Write an essay on Malthusianism and Eugenics and their relationship to both US and international population policies. Begin by defining Malthusianism and Neo-Malthusianism and explaining how these are different from Eugenics. Then, discuss how each has been applied historically in the US, giving specific examples. How has this history in the US shaped and influenced contemporary US debates over reproductive rights? Explain how Neo-Malthusianism has been applied in the international sphere, using at least one international example. End your essay by discussing the ways in which Malthusian approaches to international population policy were questioned and challenged by feminists at the 1994 ICPD meeting in Cairo. Be sure to integrate course readings into your answer! Definitions Malthusianism: The idea that overpopulation will lead to poverty and that the working class must exercise sexual restraint to prevent poverty. Includes the poor The population of any given area would increase at a geometric rate while the food supply would increase at an arithmetic rate, which would lead to widespread famine and poverty. Neo-Malthusianism: The idea that overpopulation will lead to poverty, but birth control is accepted Sterilization, No pleasure allowed Eugenics: The basic idea behind eugenics is that scientific knowledge of heredity can be put to use to produce so-called ?better breeding? of humans. The Malthusianisms just try to limit the population by limiting the birthrate of those in lower class. Eugenics tries to breed biologically superior humans by preventing the births of those less fit Historic US Examples Malthusianism Malthus tried to balance the population with vice, misery, and moral restraint. Vice and misery were brought about by war, famine, disease, ect; and moral restraints from marriage and prudential motives Neo-Malthusianism Henrietta Lacks Wasn?t informed that the treatment for her cancer would end her ability to have more children. Sterilization of CA Prisoners California's Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation has recommended "elective" sterilization for women who give birth in prison John LaBruzzo suggests sterilization of women on welfare Eugenics North Carolina Eugenics Board The board HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compulsory_sterilization" \o "Compulsory sterilization" sterilized about 7,600 people, many of them against their will, between 1929 and 1974, in an attempt to remove HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_illness" \o "Mental illness" mental illness and "social misbehavior" from the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_pool" gene pool . Shape and Influence over Reproductive Rights Neo-Malthusianists feared birth control would kill motherhood. Motherhood is the foundation of ?Europeaness?. Became allowed when mothers were considered mothers of the nation. The expectations of mathusianism gave women the right to abortion or contraceptives. The idea of ?more children from the fit, less from the unfit, that is the chief issue of birth control (Mother of Planned Parenthood)? International Example of Neo: Puerto Rican Women ?La Operacion? Lack of provided info. Employers encouraged sterilization. Encouraged by propaganda to choose sterilization. Genocide of Puerto Rico. Questioned and Challenged in 1994 ICPD meeting in Cairo Decides what the global direction of population should be Went from a need to control women to making Women?s Choice a priority Male responsibility in reproduction Reproductive rights are human rights Gender Equality and Empowerment Course Readings Nancy Hartmann Distribution is the cause of poverty, not overpopulation. Believe Human Rights and end of Patriarchy is a solution to poverty Schneiderman Disabled women are targets of anti-choice. They weren?t aborted by their mothers, therefore they shouldn?t abort Rebecca Skloot Henrietta Lacks wasn?t informed she would be sterilized Husband?s decision Write an essay on the relationships between gender and race in the history of advertising. First, how have gender and race worked together in advertising to create particular ideals, such as the ideal of domesticity in the US in the 19th century and ideals of feminine ?exoticism? today? Second, discuss the consequences of exclusion from advertising in terms of race and sexual orientation. Are there problems with the inclusion in advertising as well? Third, discuss some of the typical ways that especially Euro-descent (white), heterosexual women are portrayed in advertising. What are some of the consequences of these portrayals for women and girls? Finally, what are the consequences of the globalization of US advertising for beauty ideals in other nations? Be sure to integrate course readings into your essay! Gender and Race Ideals Images of the ideal housewife White appear as modern and civilized whereas black appear savage and uncivilized. Black is dirty, white is clean. Aunt Jemima ? ?slave in a box?. Reinforced orientalism. Consequences of Exclusion + Inclusion Makes light skin appear more attractive than dark skin. Straight hair appears more attractive than natural. Loss of culture. Children picked white dolls over black. Reinforcing stereotypes. Erases class and racial diversity. Exoticism ? Defining ourselves through images of the ?other?. Direct dualism and subtle dualism via ?the imperial gaze?. Imperial gaze reinforces stereotypes of the ?other? (natural, exotic, simple, sexual, passive). White women portrayed and consequences Thin, tall, objectified, victim, passive, sexualized, Virgins and whores Strive for the impossible. Eating disorders. Depression. Easier to inflict violence on someone if you don?t see them as people. Global Consequences Imperial Gaze Leaving traditional beauty ideals of large women behind. Erasing racial characteristics: Iran ? Nose Jobs / E. Asia ? Eyelid surgery, nose extensions, leg extensions. Skin lightning Course Readings Kim and Chung Argues Orientalism creates inferiority and superiority complexes. Advertisements portray Asian men as feminine. Women are either passive or evil (?Dragon Lady?). Enforces stereotypes. Nancy Worcester Slimness related to lack of power. Depriving women of appropriate nutrition to leave food for others. Blames poor performance on nutritional deprivation ?Killing Us Softy? Media portrayal: Emphasize thinness, passive, sex sells, predominantly heterosexual, victims of violence, masculinity in advertisements Write an essay on the relationship between gender and nation. Begin by defining the concept of ?nation?, as outlined in lecture. What is the traditional masculine role in the ?nation?? How are women central to the nation? What is Orientalism, and what does gender have to do with Orientalism? What are some ways that Orientalist notions of gender and nation persist today? Finally, what are the consequences of nationalist debates about gender, such as debates over the veil or ?saving? Afghan women, for women?s agency (e.g. their ability to make choices or to assert control in these debates)? Be sure to integrate course readings into your essay! Definitions Nation: an imagined political community ? and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign (Benedict Anderson) ?Nationalism: a commitment to fostering those beliefs and promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny? - Enloe Imagined: ?Because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow members? Limited: ?no nation imagines itself coterminous with mankind? Sovereign: ?nations dream of being free, and if under God, directly so.? Community: ?the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship. Ultimately it is this fraternity that makes it possible, ? for so many millions of people not so much to kill as willingly to die for such limited imaginings.? Masculinity in Nation Men are the ?ideal citizen.? Members of the nation are imagined as male. Job is to protect Nation Women central to Nation Women are the imagined nation. Used for reproducing the Nation. Orientalism Orientalism: Idea of Western superiority and Eastern inferiority Muslims in the middle east were oppressive to women (veil and harem) Consequences of Nationalist Debates Divides the world into dueling sides rather than accepting multiple viewpoints. Radicalizes Muslims. Ignores historicized and structed connections between East and West. Denies women agency. Divides women. Prevents women from making their own choices and showing agency. Veil is either a sign of oppression or freedom. The more the veil is challenged, the harder it is for women to have agency. The control over the veil is taken away from the women themselves. Course Readings HYPERLINK "http://www.amazon.com/Malalai-Joya/e/B002BRGIMO/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1304879909&sr=1-1" Malalai Joya ? ?A Woman Among Warlords? The world fighting over the rights of women is oppressing their agency. Prevents women from making their own choices. Cynthia Enloe Women viewed as: valuable possessions, vehicles for transmitting the nations values to the next generation, bearers of community?s future generations, most vulnerable to oppressive enemy rulers, most susceptible to assimilation and cooptation by insidious outsiders Using Saskia Sassen?s model of the new global economy as a framework, write an essay on how the new global economy is shaped by gender, race, nation and class. Begin by explaining Sassen?s model of the new global economy and how it emerged. Second, what role do gender, class and race play in the new service economies of industrialized ations? Third, explain how manufacturing has been re-defined along gender and racial lines. Finally, what is the ?new world domestic order and how does it relate to Sassen?s model? In answering this last part, explain the forces that led to this new world domestic order, how gender, race/nation and class play a role in this new order, and the questions this new order raises. Finally, what are some of the alternatives that you might envision to this new global economic order ? and how might we get there? Be sure to integrate course readings into your essay! Sassen?s Model - Two Tier Service Economy Financial / Specialized services - More money, less work Low-wage service sector ? Less money, more work. Bad social support. Supports top tier. Emerged with the rise of Capitalism ? switching from manufacturing to service economy. Manufacturing becomes outsourced and has to cut wages and labor. Leads to sweat shops. Gender, Class, Race Role Gender ? Women in lower tier; discriminated. Class ? Reinforces class divisions. Increases class divide. Lower class in lower tier. Race ? Lower tier; marginalized Re-defined Manufacturing Gender - Want women to work because corporations believe: they can be paid less yet be more productive than men, they won?t organize unions, and they are more ?nimble-fingered? Race ? Export processing has products manufactured in other country. Export processing zones placed on US-Mexican borders to attract assembly work from Mexico. Sweatshop workers usually immigrants, many illegal. New World Order and its relation to Sassen?s model Immigrants filling the positions of homemaker because more white western women are working long hours outside the home. Low-wage immigrant caring for the homes, kids and elderly parents of professional, mainly Euro-descent women. - Transnational Care Chains Lower tier immigrant women are supporting upper tier native women Cause: Structural Adjustments. In an attempt to cure high inflation, payment problems, and external debt, the prioritization of markets, decrease in wages, and promotion of export-orientation occurred. Causes burden on the poorest and women. Women needed to search for work to ensure the survival of their families. Women used to stay home and care for children, but now they?re working. Immigrant women need to take care of their own children so they watch white children for work. Immigrant women are of lower class whereas white women are upper class. What kind of impact are global care chains having on gender roles in home countries? What kind of impact is it having on gender roles in receiving countries? What are the implications of ?transnational motherhood?? Alternatives Global monitoring mechanisms - Serves as a price monitoring tool that monitors and shares prices information to help treatment programs in countries to compare and choose optimal pricing. Course Readings Parrenas Migrant workers have their rights ignored. Wages too low to bring family. Restricted to low wage employment sector. Benefits employers by caring for their families, but there?s no accountability for the workers children. Ault and Sandberg Women bear the burden of structural adjustments. Women from wealthy countries must recognize the global oppression of women. If citizens from countries involved with international policies, we can change the system. Failure to act on behalf of women?s suffering perpetuates the oppression. Louie Immigrant women compose the majority of garment factory workers. Many illegal. Global trade agreements pit global assembly line workers against each other. Piece rate system ? paid by the piece. No health coverage.
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