How did the US get involved in Vietnam?/ How were we involved? Korean War (1950- 1953) Basically a war between the US and the SU, but the North and South are the puppets in our game Soviets put Singh in charge in the North US put Reeh in charge in the South Soviets sent troops into the South because the US had little soldiers there Many causalities, Chinese lost almost ˝ a million soldiers The US went around the Chinese to get into the North Vietnam Dien Bien Phu (1954) We got involved in nam because of our attempt to help the French French lost and it was a huge military and psychological defeat for the French Treaty of Geneva (1954) Divided nam temporarily at the 17th parallel, until national elections could be held US started a new government in the South (leader Ngo Diem The North started to be called Viet Cong US involvement First US troops arrive by helicopter in 1961 The way we fought Search and clear missions Going into houses and separating the North and the South Agent Orange Deadly defoliant Clearing trees so they could see better, but there are serious health implications Tokin Gulf Led to the open involvement of the US President Johnson said that the North Vietnam government had attacked US twice at the gulf, but they hadn?t This portrayed as unprovoked aggression by US Tet Offensive (1968) Led by the Viet Cong against the South and the US Goal was to strike military and civilian command and control centers North moved all the way down to Soigné and below it Troops were getting killed by the thousands US thought we were winning because Vietnam body count was higher ?Stop, Children what?s that Sound?? Presidents in the war Eisenhower Increase troops His foreign policy= the new look military New, mean, lean sharp-looking Nixon Ran on a platform against war He realized that the Truman Doctrine was impossible Couldn?t stop Ho Chi Mahn Shifting the relationships with Soviets and China Reducing troops in Vietnam Reopening relationships with China Nixon Doctrine (1969) Decreases troops and increases military hardware Honor existing commitments, but not gunna send any more Policy of negotiation Retain US credibility Tried to build up the South/ tried to avoid the collapse Vietnamization Trained them Transferring power to local army so that the US troops can leave Timeline 1953 US is finally re-armed from WWII 1954 Battle at Dien Bien Phu 1961 US first sends in troops 1968 Tet Offensive 1969 Nixon Doctrine, bad years for causalities 1970 Strategic Bombing by the US, (April 30) Nixon said that we are going to invade Cambodia to end the war, widespread revolt 1973 US pulls out of Vietnam 1975 Saigon taken back by the Viet Cong, official loss for the US When and why did the Anti- war movement emerge? Organizations SANE (National Committee for the Sane Nuclear Policy) Middle class SDE (Students for a Democratic Society) 1960 FSM (Free Speech Movement) Veterans Against the war 1967 College Students Over 700 campuses Government Officials George Ball and then many more Congressmen and the Administration Kent State 1970 there was a peaceful anti-war movement at Kent State and 25 national guards fired and killed 4 and wounded 13 students it was as if the war had come to American campuses E=MC2: Science, Technology, and Medicine Science harnesses the power of the Atom Aristotle?s configuration (400 BC) stayed 1897 Idea that it was a solid ball, unitary Dalton/ Thompson 1897, the discovery of the electron Paradigm Shift ?Plum Pudding Model? electrons were evenly distributed Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment Paradigm Shift Firing alpha particles through the gold foil and they hit the nucleus which was not what was expected to happen ?Rutherford Model? featured the atomic mass confined to a tiny nucleus (1911) Einstein generalized quantum mechanics to develop the theory of relativity (space, tine, mass, and energy are all interrelated) E=MC2 Energy= mass (speed of light)2 Gravity could bend light Proven during solar eclipse of 1919 His concepts were so different that people had trouble taking them in Theory of General Relativity Theoretical basis for conversion of mass to energy which underlies the use of fission or fusion for nuclear weapons Geo- political implications Theoretical bases for Nuclear power plants Paradigm shift It changes our concept of the universe Black holes and such Powerful telescopes (Palomar Telescope) Hubble (1990) Not land bound, moving through space Edward Hubble Universe was expanding Literally see back in time (by looking at the stars) Major Paradigm Shift Speed of expansion of the universe Dark energy and dark matter Technology transforms the American Environment Bridges Brooklyn Bridge (suspension bridge) Build in the late 19th century Robling father and son were the architects that build it Concrete and steel Challenge was putting caissons into the water & concrete to harden in the water Effected by the Civil war (couldn?t open until after) Sense a way a nation can show what we can do (nationality) Panama Canal 1887- 1914 cutting edge technology literally reshapes the earth impact of trade transportation trains- plans- automobiles bike revolutionary idea 5Xs faster than walking, huge shift The Bessemer Converter Henry Bessemer (1856) in England Convert iron into steel Took off after the Civil War Bridges & buildings Mass Production Human organization Computers and Internet Went from being massive to smaller and became more and more powerful Space Flight Change our view of the world and ourselves Geopolitical question Medicine Science and technology Public Health (PHS) Public Health Services / National institutes of Health after WWII big issues are sanitations and trash and immunization Venereal Disease and AIDS Maternal & Child Health Maternal Morality Infant Mortality 1900=165/1000 died Reproductive health especially birth control Anesthesia & Surgery Crawford Long & Jefferson Georgia (1842) Scientific Medicine brought huge changes Microbiology- germs Physiology Pharmacology Antibiotics (Penicillin) (1940-1950) Cardiovascular (1950-1960) Contraceptives (1955-1965) Chemotherapy (1960-1970) Anti- Depressants (1980-1990) Life Expectancy at Birth 1900 47 years 2000 76 years DNA & Human Genome Late 1990s map the human genome 46 chromosomes, 25 thousand total genes not finished until 2003 ?The House that Jack Built? Architecture & the American Life House as a mirror of self: meaning for individuals, communities & nations Claire Marcus Wrote the book that contained a lot of interviews Psychological self shapes where we live Andrew Carnegie 5th Avenue most up to date equipment Levittowns Class position & social status City Beautiful Movement Beaux Art Turn of the century (1880-1920) Make cities hallmarks of American society Time of urbanization, marked by arched windows, symmetry, flat roofs, and classical detail Central Park Ulmsted argued that city?s needed green places Modernism & American Design Transportation buildings Not Beaux art Modernism 1880- 1940s new ways of talking about it emphasis on stepping away from tyranny hated Beaux Art Americans Arts & Craft Movement Art Noi Vo Art Decco Arte Lost Generation Modernism Playing with language, revolting from government Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) Mother- Welch married a minister, grew up in Madison & Spring Green, Wisconsin- left University, went to Chicago, & started working for Sullivan Started his own architecture firm Ward Willits House Supported by his extended family Cantilever Corners Big interior space Building should be build into the environment Using natural materials Usonian House Functional, close to the land, natural materials (concrete) modest price, becomes the model for ranch houses Post- Modernism Push away from tyranny of the past (modernism) Post WWII era Skyscrapers Cathedral of commerce World trade center International Style United Nations Building Modern style, but not a specific nation, could be anywhere in the world Architecture & American Memory Shapes Memory Lincoln Memorial (1922) At the end of the Civil War, we didn?t want to think about it. So there weren?t a lot of memorials until the time period after the WWI Great migration of the blacks to the North Dealing with race relations lets go back and listen to what Lincoln said about race Consolidate Memory Put things in terms that we can deal with Kent State 20 years later natural memorial Vietnam 1982 memorial is designed to be healing, designed to make a mark (like a scar) each solider has his name engraved The Mall as a Mirror of our Nation Memorials Holocaust 1994 FDR 1997 Korean War 1995 WWII 2004 Star Wars: The Military Industrial Complex Cold War Military defense & the issue of Nuclear deterrence (1950- 1989) Rearming after WWII Creation of the National Security State mobilization Soviet Union detonates first nuclear bomb (September 1949) Establishment of the People?s republic of China Oct 1949, fall of China to communism DSC- 68 calling for military build up National Security Act Institutions of new National Security State Creation of the CIA Korean War Actions taken against possible aggressions everywhere 7th fleet to defend Taiwan increased assistance to anti- communist forces in the Philippines & Vietnam Rearm Western Germany as a part of NATO US annual military budget spending from $13 billion By 1950, it was at $50 billion US is completely rearmed by 1953 We are ready for war Eisenhower?s Foreign Policy The New Look Military Lean, mean and sharp- looking Nuclear Deterrence (MAD) Altogether destroy nuclear arsenal Save guards Covert Operations Secret operations by CIA became American way of conducting American foreign policy (way of protection) Military Industrial Complex Speech (1961) Keeping peace was the military goal New idea in the 1950s National Defense Education Act Key to defense was education of Americans, dealing with controlling this complex President Lyndon Johnson Vietnam War Guns & Butter The question was? ?How do we balance these two things?? Nixon Carrying on the idea of MIC (Military Industrial Complex) Madman theory Principle of threat of excessive force Brinkmanship Threatening our opponent Détente Thawing of the war Relaxing/ easing of tensions SALT (1972) Strategic Arms Limitations Talk US and Soviet Reagan Life before presidency 1911- born, born in the mid-west McCarthy Era Hollywood actor Switch politics liberaldemocrat conservative 1966- governor of California popular in some parts and unpopular in others took office in 1981 tax cuts shot 69 days after he takes office but he didn?t die; this made him very endearing to the American public Strengthening Defense Establishment Announcement of SDI March 23, 1983 (Strategic Defense Initiative) Vision that offers hope Counter the SU with Defensive system Create new weapon systems Air base missiles & Ground Base X-ray lasers He hoped that his system would shift power to the US Two biggest things that changed Reagan?s mind away from ?Star Wars? The Day After It was a made for TV movie It changed his way of thinking about the war It showed the destruction of Nuclear war, in the movie there was an attack on Kansas This was a wake-up call for Reagan He shifts from arming US to trying to be more diplomatic Secret Exercises It was an imaginary simulation of what a nuclear war would be He began to talk to Gorbachev There was peace with the US and SU in less than a year and it goes to show how far the power of diplomacy can go? Wall Street: the market, the economy, the nation The History Buttonwood Tree Agreement (1792) 24 bankers gathered and it was a closed club only trade with each other set commission rates New York Stock & Exchange Given this name in 1817 Call System Called listed brokers & would call out bids, a lot more like the system that we have today Important dates 1830- 1850 time of huge expansion 1865 Lincoln was shot and it was closed for a week 1870s you could only buy a seat of someone who was already on it and retired 1870s- 1880s time of great expansion Jay Cook Failed and there was a panic over wall street and it was closed for 12 days Market ups & downs Indicators of economic success GDP per worker US unemployment rate US inflation Periods of high inflation during times of war The Metaphor of the Market Individual & collective ups & downs It?s a minute by minute account of how well we are doing The psychological sensitivity of ?the market? Economic images vs. realities Product lines Scandals and reforms 1920s Great Depression Unequal distribution Speculation Consumer debt Corporate consolidation Overproduction Foreign debt FSLIC (1980s) Saving and loans went under but Americans were still supposed to get their $ Bush Sir He tried to save the industry, but the US people didn?t even know it was in trouble He said that we are going to need 30-50 billion to save it, but we ended up spending 160$ billion Most expensive financial crisis to date Junk bonds Enormous Amt of fraud Savers knew that they were gunna be covered by the government so they weren?t worried about spending a lot The interest rates went up as they began to channel the risks They pushed for deregulation Shifted from mortgages to communities and started taking huge risks in real estate 2000 surprised and shocked Washington and wall Street massive globalization of labor & financial markets & free labor markers American income stopped growing There were no more unions to regulate anything All growth (2000-2008) went to top 2% Americans started borrowing on their homes and creating a bigger consumer debt Is the business of America really business? YES Business had become finance and business itself, there was no more industrializing and shit Globalization Definition The integration of economic, political & cultural systems across the globe When did the process of globalization start? It?s always been there Triangle trade 17th & 18th raw materials?trade goods?slaves industrialization & the global trade 1870s- 1970s Chicago Fair What has been America?s Role? Industrial Revolution Rate of change 19th- 20th Standard of living gets higher in the Western world Deindustrialization of America in 1970s- present Once you reach the top, there is a gradual decline Unions couldn?t stay ahead of the workforce Discovers a lot of new workforces Japanese, Chinese, Mexican They will all work for less & they are excited to have capital Reaganomics Government was not the solution, it was the problem Make Washington smaller (opposite of FDR) Reduce taxes to the highest paying people and then they will spend more and it will stimulate the economy SMD Raised government spending Used deficit spending Clintonomics Grow the economy Inflation came down, he was able to stop deficit spending Development of information technology Rested on the fragile stock markets How can the positive potential of globalization be realized? By learning from the past United Nations 1945 talk about issues Marshall Plan Gave $ to nations that were destroyed and stopped the spread of Communism Gave people a better future Berlin Wall NAFTA (1994) Suez Express of trade How has Americans fared with globalization? Lower priced goods & services Fears of outsourcing to other countries that are cheaper How has the rest of the world? Relatively higher standards of living Fears about imperialism (power)- cultural, technological & economical 9-11: Will we ever forget? Those who died? Charts By birth place Almost every US state was represented Almost 200 countries Same template from the Vietnam Memorial Portraits of Grief NY times Obit about everyone that died Todd Beamer Took over the plane that landed in the field, made sure that the plane wouldn?t get to Camp David, or the White House or the other targets How has it changed us? National Unity Highest since pearl harbor International Support Never been stronger? ?we are all Americans? American Innocence Why do they hate us? Why would they do this? Few still held 1993 in their heads Fear & Resolve Bin Laden Every single Islamic country immediately came out saying that they backed the US and not Bin Laden and the terrorists There were fears of a second, third, and fourth attack Cell phone boom People wanted to feel connected to their family and loved ones Bush Administration Decisions made right after 911 Operation Enduring Freedom Initial going into Iraq Neutrality was NOT an option?you were either for us or against us Operation Iraqi Freedom March 20, 2003 Second Iraqi War 4,200 Casualties and 30,000 wounded Axis of Evil Afghanistan & Iraq Troop levels Reality was that they were low compared to the World Wars and Vietnam America & the World The unity that was there right after 911 was gone and died quickly Torture Americans had trouble dealing with the torture We had always been strongly against torture US military Difficult for them to know what to do because there was not official declaration of war The home front We don?t see an end point Question that we ask? ?Is this going to be another Vietnam?? Doesn?t like the war, yet there is tremendous respect for the soldiers Memory of 911 Dealing with memorializing ?reflecting absence? Memory Foundation Series of buildings that honor the memory but also show us soaring into the future Discussion Iran- Contra Reagan?s justification for supporting the Contras (he says that they are an anti- terrorist group) Soviets were supporting the other group so we wanted to support the latter Saying that central America is right in our backyard Congress told him not to support them but he did anyways He sold weapons to Iran to help support the Contras He uses the CIA He says that it?s okay that he went behind Congress? back because it was beneficial for America in the long run Silent Spring Written by Rachel Carson Argues that eventually all the birds will die due to pesticides, and there will be a silent spring with no birds Uses scientific information Realistic Realizes that it?s not gunna happen over night What we need is more time But we are in a cycle that is never going to give us more time Yuppies Young, shallow, 25-35, urban, driven by $, no longer content with suburbia, they were professionals Not really respected by the old people at all When they move into neighborhoods with families they are loud and disruptive They think they are privileged They are just moving to the city to solely make $ EPA Environmental Protection Agency Modern environmental movement that began in the 1960s-1970s They were concerned about specific places like forests Nixon 1970?regulate solution of all these chemicals Manage environmental regulations through all states
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