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Honden, Izumo Shrine:
· raised structure with prominent roof
· entrance from the short side
· long rampstructure keep falling down
o Ise, founded late 3 C, late 5 C.
Location in eastern Honshu of the Grand Shrine of Ise to Amaterasu- Sun goddess
inner and outer shrines, main hall (Honden), treasure houses, torii (open gateway, consisting of two pillars and architrave), orientation, rebuilt every 20 years.
-Located near the old centers of government
-Located on a costal plain and receives bright sunshine even in winter, location of the goddess
First major Japanese capital is Heijo-kyo/Nara
Succeeded by Heian-kyo/Kyoto, 794. Both based on Chang’an, modified by local practice. The jori rural land system, based on tsubo, becomes the urban jobo (standardized blocks) land system: 16-tsubo-squares bounded by wide roads (oji) running east-west (jo) and north-south (bo).
strong axis, chinese model
wall on south and west side
Surrounded by important lords (tozama daimyo) sometimes related, placed in the north or east areas because they are good locations; then the fudai daimyo
Reforms initiated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590-91. The transformation of the capital in 17th century into an urban space whose organization reflected the new social system.
City divided into two part right and left, the separator is a wide avenue
3 Old square blocks that survive but punctures them by a north south avenue, Buddhist institutions are relocated to the east side, by river
1591, a wall is constructed around the city
Head quarters of the Tokugawa
Three spaces: the court, the religious space, and the tokugawa regime
The giving of money to the palace was a away of getting the Tokugawa some sort of authority
The shogun builds a lavish castle as a favor for when having the emperor come visit, lessening his importance
The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 689-91.
Constructed on the Haram-al-Sharif, the Jewish Temple Mount, also known as Mount Moriah,IMPORTANT religiuos site, Note: symbolism (the rock as omphalos), site, domed martyrium form, mosaic decorations (“the jewels”) calligraphic decoration.
A rock in the center and two aisles surrounding it mosaics and columns decorate the building coligraphy(writing from the koran) becomes part of the decoration
founded in 763 as a new capital city of Abbasid caliph al-Mansur. Note: founded in the form of an ideal city, round plan, regularity.
o Unusual degree of geometrical order
o Clear round shape didn’t last long
o Slow disintegration of the round form as the city grows
o Used the principles of orthogonal planning
o At first create along side the Christians
Damascus, Syria, where the Roman colonnaded street was transformed to the suq, and the orthogonal plan was obliterated.
§ Was first built over a roman city gird of the Hellenistic world
§ Then the gird was gnawed away by the creation of neighborhood, illustrated a new order
Economic activities in the khan/inn or caravanserai, qaysariyyas/central and most secure part of market area, the suq/street of a market. Note: entrance with shops, lavatories, disrobing room, cold room, warm room, hot room, steam room). The neighborhood divided by ethnicity not class. The citadel as sign of empire
The embedding of Constantinople into an older Islamic geography: include maintenance of infrastructure (walls, underground system), use of conspicuous sites in the city for the construction of Ottoman monuments, religious and ethnic communities continue to live in the city under the protection of Islam, continuing Importance of St. Sophia/Hagia Sophia, conversion of churches to mosques, minarets as visual symbols of Islam’s victory.
Top Kapu Saray, Istanbul·
Fortified citadel with palace in center consisting of a sequence of courts and pavilions. o No over all pattern, built over time over the practical and religious use. The dichotomy of the inner and outer, the interior and exterior
Third courtyard is the Imperial harem – male harem household and family harem household.
· Note: külliye, spatial organization, Hagia Sophia as partial model. Selimiye Mosque, Edirne, 1569-74, by Sinan for Selim II (r 1566-74). Note: space, engineering.
o Trying to respond to the magnificence of hagia sophia by offering a new interpretation of it
o Isfahan, Iran (Persia), old city replanned and monuments constructed by Shah ‘Abbas I (1587-1629).
o Move of capital
§ Following a deliberate authority
§ To develop state capitalism
§ Stabilize the city religiously
§ Make in a player in the global political and economic
§ Regain a sense of pride
o Urban projects in Isfahan: The royal palaces and gardens (including gate Ali Qapu, 1597-1660, reception pavilion Chehel Situn, both built or remodeled by Shah Abbas). The Chahar Bagh or “Four [fold] garden” avenue.
Long avenue with water running through it
Bridge combines practicality and aesthetic elements
Note: plan of fort based on “Baghdadi octagon” planà square or rectangle that has it’s corners cut off to form a octagon, bazaar, drum pavilion, public and private audience pavilions, zanana (women’s quarters)àprivate, gardens, and residential spaces.
o Plan has many oppositions :Private audience hall-Used to talk about governmental secretes
o Public access-Go through covered axis, drum room, then get to a courtyard of ordinary audience, Secular hall-Ceremonial balcony
o Note: plan of city based on karmuka (bow) plan type from vastu sastras (rules for architecture), Huge walls interrupted by 7 gates Two hills in the city The bazaars of Chandni Chowk and Faiz Bazar 1650, female patrons, designed with central canal, the Nahr-i-Bihisht (Canal of Paradise), chawk (square), shops within arcades and porticos; religious and secular institutions near bazaar. Khas Bazar (Special Bazar), a third market connecting the Jami’ Masjid to the palace-fortress. Chandni Chowk Nahr-i-Bihisht (Canal of Paradise)Sahibabad (Abode of the Master), 1650, main city garden
Jerusalem, Israel, a city sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Jewish city, then Roman, then Christian, then Muslim, and then Jewish again.
Holy City dominated by one tradition: a holy city for Hindus with a large Muslim population. Banaras as city of Shiva and a tirtha/a place of pilgrimage on the banks of the river Ganges.
The Sacred Geography of Banaras: . The Zones of the Sacred City: . Three Khandas or Sectors of the Sacred City: . The Ghats/Steps and Sacred Ponds. . The neighbourhood or Mohalla: . The Muslim reading of Banaras as an important Islamic center.
o Contrast between Bhaktapur’s physical forms and conceptual forms realized through ritual. Inhabitants of Kathmandu valley are predominantly Newars. oTrade also helped boost the economy of the townso spatial patterns of Bhaktapur reflect social hierarchy. oRoyal palace (darbar) with square and important temples marks “ideal center” of town., cremation ground (masan ghat) on other side of river.o At the lowest end are the untouchables, Street pattern consists of a main road with two main squares
§ Note: Fort William, Tank, Indian (“Black”), and English towns, Esplanade, Chowringhee and Chitpore roads. Dual Towns or Blurring Boundaries?
§ Fort William built after the British defeated the ruler of this state, the beginning of the British rule in India
§ The city was divided by race “Black” natives and “white towns
§ Cape Town, founded 1652 at the Cape of Good Hope. Informal segregation gradually formalized in “locations” on the urban periphery for African and mixed-race people.
ú Over time various groups moved to cape town
ú The slaves lived right next to their masters at first, but then over time segregation increases
ú Africans are moved to outside of the city
ú Environment modifies behavior---Personal apartheid or segregation in everyday life: segregated hotels, beaches, public buildings, and residential plots.- "ideal" apartheid city
o Note: social sorting, neo-baroque plan, use of Indian monuments, ceremonial axis with Viceroy’s Palace/Government House (Lutyens) flanked by Secretariat Buildings (Baker), Indian elements incorporated into English classical plan. o Move British empire capital to Delhi--§ Architects use historical sites to built the city around the-- The plan show monumentality and axialityArchitecture used is a mix of indian and british forms
Megaslums e.g. Dharavi in Mumbai/Bombay [India].
o Slum growth has exceeded urbanization
o Slum is rack or criminal trade *old def
o Slum is poverty, disease, overcrowding,
o Megaslums slums merging together, a huge band of poverty
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