is afraid of the germs that seem to be everywhere. Rana washes her hands about 50 times a day because, as a nurse practitioner, it is an important part of her job. Why is Naima's hand washing considered part of a psychological disorder while Rana's is not?
1. An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by:
1. ___ only deals with the physical causes of disorders
1. ___ refers to studies attempting to establish linkage between specific genes
1. MMPI is a ___ test
1. The _____ and _____ are two major systems used to classify psychological disorders.
1. You have just finished evaluating a person suffering from schizophrenia who has considerable legal and financial difficulties. This patient's legal and financial difficulties belong on which DSM-IV-TR Axis?
1. Historically, there have been a variety of models used to explain psychological disorders. The _____ model assumes that mental disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed and treated.
1. Gena believes that people with psychological disorders are suffering from diseases that have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and sometimes even cured. Gena believes in the _____ model of psychological disorders.
1. The ______ model represents the interaction of biological, socio-cultural, and psychological influences.
1. _______ suggests that psychological disorders are caused by unconscious motives and conflicts
1. Tonya is interested in studying psychological disorders. If she wants to study the classification system most often used in the U.S., she should read the _____.
____ are characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
People who feel irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation are suffering from:
____ is a persistent, irrational, intense fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, a fear that is recognized as being excessive or unreasonable by the individual.
Sigmund Freud described ___ as free-floating anxiety.
If you avoid situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes, you may be suffering from a _____.
Some studies suggest there may be an anxiety gene that affects brain levels of:
Lenore is continually tense and plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from _____ disorder.
Seven months ago, Quinn witnessed the gruesome murder of a close friend. Although many people expected him to suffer from this, he seemed to have the opposite reaction. He had a greater appreciation for life, his relationships with his family became more meaningful, and he became more involved in his faith. Quinn's response is known as:
According to the text, many contemporary psychologists have turned to the _____ perspectives on anxiety
______ suggests that psychological disorders are caused by unconscious motives and conflicts.
___ is characterized by a person experiencing sudden episodes or intense dread.
__ is a disorder that focuses on a fear of a specific thing or event.
_____ is characterized by constant worrying
Several times in the past two months, Petra has experienced a racing heart, intense fear that something horrible is about to happen, and an inability to breathe. Petra most likely is suffering from:
Susan has been diagnosed with panic disorder and refuses to leave her home without her husband. She fears any situation in which she cannot escape or find help when a panic attack would strike. Susan suffers from panic disorder as well as _____.
Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress the intrusive worry that she may have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of a(n):
Spencer has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. His parents have a difficult time understanding him because his speech is fragmented and bizarre. He jumps from one idea to another, sometimes within sentences, creating a:
Elaine feels that her life is empty. She has lost interest in career and hobbies, and she wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from a(n):
Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching to see how long it takes her to grow another. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from:
For the past four weeks, Odessa has been feeling lethargic and worthless. Her friends are worried because she no longer shows interest in her normal social activities. It is very likely that Odessa is suffering from:
Thirty-year-old Nellie has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her selective attention is deficient, she is unable to ignore irrelevant stimuli, and she often gives her undivided attention to minute stimuli such as a spotlight shining in a window. This type of attention problem contributes to:
_____ describes a lack of emotion reactivity by an individual.
Regarding the treatment of schizophrenia, dopamine-blocking drugs have little effect on persistent _____ symptoms such as toneless voices or expressionless faces.
Schizophrenia is a severe disorder characterized by:ALL:
The social-cognitive perspective has linked the experience of depression with _____.
The police brought Elaine to the emergency room after she was seen running down the street in her underwear yelling that she "has the power!" Elaine was also spending large amounts of money across town and was rude and reckless over the last five days. In the emergency room, Elaine would not be quiet long enough for the nurse to ask her questions. Elaine may be suffering from _____ disorder.
_________ is characterized by periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement
Amanda blames herself for her recent job loss. Her therapist suggests that her depression results from this blaming of herself rather than the slumping economy. Her therapist's suggestion best illustrates a(n) _____ perspective.
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